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Faculty of Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering

CHE452- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN II

ASSIGMENT II

Submitted to:
Prof. Dr. Suna Balcı
Arş. Gör. Dr. Emine Kaya

Delivery Date:
29/04/2019

Submitted by: Team 2

131140058 CANSU İREM İZGİ


131145030 LATİFE DEMİRBAŞ
131145058 MERVE KEŞKÜŞ
131145075 ONUR POLAT

2019
ANKARA

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ABSTRACT

This project’s aim is to improve flow sheet which is decided previous project,

to design reactors and after that design main equipments while staying connected to the

reactors.

In the beginning of design, Operational conditions and material of construction

were determined.The materials of the reactors were selected as carbon steel.

First reactor is propylene conversion was selected 0,99 for fixed bed reactor

according to literature.In order to obtain this conversion, MCM-22 catalyst was

used.After determining equilibrium conversions, XA versus T graphs was plotted and

the outlet temperature of the reactor was determined.Rate expressions of reaction was

taken from literature. This reactor’s volume is 17,2 m3 and this reactor is non catalytic.

In this reactor propylene is reacted with benzene and they formed to cumene

(isopropylbenzene).For the first reactor, purchased cost of reactor calculated as 136472,25 $.

Second reactor is selected fixed bed and it’s conversion is 0,55. Reactor’s volume

is 14 m3. In this reactor is reacted with benzene and DIPB and they formed cumene.For

the second reactor, purchased cost of reactor calculated as 47100 $.

This prosess has 2 raw materials tank and mixer tank are calculated and designed.

Then designed tanks Residance time for storage tank is 7 days in 30⁰C and 2,3 atm. So we
found volume is 5923

m 3 , 2. Tank propylen gas phase stored and residance time is 2 days at 8 atm and 30 ⁰C.

Volume is 51244 m3.

In this process 4 distillation columns are used.The materials of the distillation

columns were selected as carbon steel.First one is flash distillation and separates

propane and it’s SD(seperation degree) is selected 0,99.This column diameter is 1,62

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m, height is 5,20 m. Second one is separates benzene and it’s SD is selected 0,99. Height was
calculated 13,04 m and diameter was calculated 1,58 m for benzene column. Third

one is separates cumene and it’s SD is selected 0,99 ,this column diameter is 2,9 m,

height is 6,6 m. Fourth one is separates DIPB and it’s selected 0,99.

iii
Contents
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................................ ii
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 1
1. METHODS OF ATTACK ................................................................................................................................. 3
2.MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION..................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Material Structure Selection for Reactors............................................................................................. 5
2.2.Material Construction Selection For Distillation ................................................................................... 5
2.3.Material Construction Selection For Storage Tank ............................................................................... 5
2.4. Reactors ............................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.1. Batch Reactor ................................................................................................................................ 6
2.4.2. Continuous Reactors ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.3. Fixed Bed Reactor ......................................................................................................................... 7
2.4.4. Fluid Bed Reactors ........................................................................................................................ 7
2.4.5. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors, CSTR ...................................................................................... 8
2.4.6. Bubble Column Reactor ................................................................................................................ 8
3.STORAGE TANK............................................................................................................................................. 9
3.1.Types Of Storage Tank .......................................................................................................................... 9
3.2.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank’s By Internal Pressures .................................................................................... 10
3.3.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank’s By Roof Shapes ............................................................................................. 10
3.4.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank By Tank Bottoms.............................................................................................. 15
3.5.MaterIals of ConstructIon SelectIon CRITERIAS FOR SUBSTANCESES ................................................. 16
3.6.Tank DesIgn CalculatIons .................................................................................................................... 16
3.7. Tank Risk Analysis............................................................................................................................... 22
4. REACTORS .................................................................................................................................................. 23
4.1.Chemical REACTORS and Their Types ................................................................................................. 23
4.2. REACTORS IN THE PROCESS ............................................................................................................... 29
4.2.1. Fixed Bed Reactors ...................................................................................................................... 29
5. DESIGN OF A SEPARATION UNIT ............................................................................................................... 53
5.1. DISTILLATION COLUMN ...................................................................................................................... 53
5.1.1. TYPES OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ............................................................................................. 53
5.1.2. Key Components ......................................................................................................................... 54
5.1.3. Number and Sequencing of Columns ......................................................................................... 55
5.1.4. Tall Columns ................................................................................................................................ 55
5.1.5. Binary Distillation ........................................................................................................................ 56
5.1.6. Azeotrope Separation ................................................................................................................. 56

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5.1.7. Basic Distillation Equipment ....................................................................................................... 56
5.2. DISTILLATION COLUMN IN THE PROCESS........................................................................................... 60
FLASH DISTILLATION ( DEPROPANIZER) ................................................................................................ 60
BENZENE COLUMN................................................................................................................................ 65
Condenser Design Calculation .............................................................................................................. 75
Reboiler Design Calculation .................................................................................................................. 80
CUMENE COLUMN ................................................................................................................................ 83
Determination of Minimum Reflux Ratio ( Rmin) ................................................................................. 87
Condenser Design Calculation .............................................................................................................. 89
Reboiler Design Calculation .................................................................................................................. 91
6. HEAT EXCHANGERS ................................................................................................................................... 97
6.1. HEAT EXCHANGER SELECTION ........................................................................................................... 97
6.1.1.Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers .................................................................................................. 98
6.1.2.Heat Exchanger Tube ................................................................................................................... 98
6.1.3.Heat Exchanger Pitch and Layout ................................................................................................ 99
6.1.4.Shells ............................................................................................................................................ 99
6.1.5.Baffles ........................................................................................................................................ 100
6.2. CALCULATION OF HEATEXCHANGERS .............................................................................................. 100
7. COST OF EQUIPMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 103
Cost of Condenser ............................................................................................................................... 104
Cost of Reboiler................................................................................................................................... 104
Cost of Pumps .................................................................................................................................... 104
Cost of Condenser ............................................................................................................................... 105
Cost of Pumps .................................................................................................................................... 105
8. DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................................. 107
9. RESULTS ................................................................................................................................................... 110
10. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................................... 111
11. REFERANCES .......................................................................................................................................... 113
12. APPENDIXES........................................................................................................................................... 116
Appendix A .............................................................................................................................................. 116
Appendix B .............................................................................................................................................. 117

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Basic Tank Body Shape ............................................................................................... 9
Figure 2 Fixed roof storage tanks ............................................................................................. 11
Figure 3 Cone-Roof Tanks ....................................................................................................... 11
Figure 4 Umbrella- and Dome-Roof Tanks ............................................................................. 12
Figure 5 Floating Roof Tank .................................................................................................... 12
Figure 6 External Floating Roof Tank ..................................................................................... 13
Figure 7 Internal Floating Roof Tank ...................................................................................... 14
Figure 8 P-1/ ρ .......................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 9 h/D-P and t graph ...................................................................................................... 20
Figure 10 Examples of chemical reactors ................................................................................ 24
Figure 11 XA-T GRAPH ......................................................................................................... 32
Figure 12 Xa-T Graph for R-101 ............................................................................................. 33
Figure 13 XA-T graph .............................................................................................................. 46
Figure 14 XA-T GRAPH FOR R-102...................................................................................... 47
Figure 15 Flash distillation system........................................................................................... 54
Figure 16 Process flow of a distillation tower containing sieve tray ....................................... 57
Figure 17 Bubble Trays ............................................................................................................ 58
Figure 18 Valve Trays .............................................................................................................. 59
Figure 19 Sieve Trays .............................................................................................................. 59
Figure 21 Flow Diagram for Mobile Badger ......................................................................... 110

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: The Flammability limits for a number of materials are given in Table [4].................. 3
Table 2 Molecular Weight and volatility of components [4] ..................................................... 3
Table 3 properties of propylene tank ....................................................................................... 18
Table 4 properties of benzene storage tank .............................................................................. 21
Table 5 Risk determination for Tank ....................................................................................... 22
table 6 Examples of the uses of different reactor types according to the chemical reaction to
be performed, with indications of the management features more often adopted ...... Hata! Yer
işareti tanımlanmamış.
Table 7 R-101 Design Basis ..................................................................................................... 29
Table 8 SPECIFICATION SHEET FOR R-101 ...................................................................... 38
Table 9 HAZOP for R-101 ....................................................................................................... 40
Table 10 R-102 Design Basis ................................................................................................... 43
table 11 R-102 Design Basis .................................................................................................... 44
Table 12 R-102 Specification Sheet ......................................................................................... 50
Table 13 HAZOP Analysis for R-102 ...................................................................................... 52
Table 14 DENSITY OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE ....................................................... 64
Table 15 For First Flash Column ............................................................................................. 64
Table 16 Molar Flow Rate ....................................................................................................... 67
Table 17 Mole Fraction and Molar Flow Rate of components ................................................ 67
Table 18 Antoine constants of component ............................................................................... 68
Table 19 Trial & Error ............................................................................................................. 69
Table 20 Trial & Error ............................................................................................................. 70
Table 21 Specification sheet for Pump 101 ............................................................................. 79
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Table 22 For Benzene Column................................................................................................. 81
Table 23 Material of Construction ........................................................................................... 82
Table 24 Column Specification ................................................................................................ 82
Table 25 For Cumene Distillation ............................................................................................ 85
Table 26 Specification Sheet for Pump 102 ............................................................................. 92
Table 27 Material of Construction Table 28 For Cumene Column .................................. 93
Table 29 Column Specification ................................................................................................ 94
Table 30 HAZOP Analysis for Columns ................................................................................. 95
Table 31 Total Cost of Distillation Column ........................................................................... 106

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INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, industries are very competitive both in quality and cost of production. Therefore,
production process should have high quality and high efficiency. The process should always
operate under the design condition, use little energy, low waste production and meet required
specification of the products. In the real situation, the process will not operate smoothly. All
factors do not meet the designed condition. The process always changes due to disturbance
from the external factors and the internal factors. However, no matter what factors cause the
change, in case of having deviation or disturbance come in to the process, the effect should be
eliminated from the process as soon as possible process will have the least deviation from the
designed condition. The nine step of the proposed procedure center around the fundamental
principles of plantwide control: energy management, production rate, product quality,
operational, environmental and safety constraints, liquid level and gas-pressure inventories,
makeup of reactants, component balances and economic or process optimization. [1]

Cumene can be found in crude oil and is a part of processed high-octane gasoline. Cumene is
an important intermediate for industrial products such as phenolic resins, epoxy, nylon-6 and
polycarbonate resins etc. Generally, processes for cumene manufacture consist of a packed bed
reactor (liquid or vapor phase) followed by a separation train that removes the light inerts
(propane), recycles the unreacted benzene and separates the cumene product from heavies
generated by further alkylation of cumene to diisopropylbenzene. The heavies are sent to a
transalkylation reactor for reactions with benzene to recover cumene. [2]

The cumene process features the desired reaction of benzene with propylene to form cumene
and the undesirable reaction of cumene with propylene to form p-diisopropylbenzene. The main
reaction for production of cumene involves the reaction of benzene with propylene in a high-
temperature, high-pressure gas-phase reactor. [2]

C6H6 + C3H6 ➔ C9H12

There is also a sequential reaction of cumene and propylene to form pdiisopropylbenzene


(PDIB).
1
C9H12 + C3H6 ➔ C12H18

Separation is crucial in chemical engineering because of the need for separations as a means for
performing the isolation, purification or analysis of substances. A typical chemical plant is a
chemical reactor surrounded by separators. Raw materials are prepurified in separation section
and fed to the chemical reactor; unreacted feed is separated from the reaction products and
recycled back to the reactor. And the selection of types of separation section depends on the
two-phase pair is gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-liquid, or liquid-solid. [3]

Distillation occupies a very important position in chemical engineering. Operations involving


heat transfer and fluid mechanics are common to several disciplines. But distillation is uniquely
under the purview of chemical engineers. The basis of distillation is phase equilibrium,
specifically, vapor–liquid (phase) equilibrium and in some cases vapor–liquid–liquid (phase)
equilibrium. [3]

In our work, two distillation columns were designed for separation of propylene, propane,
benzene, cumene and p-diisopropylbenzene multicomponent mixture and the cumene was
obtained.This project was required the most appropriate operating conditions and the most
proper distillation equipments with an economical cost analysis.

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1. METHODS OF ATTACK
a) Define problem for this, collect necessary data such as thermodynamic, physical and
chemical..properties..of..component..(Molecular..weight, vapor..pressure, Tc, Pc, Cp,
viscosity, density, volatility, flammability)

The hazard caused by a flammable material depends on a number of factors:

1. The flash-point of the material.

2. The autoignition temperature of the material.

3. The flammability limits of the material.

4. The energy released in combustion.

Table 1: The Flammability limits for a number of materials are given in Table [4]

Material Lower Limit Upper Limit (%)

Propylene 2.0 11.1

Propane 2.2 9.5

Benzene 1.2 7.8

Cumene 0.9 6.5

p-diisopropyle benzene 0.64 5.3

Table 2 Molecular Weight and volatility of components [4]

Material Molecular weight (g/mol) Boiling Point (°C) at 1 atm

Propylene 42.08 -47.00

Propane 44.10 -42.04

Benzene 78.11 80.1

Cumene 120.2 152.4

p-diisoproply benzene 162.27 220.00

b) Arrange each volatility in the increasing order, select separation unit, select the operating
conditions (batch/continous) define separation unit (tray/packed-bed)

We choose plate separation unit:


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1) Plate columns can be designed to handle a wider range of liquid and gas flow rates than
packed columns.

2) It is easier to make provision for cooling in a plate column; coils can be installed on the
plates.

3) It is easier to make provision for the withdrawal of side strams from plate columns.

c) Material balance, known-unknown, number of equations, selections (recovery, heavy key


and light key); calculation of top, bottom product compositions.

4
2.MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
The pH and the rate of erosion of the material stored are very important at the selected
material. Pressure strength and load strength are effective physical parameters. Economic
factor of a material; price and use of materials must be considered together with time. All of
the materials to be considered in the selection of materials features; physical properties,
mechanical properties, thermal properties, technological properties, chemical properties,
acoustic properties, optical properties, economic factor, user desires should be consider [29].

2.1 Material Structure Selection for Reactors


Designed reactor, resistance to reaction conditions. On the market there are aluminum, carbon
and stainless steel. Aluminum is unstable and glass. The material is designed for carbon steel;
The reason; Ecomomic and suitable.

2.2.Material Construction Selection For Distillation


The designed distillation must be resistant to the separation conditions. The pH and
the rate of erosion of the material stored are very important at the selected material.
Stainless steel is the most suitable choice according to the given at the table pH range and the
annual corrosion allowance.

2.3.Material Construction Selection For Storage Tank


The steel chosen for the construction of storage tanks should be of fine grain steel,
readily welded and which has the appropriate level of impact strength at the minimum design
temperature after welding. In order to guarantee the optimal conditions for welding, the
tensile strength of the steel should be limited. The steel plate should be subjected to
acceptance tests according to national or international codes. These tests are particularly
important concerning the impact strength before and after welding. The use of conventional
steel has sometimes resulted in hydrogen blistering. This blistering occurs when galaxies of
inclusions and laminations are present in the steel. Carbon steel approved for use with shall be
used to construct the tank and internal fittings. A corrosion allowance of 2 mm (for carbon

5
steel tanks) is considered as a minimum requirement. Higher corrosion allowance should be
considered depending on temperature and specific risks related to the application. The
corrosion rate can highly increase in case of high velocity of the flow (e.g. internal pump or
dip tube) and because of temperature. Local turbulences must be avoided for the same reason.
Another problem can arise from moisture ingress. If a tank vents to the atmosphere, the
moisture in even low humidity air can dilute the surface layer of storage tank so this layer can
become more corrosive.

2.4. Reactors

2.4.1. Batch Reactor


Reactor is charged via two holes in the top of the tank; while reaction is carried out,
nothing else is put in or taken out until the reaction is done; tank easily heated or cooled by
jacket.
Kinds of Phases Present: Gas phase, liquid phase, liquid-solid
Useage: Small scale production, intermediate or one shot production, pharmaceutical and
fermentation

Advantages:
1. High conversion per unit volume for one pass
2. Flexibility of operation-same reactor can produce one product one time and a different
product the next
3. Easy to clean

Disadvantages

1. High operating cost


2. Product quality more variable than with continuous operation [4]

2.4.2. Continuous Reactors


Continuous reactors are normally installed when large quantities of a chemical are being
produced. It is important that the reactor can operate for several months without a shutdown
[5].Industry uses several types of continuous reactors.

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Tubular Reactors

In a tubular reactor, fluids (gases and/or liquids) flow through it at high velocities. As the
reactants flow, for example along a heated pipe, they are converted to products. At these high

velocities, the products are unable to diffuse back and there is little or no back mixing. The
conditions are referred to as plug flow. This reduces the occurrence of side reactions and
increases the yield of the desired product [5].

2.4.3. Fixed Bed Reactor


The reactors are solid-catalyst-containing vessels. Their design can lead to high pressure
drops. These
units are generally used in heterogeneous catalysis, where tha catalyst and reacting species are
of
different phases. The major advantage of such units is their simplicity and ease of catalyst
access for
maintenance and regeneration. Use of multiple fixed beds can improve both heat transport and
control, resulting in improved performance while maintaining the relative simplicity of this
reactor
arrangement. Flow through fixed beds tends to approach plug flow [5].

2.4.4. Fluid Bed Reactors


A fluid bed reactor is sometimes used whereby the catalyst particles, which are very fine,
sit on a distributor plate. When the gaseous reactants pass through the distributor plate, the
particles are carried with the gases forming a fluid. This ensures very good mixing of the
reactants with the catalyst, with very high contact between the gaseous molecules and the
catalyst
and a good heat transfer. This results in a rapid reaction and a uniform mixture, reducing the
variability of the process conditions [5].

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2.4.5. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors, CSTR
In a CSTR, one or more reactants, for example in solution or as a slurry, are introduced into
a reactor equipped with an impeller (stirrer) and the products are removed continuously. The
impeller stirs the reagents vigorously to ensure good mixing so that there is a uniform
composition throughout. The composition at the outlet is the same as in the bulk in the
reactor.
These are exactly the opposite conditions to those in a tubular flow reactor where there is
virtually no mixing of the reactants and the products [5].

2.4.6. Bubble Column Reactor


Bubble columns are intensively used in chemical, biochemical and petrochemical
industries. Especially, they are used in chemical processes involving reactions such as
oxidation,
chlorination, polymerization and hydrogenation, and in biochemical processes such as
fermentation and biological waste water treatment. Basically a bubble column reactor is a
cylindrical vessel with a gas distributor at the bottom as illustrated. Bubble column reactors
have
high heat and mass transfer coefficients, need little maintenance and have low operating costs
due
to lack of moving parts and compactness. [6]

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3.STORAGE TANK
In design of some pressure vessels, safety is the primary consideration and the
design is a compromise between considerations of economy and safety. The possible
risk of a given form of failure is balanced against the effort required for its prevention,
the resulting design should be achieved an adequate standard of safety at minimum
cost [2].

3.1.Types Of Storage Tank


Storage facilities for raw materials, intermediate products, final products,
recycle materials, off- glade materials and fuels are essential to the operation of a
process plant. A supply of raw materials permits operation of the process plant
regardless of temporary procurement or deliver difficulties. Storage of intermediate
products may be necessary during plant shutdown for emergency repairs while
storage of final products makes it possible to supply the costumer even during a plant
difficulty or unforeseen shutdown. An additional need for adequate storage is often
encountered when it is necessary to meet seasonal demands from steady production.
High pressure gas is stored in spherical or horizontal cylindrical pressure vessels in
Figure1. Solid product and raw materials are stored either in weather-tight tanks whit
slopping floors or in outdoor bins and mounds[2].

Figure 1 Basic Tank Body Shape

9
3.2.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank’s By Internal Pressures
There are many ways to classify a tank. Although there is no universal
method, a classification commonly employed is based on the tank’s internal pressure.

Atmospheric Tanks: By far, the most common type of tank is the atmospheric tank. These tanks
are usually operated at internal pressures slightly above atmospheric pressure. Fire codes define
an atmospheric tank as operating from atmospheric up to 0.5 psi (3448 Pa) above atmospheric
pressure.

Low Pressure Tanks: Low pressure in the context of tanks means tanks designed for a higher
pressure than atmospheric tanks. In other words, these are relatively high pressure tanks,
designed to operate from atmospheric pressure up to 15 psigage(101.4 kPa).

Pressure Vessels: High pressure tanks are vessels operating above 15 psigage. These are really
pressure vessels and the term high pressure tank is basically never used.

3.3.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank’s By Roof Shapes


To a large extent, the vapor pressure of the substance stored determines the
shape and, consequently, the type of tank used. The roof shape of a tank may be used
to classify the type of tank. This classification is self-explanatory to tank fabricators
and erectors. Also important is the tank bottom.

Fixed-Roof Tanks: The effect of internal pressure on plate structures, including tanks and
pressure vessels, is important to tank design. If a flat plate is subjected to pressure on one side,
it must be made quite thick to resist bending or deformation. A shallow cone-roof deck on a
tank approximates a flat surface and is typically built of 3/16-in. (4.76-mm) thick steel . This is
unable to withstand more than a few inches of water column pressure. The larger the tank, the
more severe the effect of pressure on the structure. As pressure increases, the practicality of
fabrication practice and costs force the tank builder to use shapes more suitable for internal
pressure. The cylinder is an economic and easily fabricated shape for pressure containment.
Indeed, almost all large tanks are cylindrical. The problem, however, is that the ends must be
closed. The relatively flat roofs and bottoms or closures of tanks do not lend themselves to much
internal pressure [3].

Fixed roof storage tanks are pretty straight forward, and are generally considered
the minimum acceptable equipment for storing liquids. They are often the most practical and
least expensive option when storing products with a low vapor pressure (close to atmospheric
pressure).Its illusrated Fig 2.

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Figure 2 Fixed roof storage tanks
A typical fixed roof tank consists of a steel shell with a cone or dome shaped roof that
is permanently fixed to the tank shell. They are usually fully welded and designed to be both
liquid and vapor tight. Some designs allow installing a breather valve (pressure/vacuum valve)
that prevent the build up of excessive pressure or vacuum[4].

They are two types of Fixed Roof Tanks;

Cone-Roof Tanks: Cone-roof tanks are cylindrical shells having a vertical axis of symmetry.
The bottom is usually flat and the top made in the form of a shallow cone.It’s illustrated in Fig
3. These are the most widely used tanks for storage of relatively large quantities of fluid because
they are economic to build and the market supports a number of contractors capable of building
them.

Figure 3 Cone-Roof Tanks

Umbrella- and Dome-Roof Tanks: Umbrella-roof tanks are similar to cone-roof tanks. They
are usually constructed to diameters not much larger than eighteen. These tank roofs can be
self-supporting, , having no column supports that must be run to the bottom of the tank in Fig
4

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Figure 4 Umbrella- and Dome-Roof Tanks
Floating Roof Tank: All floating-roof tanks have vertical, cylindrical shells just like a fixed-
cone-roof tank. These common tanks have a cover that floats on the surface of the liquid. The
floating cover or roof is a disk structure that has sufficient hoisting power to ensure that the roof
floats during all expected conditions, even if leaks in the roof develop. Floating roof tank can
be divided into external floating roof tank (usually called floating roof tank) and internal
floating roof tank in Fig 5 [3]

Figure 5 Floating Roof Tank


External Floating Roof Tank

These tanks have a cylindrical steel shells equipped with a roof that floats on the surface of the
stored liquid; rising and falling along with the liquid level in Fig 6. This floating roof system is
comprised of a deck, fittings, and a rim seal system.

Floating roof decks are constructed of welded steel plates and have three main types:

• Pan deck

• Pontoon deck

• Double deck

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Figure 6 External Floating Roof Tank

There is a annular space with seal gland between the floating roof and the tank wall, to
separate air when stored liquid float up or down on the roof, greatly reducing evaporation loss
in the storage process. Compared with fixed roof tank, using a floating roof tank to store oil
product can reduce evaporation loss to 80% approximately [4].

Internal Floating Roof Tank: Internal floating roof tanks have a floating roof that moves up
and down above the product level, while at the same time include a fixed permanent roof above
the tank's shell in Fig 7.

The internal floating roof tank (IFRT) was developed in the mid-1950s to provide protection
of the floating roof from the elements, including lightning strikes to the floating roof. The tank
vapor space located above the floating roof and below the fixed-roof includes circulation vents
to allow natural ventilation of the vapor space reducing the accumulation of product vapors and
possible formation of a combustible mixture.Internal floating roof tanks provide the best option
for controlling volatile losses compared to fixed and external floating roof tanks[4].

Internal floating roof tank is a floating roof storage tank which is covered with a
fixed roof on the floating roof, which can prevent the tank itself from been suffered
from wind and rain, guarantying the quality of stored oil under the floating roof[3].

13
Figure 7 Internal Floating Roof Tank

Comparisons Between Internal Floating Roof Storage Tank And External


Floating Storage Tank

There is a floating roof deck on external floating roof tank, liquid stored in the
tank can be separated from the air, reducing air pollution and the danger of fire and
explosion.

Internal floating roof tank can effectively prevent the stored oil from being
polluted by wind, sand, rain, snow, or dust, guarantee the oil quality under various
weather conditions, is famous as “all-weather storage tank”.

Both internal floating roof tank and external storage tank can reduce the evaporation lose.

On the base of the same floating seal, compared with external floating roof tank,
internal floating roof storage tank can further reduce the evaporation loose, which is
because the shelter of fixed roof, and the gas phase layer between fixed roof and
internal floating roof deck has a more remarkable heat insulation effect than external
floating storage tank with double floating roof deck.

There is no rain and snow load on the floating roof deck of internal floating roof
storage tank, which is differ with the opened floating roof deck of external floating
storage tank. Floating roof deck load is small, structure is simple and portable,
internal floating roof can save central drainage tube, rotational ladder and other
accessories on the floating roof deck. What’s more, internal floating roof tank is easy

14
to construct and maintain, and the material of the floating seal part can avoid the
sunlight exposure and aging.

Compared with internal floating roof storage tank, external floating roof tank has
many advantages, which is more and more widely used, as well as a kind of storage
tank with a promising future. Perfect designed internal floating roof storage tank is
the best method to control the evaporation loss of the fixed roof tank.

3.4.ClassIfIcatIon Of Tank By Tank Bottoms


The shape of cylindrical tank closures, both top and bottom, is a strong function
of the internal pressure. Because of the varying conditions to which a tank bottom
may be subjected, several types of tank bottoms have evolved. These may be broadly
classified as flat bottom, conical, domed or spherical.

Flat Bottom: For tanks less than 6–10 m diameter, a flat bottom is used . The inclusion of a
slope does not provide a substantial benefit, so they are fabricated as close to flat as practical.

Cone Up Bottom: Cone-up tank bottoms are built to have a high point in the center of the tank
. This is accomplished by crowning the foundation and constructing the tank on the crown. The
bottom may appear flat, but heavy stock or water tends to drain to the edge where it can be
removed almost completely from the tank.

Cone Down Bottom: The cone-down design slopes toward the center of the tank . Usually, there
is a collection sump at the center . Piping under the tank is then drained to a wall or sump at the
tank periphery. Although very effective for water removal from tanks, this design is inherently
more complex because of underground piping and the external sump. The design is also
particularly prone to corrosion problems unless very meticulous attention is given to design and
construction.

Single Slope Bottom: The single-slope design uses a planar bottom, but is tilted slightly to one
side, allowing for drainage to be directed to the low point on the perimeter where it may be
effectively collected. Because there is a constant rise across the diameter of the tank, the
difference in elevation from one side to the other can be quite large. Therefore, this design is
limited to about 30 m maximum.

Steep-Angle Conical Bottoms: Tanks often have a conical bottom where the slope exceeds
fifteen or twenty degree from the horizontal. This provides for complete drainage or even solids
removal. Because these types of tanks are more costly, they are limited to smaller sizes. Such
tanks are often found in the chemical industry or in processing plants[3]
15
When the local axial stress is primarily due to a moment in the shell, then the allowable
compressive stress may be increased by 20%. Where the bending ofan empty or full tank is
caused by

wind loads or the bending of an empty tank is due to seismic loadings, then in addition to this
20% increase, the allowable compressive stress may be increased by an additional one third.
The design point is taken as being 0.6m above the bottom edge of the course.

3.5.MaterIals of ConstructIon SelectIon CRITERIAS FOR SUBSTANCESES


Packaging material of acetone containers, or container linings use mild steel, stainless
steel are suitable materials[6].

Packaging material of cumene containers, or container linings use mild steel, stainless
steel are suitable materials. For container paints, use epoxy paint, zinc silicate paint. Avoid
prolonged contact with natural, butyl or nitrile rubbers[6].

Acetophenone can store in cool place. Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-
ventilated place. Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to
prevent leakage. Store under inert gas. Storage class (TRGS 510): Combustible liquids not in
Storage Class 3[8].Keep in tightly closed container in a cool and dry place, protected from
light. When stored for more than 24 months, quality should be checked before use[9].
Acetophenone’s combustible liquid. The liquid having closed cup flash point at or above
140˚F(60˚C) ans below 200˚F(93˚C)is storage Class IIIA[10] and flash point is 82˚C [8]. So
it can stored in Class IIIA. Its pH and reactivity are not available.

3.6.Tank DesIgn CalculatIons


CALCULATIONS OF PROPYLENE STORAGE TANK
Assumption

1 ) Storage Conditions

a ) -8˚C < T < 43˚C Topr = 30˚C

b ) 2 atm < P < 8 atm Popr = 2 atm

c ) phase ; gase

2 ) Molar Flow Rate

16
a ) FA = 1,83 kmol/min ( propylene )

b ) FE =0,096 kmol/min (propane )

3 ) Residence Time is selected as 2 day according to capasity,function conditions of raw


materials manifacturer.

4 ) Density

a ) ρA=13,5 kg/m3

b ) ρB=14,9 kg/m3

5 ) Shape of the tank is spherical

We want to produce 100000ton /year cumene.

For Propylene (C3H6):

ton kg kmol 1year 1day 1h


FA=100000 year ×1000 ton × 1 42,08kg × 330 day × 24h × 60 min

Yield %99 so FA= 1,83 kmol/min


𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔
mA =0,093 𝑥 42,08 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 3,92kg /s C3H6
𝑠

𝑘𝑔 m3 𝑠 ℎ
VA=3,92 x 13,5 𝑘𝑔 x 3600 ℎ x 24𝑑𝑎𝑦 x 2 days = 50176 m3
𝑠

For Propane
5
FE=FA x (95) =0,096 kmol/min

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔
mE=0,00418 x 44,01 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 = 0,184 kg/s
𝑠

𝑘𝑔 m3 𝑠 ℎ
VE= 0,184 x 14,9 𝑘𝑔 x 3600ℎ x 24 𝑑𝑎𝑦 x 2 day =1069 m3
𝑠

V102=(50176 + 1069)=51244 m3

17
Figure 8 P-1/ ρ
Table 3 properties of propylene tank

Code T-102

Capacity 5124

M mA=0,093 kmol/s,mE=0,00418 kmol/s

Phase Gase

Temperature -8˚C < T <43˚C

Pressure 1 atm < P <8 atm ,Popr=2 atm

Shape Spherical

Function Storage

Residence Time 2 day

Material Carbon Steel

Thickness

Cost

18
CALCULATIONS OF BENZENE STORAGE TANK (TANK-101)
Assumption

1) Storage Conditions

a) -8˚C < T < 43˚C

b) Popr=2,3 atm

c) Phase is liquid.

2 ) Molar flow rate FB=3,51 kmol/min

3) Residence Time = 7 day

4 ) Density ƍB=876 kg/m3

5 ) Shape is cylindrical.
𝑡𝑜𝑛 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 1 𝑑𝑎𝑦
FB=200000 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 x 1000 𝑡𝑜𝑛 x 1 78 𝑘𝑔 x 330 𝑑𝑎𝑦 x x
24 ℎ

Yield is % 99 FB = 3,51 kmol/min


𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
mB= (0,1 ) x (78 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 ) = 7,8
𝑠 𝑠

𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑘𝑔 m3 𝑠 ℎ
V101=(0,1 x 78 x x3600 x 24 x 7 day =5385 m3
𝑠 𝑘𝑚𝑜𝑙 876 𝑘𝑔 ℎ 𝑑𝑎𝑦

Safety Factor = %10

V101=5385 m3 x (0,1+1) =5923 m3

Dead Volume = %10

Vdead=5923 m3 x 0,1 = 592 m3

Dead Pressure ; P = P0+ hρg

P0=101,325 kPa
𝑘𝑔 𝑚
hρg=(15,6m x 876 m3 x 9,8 . 10-3 s2 ) =133,9 kPa

Pdead=2,32

Minimum Thickness

t= (P x r)/(S x E – 0,6xP) + C

19
5000 0,14
4500
0,12
4000
3500 0,1
3000 0,08
2500 P
2000 0,06
t
1500 0,04
1000
0,02
500
0 0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2

Figure 9 h/D-P and t graph

20
Table 4 properties of benzene storage tank

Code T-101

Function Storage

Temperature -8˚C < T < 43˚C

Pressure 2,3 atm

Phase Liquid

Shape Cylinder

Residance Time 7 day

Volume 5923 m3

Safety %10

Dead Volume %10

h/D h/D=0,7 h=15,6m D=22,09 m

Thickness 0,092

Material of construction Carbon steel

Cost 2577 $

21
3.7. Tank Risk Analysis

Table 5 Risk determination for Tank


Equipme
nt FACTORS
Name
Consequences of this
What event Additional How that
deviation on item of
could cause implications of this Precautions precautions affect
equipment under
this deviation? consequence the cost?
consideration
Pump cavitates Damage to pump Back up for pump
Tanks run dry Regeant released
Medium
Storage and
intermediate tank
should be at least 1
Rupture
Reagent released Potential fire km away from the High
discharge line
field
Fire-extinguishing
with cooling water
1.Unload too Storage and
much from intermediate tank
tank truck should be at least 1
2.Valve open km away from the
or broken field.
3.External fire 1.Tank overfills 1.Reagent released Backup for
TANK
4.Temperature 2.Reagent relased 3.Reagent released intermediate storage
101-
of inlet is 3.Tank fails 4.Thermal stress on tank High
TANK
hotter than 4.Reagent released tank Vopar barriers
102
normal 5. Uncolled temperature 5. Explosion Narrow-neck,
5. Overfilling flame-retardant
due to
operatör error
or alarm
failure

Put pressure control


units and relief
system
Put temperature
Reverse flow control units and
Tank overfills Reagent released Medium
from process relief system
Backup for
intermediate storage
tank
Periodic controls

If volatile, possible
overpressure Put pressure control
Impurity in
units and relief Medium
reagent Possible problem in
system
reactor

22
4. REACTORS
4.1.Chemical REACTORS and Their Types
Chemical reactions pertaining to the chemical, petrochemical and oil industries are
performed in special apparatus called reactors. There are distinct types of reactors intended to
face extremely varied operating conditions, both in terms of the nature of the chemical species
involved (reactants and products of the reaction) and of the Physical conditions under which
they operate.
In general, a chemical reactor needs to be able to carry out at least three functions:
provide the necessary residence time for the reactants to complete the chemical reaction; allow
the heat exchange necessary; place the phases into intimate contact to facilitate the reaction.
Thus, reactor types range from large dimension continuous reactors, like those adopted for
catalytic cracking reactions, specifically for oil refineries, to devices of modest dimensions, like
discontinuous stirred reactors in which fine and secondary chemistry reactions are performed.
Moreover, there are reactors for sophisticated microelectronic applications and reactors of
microscopic dimensions (microreactors), designed for biomedical installations or for in situ
production of extremely toxic or dangerous compounds. Both converters and burners, catalytic
or otherwise, adopted for energy production can also be listed among the reactors. To classify
a reactor, the number of phases in the reactor itself, whether or not there are agitation systems
and the mode of operation (continuous reactor, semi-continuous or discontinuous) need to be
taken into consideration. It should also be noted that most chemical reactors are equipped with
heat exchange apparatus in the form of external jackets or internal coils with a fluid flowing
through them to act as a thermal vector to allow both heat supply or removal. Examples of
different kinds of reactors are illustrated in Fig8, while the type of reactions operating inside
them as well as the most usually adopted operation modes for the most common reactor types
are reported in Table12; the examples given show that the factors mainly influencing the choice
of reactor type are: the number of phases involved, and thus whether or not it is necessary to
provide particular agitation systems; obtaining and maintaining the optimal temperature and
pressure for the reaction; and the scale of production which often determines continuous or
discontinuous operation mode. As far as phases are concerned, the most simple reactors are
homogeneous reactors, where a single gaseous or liquid phase is usually stirred to avoid the
presence of stagnant zones. The reaction can be operated in discontinuous mode, by loading the
reactants mixture into the reactor and waiting until the process is completed, or in continuous
mode, by making a stream containing the reactants flow into the reactor and extracting another

23
stream containing the reaction products. Typical examples of homogeneous reactors are those
for thermal cracking and for polymerization in solution.

Figure 10 Examples of chemical reactors

A, stirred tank reactor; B, homogeneous tubular reactor; C, heterogeneous tubular


reactor;D, multi-tubular heterogeneous reactor; E, fluidized bed gas-solid reactor; F, fluidized
bed reactors arrangement for the fluid catalytic cracking process for hydrocarbons; G, bubble
gas-liquid reactor; H, air-lift gas-liquid reactor; I, stirred multi-staged gas-liquid (or liquid-
liquid) reactor; J, gas-liquid-solid trickle-bed reactor; K, aerosol reactor; L, thin films
deposition reactor; M, fuel cell; N, electrochemical cell; O, membrane reactor. Letters a and b
are reactants; c and d, products; g, gaseous phase; l, liquid phase.

Heterogeneous reactors are more complex, in which reactants, products and a possible
catalyst can be present in different phases. One example is the fluid-solid reactor (gas-solid or

24
liquid-solid), where heterogeneous Catalytic reactions are performed. Another classic example
is the tubular reactor which allows accurate temperature control because of its very extensive
external surface available for heat exchange; in fact, it is designed as a tube bundle
configuration very often, where a large number of reactors are connected in parallel, through
each of which passes a fraction of the flow rate. Another example is the aerosol reactor, adopted
by the industry of new materials, where solid particles are synthesized from reactants in gaseous
phase. Gas-liquid or liquid-liquid reactors are even more complex, in which the main reactants
are distributed between the two phases, immiscible with each other, but between which intimate
contact has to be realized to make the reaction progress more easily. Multiphase reactors, like
the gas-liquid-solid reactors, also exist; the trickle-bed reactor, used to perform hydrogenation
reactions or Catalytic oxidation reactions for liquid reactants, is a classic example.

25
Table 6 Examples of the uses of different reactor types according to the chemical reaction to be performed,
with indications of the management features more often adopted

C, continuous operation; D, discontinuous operation; S, semi-continuous operation

Reactions involving gaseous reactants are usually performed in tubular reactors,


generally operating in turbulent regime; if a solid catalyst is involved, it is usually arranged as
a bed of particles, generally in a spherical or cylindrical shape. If the mechanical features of the
catalyst are appropriate and if efficient heat exchange is necessary to control the reaction
temperature accurately, mobile bed reactors can be also used; the most important example of

26
these is the fluidized bed reactor, in which the velocity of the gaseous phase in contact with the
small dimension Catalytic particles is able to keep these particles in motion, thus
realizing a high degree of stirring and mixing. Other types of bed reactors, depending on the
fluid dynamic features of the bed, are: boiling fluidized beds (where the motion of the two
phases system resembles that of a boiling liquid); dragged fluidized beds (where the gases drag
all the particles in the bed with their motion) and finally spouted fluidized beds
(where the particles in the bed are dragged at high speed to a first particular area in the reactor
by the gases and allowed to settle in a nearby stagnant portion).

Liquid phase reactions are performed principally in tankshaped agitated reactors.


Agitation is mechanically induced by propellers or flat bladed stirrers, depending on the type
of fluid circulation to be carried out inside the reactor. Stirring is necessary to obtain both
effective contact between the fluid and the surfaces installed for heat exchange (this necessity
is also the case for homogeneous systems) and, with a resulting close contact, to guarantee good
dispersion between the phases in heterogeneous systems. If a solid catalyst is present, it can be
held in particular conveniently placed baskets to allow contact with the liquid phase; in slurry
reactors the catalyst can be a suspension within the liquid phase itself. The agitated tank
reactors can be operated in discontinuous mode (batch reactors) or continuously.

As has already been seen, reactions involving a gaseous phase and a liquid one, or two
liquid phases, must be performed in reactors able to guarantee efficient contact between the two
phases by means of appropriate stirrers.
Sometimes static mixers, made up of particular filling beads, can also be used, through
which the two phases to be placed into contact flow countercurrently (because of their
difference in density) inside their channels. Reactors in which static mixers are used are
characterized by high vertical development to enhance the stirring induced by the density
difference between the two phases: the lower density phase is fed from the bottom and collected
at the top, while the other follows the opposite pathway. In gas-liquid reactors this configuration
is called bubble column; different configurations exist, intended to increase stirring and thus
contact between the phases, without resorting to mechanical stirring devices. The most
important example is the air-lift reactor, where the density difference between two connected
reactor portions is exploited to start a vortical natural convection motion.
In conclusion, it is also important to mention some atypical reactors, adopted for special
applications. First of all, there is the catalytic converter, a typical heterogeneous
27
catalytic reactor in which the exhaust gases from vehicles are put into contact with a catalyst
whose active element is a noble metal, usually platinum, supported on a ceramic matrix,
generally a honeycomb monolithic structure. Inside this reactor, carbon monoxide oxidizes to
carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides reduce to elementary nitrogen. The oxidant used in the first
reaction is the oxygen still present in the exhaust gases, while the fuels for the reduction reaction
are the uncombusted hydrocarbons traces. The choice to adopt monolithic structures allows the
reduction of pressure drops and the performance of efficient thermal exchanges. Other
important heterogeneous reactors are biological reactors, where the enzymes catalyzing the
fermentation process are supported on appropriate solid matrices. In this field, the most
innovative applications are those made in bioreactors where selected cell colonies are allowed
to proliferate within a biocompatible polymeric matrix. Electrochemical reactors are
characterized by having two electrodes, each at a different potential, between which an electric
current transported by the ions contained in the electrolytic solution flows, where they are both
immersed. In this way, it is possible to perform important industrial processes based on redox
reactions, like chloro-alkali processes, which use electric rather than thermal energy.
Electrochemical reactors can be likened to fuel cells with polymeric membrane, where a
combustion reaction takes place involving hydrogen (or methanol) and oxygen by feeding the
two gases on the two electrodes, separated by a ion exchange membrane, to make electric
current generation possible. Both the two reactors above can also be classified as membrane
reactors, where a semi-permeable membrane allows the separation of one of the reaction
products directly from the reaction environment thus contributing to an improvement in the
selectivity of the processes under consideration. Currently, the extensive application of these
reactors is limited by the availability of efficient membranes. Last but not least, reactors used
in microelectronics, where chemical vapour deposition processes are performed, are of
particular importance; these reactors, operating in discontinuous conditions and at high
temperatures, allow the realization of extremely controlled process conditions so as to obtain
highly contained tolerance levels both of the thickness and of the crystalline morphology of the
deposited semiconductor[14].

28
4.2. REACTORS IN THE PROCESS
4.2.1. Fixed Bed Reactors
4.2.1.1. R-101 Design Basis

Table 7 R-101 Design Basis

Type Fixed- Bed Reactor

FA0 = 1,83 kmol/min

Reactor Input Flow Rates Purity of Propylene %95

FB0 = 3,5 kmol/min

Purity of Benzene %99

Conversion of Reactor 0,99

Selectivity 0,98

XA and S f ( Phase, Catalyst, Feed Ratio, P,T)

Phase Liquid

Catalyst MCM-22

Surface area for MCM-22 600 m2/g

Catalyst Operating Temperature Range 150˚C - 430˚C [Karge,H.G,1998]

Feed Ratio : Benzen/Propylene 2:1

Tout will find according to the XA – T

Tin will find according to the Energy balance

Rate expression for first reaction C3H6 + C6H6 → C9H12

r1 = 3,5x104 exp (-24,90/RT) kmole/g.cat.min

Rate expression for side reaction C3H6+ C9H12 → C12H18

r2 = 2,9x106exp (-35,08/RT) kmole/g.cat.min

R 1,997 kcal/kmol.K

29
Material Balance for Reactor-101

FA is described propylene molar flow rate

FB is described benzene molar flow rate

FC is described cumene molar flow rate

FD is described DIPB molar flow rate

FE is described propane molar flow rate

Degrees of Freedom

Unkowns

FA ,FB ,FC ,FD ,FE = 5

Knowns

FA0 , FB0 ,XA ,S and propane input flow rate equation (FE0 = FA0 x 0,05) = 5

5-5=0 Material Balance is soluabled

FA= FA0 (1– XA)

FA= 1,83 kmol/min x 0,95 x (1-0,99)

FA=0,017 kmol/min

FB=FB0 – (FA0 x 0,99)

FB= 3,51x0,99 –(1,83 x 0,95 x 0,99)

FB=1,75 kmol/min

FC =FA0 x XA x S

FC =1,83 x 0,95 x 0,99 x 0,98

FC =1,68 kmol/min

30
FD =FA0 x XA x (1-S)

FD =1,83 x 0,95 x 0,99 x (1- 0,98)

FD=0,034 kmol/min

FE=FE0 (Propane doesn’t give reaction)

To find the temperature for reactor outlet steam rate expression of reaction is used and is
drawed XA – T.

Reaction Rate Expression:

-rA = k1CACB + k2CACC = 0

CA=CA0(1-XA)

CB=2xCA0(1-CA0x0,99)

CC=CA0x0,99x0,98

0 = 3,5x104 exp (-24,90/RT)CA0(1-XA)x2 CA0(1-CA0x0,99) + 2,9x106exp(-35,08/RT)CA0(1-


XA) CA0x0,99x0,98
FA0 FA0 FA0 FA0
0 = 3,5x104 exp (-24,90/RT) (1-XA) x 2 (1- x 0,99) + 2,9x106exp(-35,08/RT)
𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉
FA0
(1-XA) x 0,99 x 0,98
𝑉

0 = 3,5x104 exp (-24,90/RT) FA0(1-XA) x 2 FA0 (1-CA0x0,99) + 2,9 x 106exp (-35,08/RT)


FA0(1-XA) FA0 x 0,99 x 0,98

When this equation was solved with excell, XA-T graph is drawed.

31
1,2

0,8

0,6
XA

Seri1
0,4

0,2

0
-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
-0,2
Temperature (Kelvin)

Figure 11 XA-T GRAPH

Reactor outlet temperature Tout is selected from the XA-T graph. For 99% conversion, a line is
drawn so that it does not cut the rate curve from the conversion point 0,99. XA should be
0,98XAe . A temperature is selected by paying mixing boiling point and catalyst operating
temperature.

Catalyst operating temperature range was 150˚C -430˚C.

224˚C was found from the graph.

At 224 ˚C, 30 atm benzene is liquid.

Boiling point of the mixture is 280 oC at 30 atm

At 224˚C mixture phase doesn’t change from liquid to gase phase. So Tout=224˚C can be
selected.

32
CALCULATION R-101

1,2

0,8

0,6
XA

Seri1
0,4

0,2

0
-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
-0,2
Temperature (Kelvin)

Figure 12 Xa-T Graph for R-101

C3H6 + C6H6 → C6H5 - C3H7

-3 -1
Adibatic line :
= 9,25 ×10 K

0,99
9,25×10 = -3
→ 9,25×10 K = DT
-3 -1

= 54 K = Tout – Tin 54 = 497- Tin Tin = 443 K = 170℃

33
Energy Balance for Reactor Design (R-101)

+ = -∆H Fİo

[FACpA+FBCpB](TR-TO) + [FACpA+FBCpB+FCCpC](T-TO) = -∆Hrxn FAOXA

[FAO(1-XA)CpA+FAO(2-XA)CpB](T-TO)+[FAO(1-XA)CpA+FAO(2-XA)CpB+FAOXACpC](T-TO) =
-∆Hrxn FAOXA

✓ TR=TO

[FAO(1-XA)CpA+FAO(2-XA)CpB+FAOXACpC](T-TO) = -∆Hrxn FAOXA

FAO[(1-XA)CpA +(2-XA)CpB +XACpC ](T-TO) = -∆Hrxn FAOXA

[(1-XA)CpA +(2-XA)CpB+ XACpC ](T-TO) = -∆Hrxn XA

∆Hrxn = -110,3

34
- DHrxn XA
T = To + [(1- XA)CpA + (2 - XA)CpB + XACpC ] XA = 0,99

- DHrxn XA
T = To + [(1- 0,99)CpA + (2 - 0,99)CpB + 0,99CpC]

Toperational = 473 K = 200 ℃

Reactor Volume Calculations (R-101)

C3H6 + C6H6 → C6H5 - C3H7 (IPB)

C3H6 + C6H5 - C3H7 → C3H7-C6H4-C3H7 (DIPB)

(A:propylene B:benzene C:cumene)

r1 = k1.CA.CB k1 = 3,5×104exp(-24,90/RT)

r2 = k2.CA.CC k2 = 2,9×106exp(-35,08/RT)

-rA = (k1CACB + k2CACC)

FAdxA = (-rA)dV

35
→ V = FAo
[Reactor Design, Levenspiel]

XA = 0,99

CAO = 0,044 mol/l

CBO = 0,0446 mol/l

CC = 0,043 mol/l

XAf
dXA
V
∫ [ k1CAo(1 - XA)(CBo - CAoXA) + k2CAo(1 - XA)(CAoXA) ]
FA o = 0

V
FA o =

XAf
dXA

0
[3,5×10^4exp(-24,90)/RT)CAo(1- XA)(CBo - CAo) + 2,9 ×10^6exp(-35,08/RT)CAo(1- XA)(CAoXA)]

* From Simpson rule

V1 + Vn
V= [ (X2-X1) ( 2 ) + (V1 +..............+Vn+1)

Vreactor - Vcatalyst
Void Fraction = Vreactor = 0,5

Vcatalyst = 8,2 m3 Vreactor = 17,2 m3

36
For vessels, optimum heigth to diameter ratio can be taken between 2 to 5 according to
specified design. In this design, H/D ratio is selected as 3 [8].

D^2 D^2
V= π× 4 × H = π× 4 × 3D

D = 2,70 m H= 8,10 m

(%10 safety factor) → hs= 8,10 x 1.1 = 8,91 m

37
Table 8 SPECIFICATION SHEET FOR R-101

(R-101) ALKYLATION REACTOR SPECIFICATION SHEET

TYPE & CODE Fixed-bed Reactor – R-101

FUCNTION Production cumene from benzene and


propylene

CATALYST MCM-22

OPERATING TYPE Adiabatic

Poperating : 35 atm

Pdesign : 35.224 atm

∆P:0.31 atm

Tin : 170 oC

Tout: 277 oC

REACTION C3H6 + C6H6 → C6H5 - C3H7

C3H6 + C6H5 - C3H7 → C3H7-C6H4-C3H7

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL Carbon Steel

MOLAR FLOW RATE (kmol/min) 5.34

RATIO (Benzene / Propylene ) 2:1

VOLUME (m3) 17.2

DIAMETER (m) 2.7

HEIGTH (m) 8.1

THICKNESS (mm) 53

PURCHASED COST ($) 136472,25

38
Pdesign = P0 + hs x 𝞺 x g = 35 + 2,97 x 768 x 9,81 x 10-5 = 35,224 atm

Poperation = P0 + h x 𝞺 x g =35 + 2,70 x 768 x 9,81 x 10-5 =35,203 atm

Thickness Calculation for Reactor 101


Shell thickness for cylindrical reactor can be calculated from [11]

P×r
S × Ej - 0,6 × P
t= + Cc

t: Shell thickness, m

ri: Inner radius of vessel without corrosion allowance, m

S: Maximum allowable working stress, kPa

Ej: Joint efficiency, dimensionless

P: Maximum allowable gauge pressure, kPa

Cc: Corrosion allowance, m

3522,4 ×1,3
94500 × 0,85 - 0,6 × 3522,4

t= +C

t =53mm

Vsheel = 53 x 10-3 x 8,1 x2,7 = 1,159 m3

Carbon steel , 𝞺 = 7850 kg/m3 kg sheet =15 $

Purchased cost = 1,159 x 7850 x 15 = 136472,25

39
Table 9 HAZOP for R-101
Equipment Selected Range for Possible Cause of Risk? How often? What happens? Hazardous Effect Precautions
Code Parameter Selected deviation? How easy?
Parameter
-Liquid holding
valves used for
floading through
-Flow rate of the air -Product quality
Pressure Not easy. to bottom.
R-101 P= 35 atm Min= 30atm decrease -Conversion decrease decreases.
decreasing Rarely. -Closing the
valves before the
reactor to shut
off.
-Floading may occur. -Leakage or any
-Liquid can’t go craking to the -Opening the
-Flow rate of the air
Pressure Easy, but through to the reactor reactor may cause relief valve to
R-101 P= 35 atm Max=40 atm increase
increasing not often. -It could be a leakage the fair or control the
-Electricity failure
due to pressure collopsing. pressure.
increasing.
-Failure in heat
exchanger
-Utility flow rate
-Flow rate of utility -Conversion decrease -Quality of products
Temperature Not easy. detectors are used
R-101 T=277°C Min= 310°C may decrease and -Product quality decrease (not a
decreasing Rarely. both inlet and
performance of heat decrease hazardous effect)
outlet streams.
exchanger decrease.

-Due to increasing
-Failure in heat -By products -Temperature
temperature may
exchanger production increase control systems,
cause of moresing
Temperature -Flow rate of utility -Undesired off gas detecetors used.
R-101 T=277°C Max=310 °C Easy, often. pressure and
increasing may increase and increased -Relief valve
craking may occur
performance of heat -If could be phase again used for
the reactor walls.
exchanger increase changing. extention of heat.

40
4.2.2.1.R-102 Design Basis

Table 10 R-102 Design Basis

Type Fixed- Bed Reactor

nDIPB = 0,03 kmol/min

Reactor Input Flow Rates nBenzene = 0,03 kmol/min

Conversion of Reactor 0,55

XA and S f ( Phase, Catalyst, Feed Ratio, P,T)

Phase Liquid

Catalyst MCM-22

Surface area for MCM-22 600 m2/g

Catalyst Operating Temperature Range 150˚C - 430˚C [Karge,H.G,1998]

Feed Ratio : Benzen/Propylene 1:1

Tout will find according to the XA – T

Tin will find according to the Energy balance

Rate expression for first reaction C12H18 + C6H6 → 2C9H12

r1 = 2,8x108 exp (-100000/RT) kmole/g.cat.min

R 1,997 kcal/kmol.K

43
table 11 R-102 Design Basis

Reactor inside temperature shouldn’t be higher than boiling point of the mixture for not to
change the phase.

Boiling point of Benzene at 35 atm: 202,9 oC [www.wolframalpha.com]

Boiling point of Cumene at 35 atm: 298,5 oC [www.wolframalpha.com]

Boiling point of DIPB at 35 atm: 363,5 oC [www.wolframalpha.com]

Boiling point of the mixture in transalkylation reactor at 35 atm is 290,7˚C (564K)

Material Balance for Reactor 102

Degrees of Freedom

Unkowns

DIPB reactor outlet flow rate ; nDIPBo ,

Cumene reactor outlet flow rate ; nCumene o

Benzene reactor outlet flow rate ; nBenzene o

Knowns

nDIPB , nCumene , XA

n=3-3=0 Soluable

DIPB purity 99% and Benzene purity 99,9%

44
k constant 2,529x108exp(-100000/RT)

Rate expression=-rDIPB=2,52x108exp(-100000/RT)CD(out)CB(out)

Material Balance Around the Transalkylation Reactor

nDIPBo = nDIPB – (nDIPB x 0,55)

nDIPBo=0,03x0,99 - (0,03x0,99x0,55)

nDIPBo=0,0135kmol/min

nCumene o= 2 x (nDIPB x 0,55)

nCumene o=2 x (0,03x0,99x0,55)

nCumene o=0,027kmol/min

nBenzene o= nBenzene – (nDIPB x 0,55)

nBenzene o=0,03x0,999 - (0,03x0,999x0,55)

nBenzene o=0,0135kmol/min

To find the temperature for reactor outlet steam rate expression of reaction is used and is
drawed XA – T.

Reaction Rate Expression:

-rDIPB = kCDoCBo

CDo=CD(1-XA)

CBo=CD(1-CBx0,55)

CCo=2xCDx0,55x

0 = 3,5x104 exp (-24,90/RT)CD(1-XA)x CB (1-CDx0,55)


FD0 FB0 FA0
0 = 2,8x108 exp (-100000/RT) (1-XA) x (1- x 0,55)
𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

FA0
0 = 2,8x108 exp (-100000/RT) FDo(1-XA) x FBo (1- x 0,55)
𝑉

When this equation was solved with excell, XA-T graph is drawed.

45
1,2

0,8

0,6
XA

Seri1
0,4

0,2

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
-0,2
Temperature K

Figure 13 XA-T graph

Reactor outlet temperature Tout is selected from the XA-T graph. For 55% conversion, a line is
drawn so that it does not cut the rate curve from the conversion point Tout = 0,98
Tequilibrium.

A temperature is selected by paying mixing boiling point and catalyst operating temperature.

Catalyst operating temperature range was 423K -703K.

Tout= 450K was found from the graph. At 450K, 35 atm benzene is liquid.

Boiling point of the mixture is 564K at 35 atm.

Tout=450K < 564K , mixture phase doesn’t change from liquid to gase phase.

46
CALCULATION R-102

1,2

0,8

0,6
XA

Seri1
0,4

0,2

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
-0,2
Temperature K

Figure 14 XA-T GRAPH FOR R-102

Tout=177 oC

Energy Balance for Reactor Design (R-102)

[FDCpD+FBCpB](TR-TO) + [FDCpD+FBCpB+FCCpC](T-TO) = -∆Hrxn FAOXA

[FDO(1-XD)CpA+FDO(1-XA)CpB](T-TO)+[FDO(1-XA)CpA+FDO(1-XA)CpB+FDOXACpC](T-TO)
+QR = -∆Hrxn FAOXA

For isothermal reactor, T0 = T;

+ + QR= -∆H Fİo

47
∆HR = 78843.61 + 57.918T − 6.5146 × 10−3T2 − 4.5130 × 10−5T3 + 0.4879 × 10−7T4

QR = 8697334.71 W = 8697.334 kW

XDIPB=0,55

Tin=150 oC

Tout=177 oC

Reactor Volume Calculations

C12H18 + C6H6 → 2C9H12

-rD = kCDCB k=2,259 ×108exp(-100000/RT)

r = 2,8x108 exp (-100000/RT) kmole/g.cat.min

FAdxA = (-rA)dV

→ V = FAo
[Reactor Design, Levenspiel]
XAf
dXD
V
∫ [ k1CDo(1 - XD)(CBo - CDoXD)]
FDo = 0

XAf
V dXD
∫ [2,259×10^8exp(-100000)/RT)CDo(1 - XD)(CBo - CDoXD)
FDo = 0

48
* From Simpson rule

V1 + Vn
V= [ (X2-X1) ( 2 ) + (V1 +..............+Vn+1)

10685kg
Vcatalyst= 1500kgcatalyst / m^3 = 7,12 m3

Vreactor - Vcatalyst
Void Fraction = Vreactor = 0,5

Vreactor - 7,12
Vreactor
= 0,5
3
Vreactor =14,25 m

For vessels, optimum heigth to diameter ratio can be taken between 2 to 5 according to
specified design. In this design, H/D ratio is selected as 3 [5].

D^2 D^2
V= π× 4 × L = π× 4 × 3D

D = 1,82 m H= 5,46 m

(%10 safety factor) → hs= 5,46 x 1.1 = 6,006 m

49
4.2.2.4. R-102 Specification Sheet

Table 12 R-102 Specification Sheet

(R-102) TRANSALKYLATION REACTOR SPECIFICATION SHEET

TYPE & CODE Fixed-bed Reactor – R-102

FUCNTION Production cumene from benzene and DIPB

CATALYST MCM-22

OPERATING TYPE Isothermal

Poperating : 35,452 atm

Pdesign :35,411

∆P:0,041 atm

Tin : 150 oC

Tout: 177 oC

REACTION C12H18 + C6H6 → 2 C9H12

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL Carbon Steel

MOLAR FLOW RATE (kmol/min) 0,06

RATIO (Benzene / DIPB) 1:1

VOLUME (m3) 14,25

DIAMETER (m) 1,82

HIEGTH (m) 5,46

THICKNESS (mm) 38

PURCHASED COST($) 47100

50
Pdesign = P0 + hs x 𝞺 x g = 35 + 6,006 x 768 x 9,81 x 10-5 = 35,452 atm

Poperation = P0 + h x 𝞺 x g =35 + 5,46 x 768 x 9,81 x 10-5 =35,411 atm

Thickness Calculation for Reactor 102


Shell thickness for cylindrical reactor can be calculated from [11]

P×r
S × Ej - 0,6 × P
t= + Cc

t: Shell thickness, m

ri: Inner radius of vessel without corrosion allowance, m

S: Maximum allowable working stress, kPa

Ej: Joint efficiency, dimensionless

P: Maximum allowable gauge pressure, kPa

Cc: Corrosion allowance, m

3545,2 ×1,3
94500 × 0,85 - 0,6 × 3545,2

t= + Cc

t =38 mm

Vsheel = 38 x 10-3 x 5,46 x1,82 = 0,4 m3

Carbon steel , 𝞺 = 7850 kg/m3 kg sheet =15 $

Purchased cost = 0,4 x 7850 x 15 = 47100 $

51
Table 13 HAZOP Analysis for R-102

Equipment Selected Range for Possible Cause of Risk? How often? What happens? Hazardous Effect Precautions
Code Parameter Selected deviation? How easy?
Parameter
-Utility feeding -Conversion of -Temperature
decrease before the products decreasing -Product quality measurement and
Temperatur reactor Not easy. - Conversion of by decreases. control
R-102 T= 140°C Min= 110°C
e decreasing _Feed flow rate Rarely. products increasing (not a completely equipments are
increase in heat hazardous ) used in both inlet
exchanger. and outlet.
-Temperature
detectors in
-Utility feeding reactor used.
_Explosion may
increase or feed flow -A valve to
occur if any
rate decrease in heat Easy, often decreasing and
-Conversion of leakage due to
Temperatur exchanger before the reaction is increasing acid to
R-102 T= 140°C Max= 200 °C products decreasing cracking.
e increasing reactor. highly decrease
_Fire may occur if
-Feed flow rate exothermic. temperature.
there is a fire
increase in heat -Reactor should
source.
exchanger. include
automatic flame
detectors.
-Flow rate decreasing -Conversion of
Pressure Not easy. -Product quality -Liquid level
R-102 P= 16atm Min= 12 atm before the reactor. products decreasing
decreasing Rarely. decreases. detector.
-Use the pressure
relief valve and
-If spillage of
Pressure -Flow rate increase Not easy. -Cracking may occur use it when
R-102 P= 16atm Max= 20 atm products fire or
increasing before the reactor. Rarely. and leakage pressure increase.
explosive occur.
-Liquid flow rate
detector.

52
5. DESIGN OF A SEPARATION UNIT
5.1. DISTILLATION COLUMN
Some components have different boiling points so distillation technique is suitable for
this separation. Vapor phase is created from the liquid phase by vaporization at the boiling
point. The basic requirement for the seperation of components by distillation is that the
composition of the vapor be different from the composition of the liquid with which it is in
equilibrium at the boiling point of the liquid. Distillation is probably the most widely used
separation process in the chemical and allied industries; its applications ranging from the
rectification of alcohol, which has been practised since antiquity, to the fractionation of crude
oil. is used to purify a component by separating it from a non-volalite or less-volalite material.
Because different compound often have different boiling points the compounds often
separate from a mixture when the mixture is distilled [23].

5.1.1. TYPES OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS


5.1.1.1.Flash Distillation
Flash distillation can be considered one of the simplest separation processes. A liquid
stream containing several components is partially vaporised in a ”flash drum” at a certain
pressure and temperature. This results in two phases: a vapor phase, enriched in the more
volatile components, and a liquid phase, enriched in the less volatile components [2].In this
process, a pressurised feed stream, which is in liquid phase, is passed through a throttling
valve/nozzle or an expansion valve/ nozzle (sometimes, the feed stream may be passed through
a heater before being passed through the valve/nozzle, in order to pre-heat the feed) connected
to a tank or drum, which is called a “flash” tank or drum. After being passed through the
valve/nozzle, the feed enters the tank/drum, whose pressure is low; thus, there is a substantial
pressure drop in the feed stream, causing the feed to partially vaporise. The fraction that
becomes vapor goes up to and is taken off at the top of the tank/drum. The remaining liquid
part goes down to and is withdrawn at the bottom of the tank/drum. It is noteworthy that,
although the illustration Figure12 of the flash tank is in vertical direction, flash tanks/drums in
horizontal direction are also common [2].

53
Figure 15 Flash distillation system

5.1.1.2.Multicomponent Distillations
The problem of determining the stage and reflux requirements for multicomponent
distillations is much more complex than for binary mixtures. With a multicomponent mixture,
fixing one component composition does not uniquely determine the other component
compositions and the stage temperature. Also when the feed contains more than two
components it is not possible to specify the complete composition of the top and bottom
products independently. The separation between the top and bottom products is specified by
setting limits on two “key” components, between which it is desired to make the separation [2].

5.1.2. Key Components

Before starting the column design, the designer must select the two key components
between which it is desired to make the separation. The light key will be the component that it
is desired to keep out of the bottom product; and the heavy key, the component to be kept out
of the top product. Specifications will be set on the maximum concentrations of the keys in the
top and bottom products. If any uncertainty exists, trial calculations should be made using
different components as the keys to determine the pair that requires the largest number of stages
for separation (the worst case). The Fenske equation can be used for these calculations. The

54
nonkey components that appear in both top and bottom products are known as distributed
components; and those that are not present, to any significant extent, in one or another product,
are known as nondistributed components[2].

5.1.3. Number and Sequencing of Columns

Multicomponent distillations it is not possible to obtain more than one pure component,
one sharp separation, in a single column. If a multicomponent feed is to be split into two or
more virtually pure products, several columns will be needed. Impure products can be taken off
as side streams, and the removal of a side stream from a stage where a minor component is
concentrated will reduce the concentration of that component in the main product. For
separation of N components, with one essentially pure component taken overhead, or from the
bottom of each column, (N1) columns will be needed to obtain complete separation of all
components. The order in which the components are separated will determine the capital and
operating costs. Where there are several components, the number of possible sequences can be
very large; for example, with 5 components, the number is 14, whereas with 10 components, it
is near 5000 [2].

5.1.4. Tall Columns

Where a large number of stages is required, it may be necessary to split a column into
two separate columns to reduce the height of the column, even though the required separation
could, theoretically, have been obtained in a single column. This may also be done in vacuum
distillations, to reduce the column pressure drop and limit the bottom temperatures[2].

55
5.1.5. Binary Distillation

Binary systems are usually considered separately, the design methods developed for
multicomponent systems can obviously also be used for binary systems. If the presence of the
other components does not significantly affect the volatility of the key components, the keys
can be treated as a pseudo-binary pair. This simplification can often be made when the number
of the nonkey components is small or where the components form near-ideal mixtures[2]. With
binary mixtures, fixing the composition of one component fixes the composition of the other,
and iterative procedures are not usually needed to determine the stage and reflux requirements;
simple graphical methods are normally [1].

5.1.6. Azeotrope Separation

Since fractional distillation cannot be used to separate components of an azeotrope, other


methods must be employed. Pressure swing distillation applies pressure changes to change the
composition of a mixture to enrich the distillate with the desired component.

Another technique is the addition of an entrainer, which is a substance that alters the
volatility of one of the azeotrope components. In some cases, the entrainer reacts with a
component to form a nonvolatile compound. Distillation using an entrainer is called azeotropic
distillation.

Pervaporation separates components using a membrane that is more permeable to one


constituent than to the other. Vapor permeation is a related technique, using a membrane
more permeable to the vapor phase of one component than another [24].The substance’s

5.1.7. Basic Distillation Equipment

Distillation columns are made up of several components, each of which is used either to
tranfer heat energy or enhance material transfer.A typical distillation contains several major
components;

A vertical shell where the separation of liquid components is carried out. Column internals such
as trays/plates and/or packings which are used to enhance component separations. A reboiler to
provide the necessary vaporization for the distillation process. A condenser to cool and

56
condense the vapor leaving the top of the column. A reflux drum to hold the condensed vapor
from the top of the column so that liquid (Reflux) can be recycled back to the column.

The vertical shell houses the column internals and together with the condenser and
reboiler, constitute a distillation column. A schematic of a typical distillation unit with a single
feed and two product streams is shown below:

Figure 16 Process flow of a distillation tower containing sieve tray


Continuous distillation column is shown with feed being introduced to column at an
intermediate column and overhead distillate product and a bottom product being withdrawn.
The upper part of the tower above the feed entrance is called enriching section and the lower
part of the tower below the feed entrance is called stripping section[2].

57
5.1.7.1.Column Internals
Trays and Plates: Tray dryers batch tray dryers are used for drying small quantities of
solids, and are used for a wide range of materials.
The material to be dried is placed in solid-bottomed trays over which hot air is blown or
perforated-bottom trays through which the air passes. Batch dryers have high labor
requirements, but close control can be maintained over the drying conditions and the product
inventory, and they are suitable for drying valuable products.
Trays and plates are the main elements that do the seperating process in distillation column.
Bubble Cap Trays: In bubble cap trays, vapor flowing up through the tower contacts
the liquid by passing through bubble caps in Figure 14. Each bubble cap assembly consists of
a riser and a cap. The vapor rising through the column passes up through the riser in the tray
floor and then is turned downward to bubble into the liquid surrounding the cap. Because of
their design, bubble cap trays cannot weep. However bubble cap trays are also more expensive
and have a lower capacity/higher pressure drop than valve trays or sieve trays [25].

Figure 17 Bubble Trays

Valve Trays: Valve trays are essentially modified sieve trays. Like sieve trays, holes are
punched in the tray floor. However, these holes are much larger than those in sieve trays. Each
of these holes is fitted with a device called valve. Vapor flowing up through the tower contacts
the liquid by passing through valves in the tray floor in Figure14 . Valves can be fixed or
moving. Fixed valves are permanently open and operate as deflector plates for the vapor coming
up through the holes in the tray floor. For moving valves, vapor passing through the tray floor
lifts the valves and contacts the liquid. Moving valves come in a variety of designs, depending
on the manufacturer and the application. At low vapor rates, valves will close, helping to keep

58
liquid from falling through the holes in the deck. At sufficiently low vapor rates, a valve tray
will begin to weep. That is, some liquid will leak through the valves rather than flowing to the
tray down comers. At very low vapor rates, it is possible that all the liquid will fall through the
valves and no liquid will reach the down comers. This severe weeping is known as “dumping.”
At this point, the efficiency of the tray is nearly zero [25].

Figure 18 Valve Trays


Sieve Trays: Sieve trays are the least expensive tray option. In sieve trays, vapor flowing up
through the tower contacts the liquid by passing through small perforations in the tray floor.
Sieve trays rely on vapor velocity to exclude liquid from falling through the perforations in the
tray floor. If the vapor velocity is much lower than design, liquid will begin to flow through the
perforations rather than into the down comer. This condition is known as weeping. Where
weeping is severe, the equilibrium efficiency will be very low. For this reason, sieve trays have
a very small turndown ratio [25].

Figure 19 Sieve Trays

59
5.2. DISTILLATION COLUMN IN THE PROCESS
FLASH DISTILLATION ( DEPROPANIZER)

Yi

Light Key

Flash
R-101 Distillation
Alkylation FT=3,58 kmol/min
Reactor
Depropanizer

Heavy Key

Xi

Degrees of Freedom Analysis (ndf)

+9 Unknowns ( V, L, F, Xi, Yi, f , Tfeed, Pfeed)


- F = 3,58 kmol/min

-F = V+L

-F Xf = VYi + LXi

-∑Xi = 1

-∑Yi = 1

-SD = 0,99

60
-Xi, Yi = f (SD)

-F = V/L (SD1 Calculate)

-f = f (Tfeed, Pfeed)

ndf = 9-9= 0 (is soluable.)

FT = 3,58 kmol/min

Xpropylene = 0,00474

Xpropane = 0,0268

Xcumene = 0,469

Xbenzene = 0,488

XDIPB = 0,00949

61
V

Yi

Flash
Distillation
FT=3,58 kmol/min
Depropanizer

Xpropylene = 0,00474

Xpropane = 0,0268

Xcumene = 0,469

Xbenzene = 0,488

XDIPB = 0,00949 L= F2

Xi

Material Balance For Propane


V= FT * Xpropane * SD + FT * X (1-SD)

V= 3,58 * 0,0268 * 0,99 + 3,58 * 0,9732 * 0,01

V=0,129 kmol/min F=V+L = 3.58 kmol/min

Yi= 0,094 / 0,129 = 0,73 L=3,451 kmol/min

F * Xf = V*Yi + L*Xi

3,58 * 0,0268 = 0,129 * 0,73 + 3,451 * Xi

Xpropane = 5,14x10-4

Material Balance For Benzene


FT * Xbenzene = F2 * Xbenzene

3,58 * 0,469 = 3,451* Xbenzene

Xbenzene = 0,486

62
Material Balance For DIPB
FT * XDIPB = F2 * XDIPB

3,58 * 0,00949 = 3,451 * XDIPB

XDIPB = 0,00984

V = 0,129

Ypropylene = 0,73

Ypropane= 0,27

Flash
Distillation
FT=3,58 kmol/min
Depropanizer

Xpropylene = 0,00474

Xpropane = 0,0268

Xcumene = 0,469

Xbenzene = 0,488

XDIPB = 0,00949 L= F2 = 3,451 kmol

Xpropane = 5,14x10-4
Xcumene = 0,492

Xbenzene = 0,486
XDIPB = 0,00984

F = V/F2 ➔ 0,129 / 3,451 = 0,03738

63
Volume of Flash Distillation
Volume Flash = FT * (1 / ρ mix ) * t

Fmix =446 kg/min * (1 / ρ mix ) * 5 min

V= 10 m3

F = V / F2

f= f( Tfeed , Pfeed)

Pfeed = 1,5 atm

Table 14 DENSITY OF DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

Boiling Point ρ

Propylene -38,43 oC 181 kg/m3

Propane -32,45 oC 201 kg/m3

Benzene 94,16 oC 886 kg/m3

Cumene 169,4 oC 869 kg/m3

DIPB 228 oC 1040 kg/m3

Table 15 For First Flash Column


Feed Distillate Bottom
Molar Flow Rate 3,5 kmol / min 0,129 kmol / min 3,451 kmol / min
Pressure 1,5 atm 1,4 atm 1,3 atm
Temperature 80oC 65oC 95oC
Phase Liquid Vapor Liquid

64
BENZENE COLUMN

D=3,83 kmol/min
XBenzene =0,86

XCumene =0,45

FT=8,34 kmol/min XDIPB =0,04

XBenzene =0,40

XCumene =0,55

XDIPB =0,05

B=4,5 kmol/min
XBenzene =9,35×10-3

XCumene =0,634

XDIPB =0.021

65
Degrees Of Freedom

16 unknowns ( F, B, D, XB, XD, Po, PT, Ki, α, Nmin, q, Q, Rmin, R, Ntheoritical, Eo, Nact)

 1)F = 8,34 kmol/min

 2)F=D+B

 3)SD=0.99

 4)FXF=DXD+BXB

 5)XB,XD=f(SD)

 6)PT=1.5 atm

 7)Pio / Pi = Ki

 8)α = Ki / Kj

 9)Nmin= ln[(XLK/MK)D *(XLK/MK)B] / lnα(XLK/MK)av

 10) q = 1-f= 0.95

 11) 1-q = ∑( αi xDİ / αi –Q)

 12) Rmin + 1 = ∑ (α xFİ / αi –Q)

 13) R/Rmin=1.5

 14) Ntheoritical= N-Nmin/ N+1 =0.75(1-(R-Rmin/R+1)0.566)

 15)Eo=0.44

 16)Nact= Ntheoritical / Eo

Material Balance For Benzene

F= 8,34 kmol/min

SD = 0,99

D = F * Xb * SD + Fx (0,01) ➔ 8,34 * 0,40 * 0,99 + 8,34 * 0,01 * 0,93

D= 3,83 kmol/min

XBenzene,D=0,86

F = D + B ➔ 8,34 = 3,83 + B

66
B = 4,51 kmol/min

FXF=DXBenzene,D+BXBenzene,B

8,34×0,40=3,83×0,86+4,51×( XBenzene,B)

XBenzene,B=9,35×10-3

Material Balance For Cumene

FXcumene = DXcumene + BXcumene

8,34×0,55 = 3,83× 0,45+4,51× (Xcumene,B)

Xcumene,B =0,634

Table 16 Molar Flow Rate

Feed Distillate Bottom

Molar Flow Rate 8,34 kmol/min 3,83 kmol / min 4,51 kmol/min

Table 17 Mole Fraction and Molar Flow Rate of components

Feed Distillate Bottom

Component % mole kmol/min %mole kmol/min %mole kmol/min

Benzene 0,40 3,86 0,86 3,82 9,35×10-3 0,0386

Cumene 0,55 4,32 0,45 0,0432 0,634 4,2768

DIPB 0,05 0,15 0,04 5×10-4 0,021 0,0495

67
Dew Point and Bubble Point Determination
Determination of vapor pressures by Antoine equation.

ln Pi = Ai – ((Bi /(Ci+T))

Table 18 Antoine constants of component

Component A B C

Benzene 15,9008 2788,51 -52,36

Cumene 15,9722 3363,6 -63,37

DIPB 3,8176 1641 -81,204

Determination of dew point at the top of distillation column


 At T = 100 oC and PT= 1,5 atm
 Assumption : İdeal Mixture

Bi
Pi = exp( Ai −
o
)
T − Ci
Pbenzene = exp (15,9008 – (2788,51/321))
Pcumene = exp (15,9722- ( 3363,6 / 310))

Raault’s Law
Ki = Yi/Xi = Pi/PT ➔ Pi = PT * Yi = Pi * Xi
Kbenzene = 1,76 / 1,5 = 1,17
Kcumene = 0,2178 / 1,5 = 0,14
Ybenzene = 0,86
Ycumene= 0,45
∑Xi = 0,86/1,17 + 0,45/0,14 ≈ 1,0
The temperature where ∑Xi ≈ 1,0 is dew point and it was found 100 oC according to the trial
error volution.

68
Table 19 Trial & Error

Benzene Cumene Xtotal

T (oC) Pi PT Ki Yi Xi=Yi/Ki Pi PT Ki Yi Xi=Yi/Ki ∑Xi=∑Yi/Ki


(atm) (atm) (atm) (atm)
90 1,34 1,5 0,891 0,86 0,975 0,151 1,5 0,101 0,45 0,62 1,59

100 1,76 1,5 1,179 0,86 0,775 0,217 1,5 0,145 0,45 0,40 1,01

110 2,30 1,5 1,534 0,86 0,567 0,305 1,5 0,203 0,45 0,38 0,854

Determination of bubble point at the bottom of distillation column


 At T = 170 oC and PT= 1,5 atm
PDIPB = 6,41x10-4 atm
Pcumene= 1,614 atm

Raault’s Law
Ki = Yi/Xi = Pi/PT ➔ Pi = PT * Yi = Pi * Xi
KDIPB= 0,00042
Kcumene =1,075
XDIPB = 0,021
Xcumene= 0,634
∑Xi = 0,86/1,17 + 0,45/0,14 ≈ 1,0
The temperature where ∑Xi ≈ 1,0 is dew point and it was found 170 oC according to the trial
error volution.

69
Table 20 Trial & Error

DIPB Cumene Xtotal

T Pi PT Ki Xi Yi=Xi/Ki Pi PT Ki Xi Xi=Yi/Ki ∑Yi=∑Xi/Ki


(oC) (10 -4 (atm) (atm) (atm)
atm)
160 5,64 1,5 0,0003 0,021 7,9x10 -6 1,26 1,5 0,846 0,634 0,82 0,83

170 6,41 1,5 0,0004 0,021 8,98x10-6 1,614 1,5 1,075 0,634 1,04 1,05

180 7,24 1,5 0,0004 0,021 4,01x10 - 2,026 1,5 1,35 0,634 1,31 4,33
3

Determination of Minimum Number of Equilibrium Stages


The minimum number of stages was determined by using Fenske equation.

Nmin= ln[(X(LK∕HK) )D (X(LK∕HK) )B ] / (lnαLK∕HKav ) )

Nmin : Minimum number of trays

(α(LK∕HK) )av : the average geometric relative volatility of the light key to the heavy key

xLK: mol fraction of the light key

xHK: mol fraction of the heavy key

D: Distillate

B: Bottom product

αLK∕HK)D = (Kbenzene / Kcumene)D =0,891 / 0,101 = 8,821

α(LK∕HK)B = (Kbenzene / Kcumene)B =5,605 / 1,075 = 5,209

(α(LK∕HK))av = [ α(LK∕HK)D / α(LK∕HK)B ]1/2 = 6,778

Nmin = ln (9,66 x (1,371x10-3 ) / ln(6,778) = 5

The minimum reflux was determined from the underwood relation.

70
q : mole fraction of liquid phase in feed

f : mole fraction of vapor phase in feed

f+q = 1

q=1–f

f= 0,05 q = 1 – 0,05 q = 0,95

n
αi xF,i
∑ = 1−q
αi − θ
i=1

Tav = (Tbubble + Tdew) / 2 = (170 + 100) / 2 = 135oC

 Relative Volatilitres at Tav

αi = Kİ/ KHK

αbenzene = 3,09 / 0,50 = 6,15

αcumene = 1

αDIPB = 0,000284 / 0,503063 = 5,56 x 10-3

 Composition of feed

Xbenzene = 0,40

Xcumene = 0,55

XDIPB = 0,05

( 6,15 x 0,40 / 6,15 – Q ) + ( 1 x 0,55 / 1- Q) + (5,56 * 10-3 x 0,026 / 5,56x10-3 – Q )

➔= 0,05 Q=4

Rule :

71
αHK < Q < αLK

1<4<9,52 so its acceptable.


n
αi xD,i
R min + 1 = ∑
αi − θ
i=1

Rmin+1 = (6,15 x 0,86 / (6,15-4 )) + ((1 x 0,45) /( 1-4 ))

Rmin = 1,11

R= (1,5 x Rmin ) = 1,665

Number of theoretical stages was determined by using Gilliland equation.

N-Nmin / N + 1 = 0,75 [1-(R-Rmin / R + 1 ) 0,566 ]

Ntheoretical = 11

Analytical expression developed by o ‘connell correlation was used for the determination of
overall tray effiency.

E0=51-32.5 log[μL (α(LK/HK) )av ]

E0: overall tray efficiency

(α(LK/HK) )av: average relative volatility between the light and heavy keys

μL: liquid viscosity of the feed mixture (mPa.s)

E0= %44

Nactual=Ntheoretical/E0

Nact = 11 / 0,44 = 25

2
ND xHK B xLK,B
log = 0.206 ∗ log [( ) ∗ ∗( ) ]
NB xLK F D xHK,D

NB= 17 ND=8

72
Diameter Evaluation for Column
σ 0.2 ρL − ρv 0.5
Vnf = Csb ∗ ( ) ∗ ( ) [2]
20 ρv
Vnf : Net vapor velocity at flooding conditions
Csb : Souders and Brown factor at flood conditions in m/s
𝞼: surface tension in Dyne/cm
ρL , ρv : Densities of liquid and vapor kg/m3
ρV=4,059 kg/m3

ρL=799 kg/m3

R= L/D ➔ 1,665= L / 3,83 ➔ L=6,38 kmol/min

V=6,38+ 3,83 = 10,20

V=10,20 kmol/min

L/V(ρ/ ρL)1/2 = (6,78/ 10,20) x (4,059 / 799)1/2 = 0,044

Tray spacing = 0,46

Csb= 0,08 m/s

Vnf = 0,08 x (3,377/20)0,2 x (799-4,059 / 4,059) 0,5 ➔ Vnf = 0,784m/s

The actual vapor velocity Vn is selected by assuming that is 50 to 90 percent of the net vapor
velocity at flood conditions. ( The lower and upper values are only selected when some
unusual flow conditions are expected in the separation process.). Thus it is selected that the
actual vapor velocity is 60 percent net vapor velocity at flood conditions.
m
Vnf = 0.3 → Vn = 0.7 ∗ 0.3 = 0.21
s

The net column area,


kg 1 m3 1 min
(45912 min 965,6 kg) ( 60 s )
m′̇v ) (
An = = m = 1,68
Vn 0.470 s

Ac = An + Ad [2]

An : net column area used in the seperation process


An : downcomer area

73
Ac : cross sectional area of the column

Assume the downcomer occupies 15 percent of the cross-sectional area of the column [2]. Thus,
An 1,68
Ac = = = 1,976 m2
0.85 0.85

Column diameter,
4Ac 1⁄2 4∗1,976 1⁄2
D=( ) =( ) = 1,58 m ➔ r = 0,79
π π

Height Evaluation of Column

HC=(NACT-1)HS+∆H

HC : actual column height, m

N_act: actual number of trays

HS: plate spacing, m

∆H: additional height required for column operation.

Hs=0,46

For tower 1m in diameter, add 1m at the top of the tower for vapor diasengagement and 2m at
the bottom of the tower for liquid level and reboiler return. Thus , ∆H can be taken as 3.

Hc= 13,04m

Column Thickness Calculation


t = P x ri /(S x Ej – 0,6 P) + Cc

t : minimum Wall thickness

Cc: allowance for corrosion , m

Ej: effiency of points expressed as a fraction

P: Maximum allowable internal pressure , kPa

Ri : inside Radius of Shell , before corrosion allowance is added , m

S: maximum allowable working stress , kPa

t = [P x ri / (S x Ej – 0,6 P )] + Cc

t= [(1440 kPa x 0,79) / ( 97475 kPa x 0,44 – 0,6 x 1440) ] + 0,003

t = 0,03 m

74
Condenser Design Calculation

D=3,83 kmol/min

Xbenzene = 0,86

Xcumene = 0,45

XDIPB = 0,04

Utility Process Fluid

T cold in 25 oC Thot, in 100 oC

T cold out 40 oC Thot, out 100 oC


Process fluid

Th,o=100C̊
Th,i=100 C̊

Tc,o= 40C̊

Tc,i=25 ˚C

Reflux Ratio ➔ R = L / D1

1,665 = L / 3,83

L=6,38 kmol/min

V=10,20 kmol / min

75
• The saturated liquid line in enthalpy hD
hD= Xbenzene * CpBenzene (T-To) + (1-XBenzene)*CpCumene(T-To)+ DHsoln

XBenzene : mole fraction of benzene

Cp, benzene : Heat Capacity of benzene (kj/kmolK)

Cp, cumene : Heat Capacity of cumene (kj/kmolK)

To=Referance Temperature

T: Boiling Point of the mixture in K.

DHsoln is often the heats of solution are small as in hydrocarbon mixtures are neglected.

hD=[ 0,86 * 1,7 kJ / kmol * (100,4 – 45)] + [ ( 0,13) * ( 1,75) * ( 100,4 – 45 )] + 0

hD = 105 kj / kmol

H1 = yDME ∗ [λBenzene + cp,Benzene (T − T0 )]


+ (1 − y𝐵𝑒𝑛𝑧𝑒𝑛𝑒 )[λCumene + cp,Cumene (T − T0 )] [1]

kj
H1 = 125,8
kmol

• Heat duty for Condenser (q C )

q C = V1 H1 − Lhd − Dhd [1]

qc= 2,16 kW

• Heat transfer area calculation


Q = U ∗ A ∗ ∆TLM
Overall heat transfer coefficient assumed for organic vapors and cooling water as 700 W/m2 ̊C
[APP-7].

∆T1 − ∆T2 (Th,o − Tc,i ) − (Th,i − Tc,o )


∆TLM = =
∆T (T − Tc,i )
ln ∆T1 ln h,o
2 (Th,i − Tc,o )
(100 − 25) − (100 − 40)
∆TLM = = 15.29 ℃
(100 − 25)
ln
(100 − 40)

76
Q 1215 kW
A= =
U∆TLM 67,22 ∗ 700

A = 2,5 m2

Q = ṁutility (Hutility,o − Hutility,i )kJ/kg

2,16 kW= mutility (Hutility,o -Hutility,i) kj/kg

kg
ṁutility = 19,3 1216 kW = ṁutility (167.6 − 104.7)
s

Bernoulli Equation,
v2 2 − v1 2 P2 − P1
+ g(z2 − z1 ) + + ∑ F + Ws = 0
2α ρ

𝑚3
q 0.00207 𝑠 𝑚
v2 = v1 = = = 3,61
πD2 π(0.027 m)2 𝑠
4 4

Q= ṁ/ρ = 120 / 965,6 = 2,07 * 10 -3

v2 2 − v1 2
=0

z2− z1 = 5 m

𝑚
g(z2− z1 ) = (9.81 ) (5 m) = 49,05 J/kg
𝑠

P2 − P1 (1,3 − 1,2) ∗ 105 Pa


= = 10,3 J/kg
ρ kg
965,6 3
m

77
Between condenser exit (Point 1) and column inlet (Point 2), 2-globe, 5-gate, 1-check valve
and 3-90 ̊ elbow are located on the pipe-line.

Equivalent lenght for fittings (Le ) [APP] ,

Le = 2 (300) (0.027 ) + 6(30) (0.027 ) + 3 (32)(0.027 ) = 23.65 m

Reynolds Number (Re),

DVρ
Re =
μ

m kg
(0.027 m) × (3,61 s ) × (965,6 3 )
m
Re = = 496504
2,52 ∗ 10−4 kg/m. s

Since Re > 2100 flow regime is turbulent.

Fanning friction factor, f = 0.006 [APP]

Friction Loss in straight pipe (F) [APP] ,

2fV 2 (L + Le )
F=
D

2 × 0.006 × (2,61 m/s)2 × (100 + 23.65)m


F= = 119,2 J/kg
(0.027 m)

Total friction loss (∑ F),

∑ F = 119,2 J/kg

Shaft work (Ws ),

Ws = 0 + 49,05 + 10,3 + 119


Ws = 188 J/kg

Theoretical Pump Power (PPump,theoritical ),

PPump,theoritical = m × Ws
kg 1 min J
PPump,theoritical = 120 × × 188
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 s kg

78
Ppump = 376 W

Real pump power (PPump,real ),

PPump,theoritical
PPump,real =
η
376 W
Ppump,real = = 753 W
0.5

Table 21 Specification sheet for Pump 101

Equipment No P-103

Pump Type Centrifugal

Material of Constraction Carbon -stell

Pump Power 753 W

Capacity m3
2,07 ∗ 10−3
s

Pipe-line No 3

Pipe size 1.049 in (2.7 cm) schedule 40


pipe
Pipe lenght 100 m

Fittings 2-globe, 5-gate, 1-check


valves, and 3-90 ̊C elbows

79
Reboiler Design Calculation

W=4,51 kmol/min

XBenzene=9,35×10-3

XCumene=0,634

XDIPB=0,021

Temperatures of Utility and Process Fluid

Utility Process Fluid


Tcold,in 162℃ Thot,in 180℃
Tcold,out 162℃ Thot,out 180℃

Th,i=180 ̊ C Th,o=180 ̊ C

Tc,i=162 ̊ C
Tc,o=162 ̊ C

• at Bottom

hB = xCumene ∗ CP,Cumene ∗ (T − T0 ) + (1 − x𝐶𝑢𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑒 ) ∗ CP,DIPB ∗ (T − T0 ) + ∆𝐇soln

hB = 207,415kJ/kmole

ℎ𝑓 = 0,0013 ∗ (1,7) ∗ (100 − 45) + (0,97) ∗ (1,75) ∗ (120 − 45) + 0,021 ∗ 2,01
∗ (120 − 45)
ℎ𝑓 = 130,64 𝑘𝐽/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒

𝑞𝑅 = 𝐷ℎ𝑑 + 𝑊ℎ𝑤 + 𝑞𝑐 − 𝐹ℎ𝑓

80
𝑞𝑅 = 21387 𝑘𝑊
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient assumed for saturated steam as 900W/m2K [1]
From equation (3.32), (3.33)

T1 = 180oC
T2 = 180oC ∆𝑻𝑳𝑴 = 18
t1=162oC
t2=162 oC

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 4𝑚2
21387 kW= 900 W/m2K x A x 18 K →

ṁ = 𝟏𝟏 𝒌𝒈/𝒔
21387𝑘𝑊 = ṁ ∗ (2788 − 220)𝑘𝑗/𝑘𝑔 →

Table 22 For Benzene Column


Feed Distillate Bottom
Molar Flow Rate 8,34 kmol / min 3,83 kmol / min 4,51 kmol / min
Pressure 1,5 atm 1,4 atm 1,3 atm
Temperature 110oC 100oC 170oC
Phase Liquid Vapor Liquid

81
Table 23 Material of Construction

Trays CArbon steel

Column Carbon steel

Condenser Heat 1216 kW


Duty (kW)

Reboiler Heat Duty 21387 kW


( kW)

Pump (W) 753 kW

Table 24 Column Specification

Theoretical Number 11

of Stages

Actual Number of 25

Stages

Column Efficiency 0,44

(%)

Feed Plate Location NB = 17 ND=8

Tray Spacing (m) 0,61

Column Diameter 1,58

(m)

Column Height (m) 13,04

82
CUMENE COLUMN

D=4,263 kmol/min
XD =0.99

FT=4,45 kmol/min

XF =0,95

X =0.05
DIPB

B=0,189 Kmol/min

83
Degrees Of Freedom

16 unknowns ( F, B, D, XB, XD, Po, PT, Ki, α, Nmin, q, Q, Rmin, R, Ntheoritical, Eo, Nact)

 1)F = 4,45 kmol/min

 2)F=D+B

 3)SD=0.99

 4)FXF=DXD+BXB

 5)XB,XD=f(SD)

 6)PT=1.5 atm

 7)Pio / Pi = Ki

 8)α = Ki / Kj

 9)Nmin= ln[(XLK/MK)D *(XLK/MK)B] / lnα(XLK/MK)av

 10) q = 1-f= 0.95

 11) 1-q = ∑( αi xDİ / αi –Q)

 12) Rmin + 1 = ∑ (α xFİ / αi –Q)

 13) R/Rmin=1.5

 14) Ntheoritical= N-Nmin/ N+1 =0.75(1-(R-Rmin/R+1)0.566)

 15)Eo=0.44

 16)Nact= Ntheoritical / Eo

F= 4,45 kmol/min

F=D+B

FXF=DXD+BXB

More volatility component ; Cumene hence all the fractions without additional subscribe are
those of cumene. Desired purity for cumene in the distillate stream is %99 hence XD = 0,99.

Existance of the very small amount of benzene in the stream that is to be fed to the distillation
tower is ignored during this design. After this assumption the composition of the feed stream
is as follows.

84
XF =0,95

Assumption XB = 0,05

F/D = (XD –XB ) / (XF - XB )

4,45 / D = 0,94 / 0,90

D=4,263 kmol / min

F=D+B

B = 0,189 kmol / min

It has been deemed fit to feed a saturated vapor stream to the distillation tower meaning (q=0 ,
f = 1)

Table 25 For Cumene Distillation

Feed 4,45 kmol / min


Feed Composition Cumene = 0,95
DIPB = 0,05
Feed Temperature 163oC
Operational Pressure 1,1 atm
Reboiler Partial
Condenser Total
Distillate Composition Cumene = 0,99
DIPB = 0,01
Bottom Composition Cumene = 0,05
DIPB = 0,95
Feed Condition Saturated Vapor

85
Selections

• Condenser preferred for the design is a total one since it is desired to liquidate both the
reflux and distillate.
• Reboiler is chosen to be partial due to the idea that there is no need to waste anymore
energy than absolutely necessary only the amount that is to be sent back to the system
is vaporized
• It would be completely fine and even ideal for the tower to opprote at atmospheric
pressure. However to mitigate the pressure drops that wouldn’t naturally occur in the
pipes between column and condenser , reboiler it has been deemed opt to choose an
operating pressure of 1.1 atm for the column.
• Since the distillate product will be much more than the bottom product, it is quite
reasonable for feed to be saturated vapor meaning the (q=0 , f=1)

Dew Point Calculation For The Feed Mixture

• Determination of vapor pressures by Antoine Equation,


Bi
lnPi0 = Ai −
(Ci + T)
Cumene DIPB

A 7,1069 7,0195

B 1577,97 1711,81

C 220,977 210,423

Iteration at T PC (atm) PDIPB (atm) PT (atm)


162oC 1,27 0,35 1,07
163oC 1,30 0,36 1,099
173oC 1,66 0,47 1,41

As shown 163oC is more than acceptable. Because Pt nearly to 1,1 atm.

At 163oC the mixture is a saturated vapor which is in accordance with the plan.

86
Determination of Minimum Reflux Ratio ( Rmin)
Since the feed is saturated vapor and the q=0 feedline will be parallel to the x-plane.

Y=Rmin / Rmin+1 * X + ( XD / Rmin+1 )

XD/ Rmin+1 is obtained from the Excell graph.

XD / Rmin+1 = 0,81 ➔ 0,99/Rmin+1 = 0,81 ➔ Rmin = 0,22

R / Rmin = 1,5 R / 0,22 = 1,5 ➔ R= 0,33

Location of feed is third tray from the top according to the graph. ( Excell graph )

Tray number was determined as 9.

Assumption ɛ = 0,75

NT / ɛ = 12 NA= 12-(Partial Reboiler) = 11

According to the reflux ratio = 0,33

Liquid flow rate of the top section : L =1,40 kmol/min

R=Lo/D ; Lo/4,263-Lo=0,33

Lo=1,057 kmol/min

Liquid of the bottom section L=Lo+F.q (q=0)

L=Lo=1,057 kmol/min

Vapor flow rate in the column V=F.f1=0,189 kmol/min

Vapor mass flow rate (Vw)

Mw=0,95x(122,2kg/kmol)+0,01x162,264 kg/kmol

Mw=122,3kg/kmol (Molecular weight of the mixture)

Vw =122,3 kg/kmol x 21,11 kmol/min =2582kg/min

Liquid Mass Flow Rate

Lw=1,057kmol/min x 162 kg/kmol =171,369 kg/min

Volumetric Flow Rate for Vapor

Qv=Vw/ ρv=544,55 kg/min / 3,65 kg/m3=2,49 m3/min

Calculation of the Column Diameter

Flv=Lw/Vw x (ρv/ρL)0,5

87
Flv=liquid-vapor flow factor

Flv=0,0012

Assumption for tray spacing

0,6 m

According to the Flvand 0,6 from the figure value of K1

K1:0,04 was obtained from the figure

V=0,04 x (900-3,65/3,65)0,5=0,62 m/s

60 % flooding velocity (assumption)

Real vapor velocity = 0,60 x 0,62 m/s =0,37 m/s

Column Area = Qv/V = 2,49 m3/s /0,37 m/s =6,73 m2

A= πD2/4 =6,73 D=2,9 m

Tray distance was assumed as 0,6m. Number of tray was 11

h=11x0,6 =6,6 m

D=2,9 m

Vcylinder= π D2h/4 =3,14 x (2,9)2 x 6,6 /4 =43,6 m3

Column Thickness Calculation

t = P x ri /(S x Ej – 0,6 P) + Cc

t : minimum Wall thickness

Cc: allowance for corrosion , m

Ej: effiency of points expressed as a fraction

P: Maximum allowable internal pressure , kPa

Ri : inside Radius of Shell , before corrosion allowance is added , m

S: maximum allowable working stress , kPa

t = [P x r i / (S x Ej – 0,6 P )] + Cc

t= [(1440 kPa x 0,79) / ( 97475 kPa x 0,44 – 0,6 x 1440) ] + 0,003

88
t = 0,03 m

Condenser Design Calculation

Utility Process Fluid

T cold in 25 oC Thot, in 158 oC

T cold out 100oC Thot, out 158 oC

R= 0,33

D=3,2 kmol /min

L =1,057 kmol/min

V1 = D+L = 3,2 + 1,057 =4,257 kmol/min

λcumene=41,83kj/kmol

λDIPB=47,91kj/kmol

Q=∆H=m.λ

Q=D.0,99.41,83kj/kmol + D.0,01.47,91 kj/kmol

Q=3,2 . 0,99 . 41,83 + 3,2 . 0,01 . 47,91

Q=2,24 kW

∆T1 − ∆T2 (Th,o − Tc,i ) − (Th,i − Tc,o )


∆TLM = =
∆T1 (T − Tc,i )
ln ∆T ln h,o
2 (Th,i − Tc,o )
(158 − 25) − (158 − 100)
∆TLM = = 91,5 ℃
(133)
ln
(88)

89
Q 2240 W
A= =
U∆TLM 91,5 ∗ 900

A = 3,5 m2

∆Hutility = ṁ * Cp * ∆T

Q = ṁ * 4,18 , 75

2240 = ṁ * 313,5

ṁ= 7,14 kg / ms

90
Reboiler Design Calculation

Temperatures of Utility and Process Fluid

Utility Process Fluid


Tcold,in 158℃ Thot,in 170℃
Tcold,out 163℃ Thot,out 160℃

Q=ṁ*λ

Q =( 5,48 * 0,05 * 41,83 ) + ( 5,48 * 0,95 * 47,91 )

Q =4,34 kW

∆T1 − ∆T2 (Th,o − Tc,i ) − (Th,i − Tc,o )


∆TLM = =
∆T1 (T − Tc,i )
ln ∆T ln h,o
2 (Th,i − Tc,o )
(170 − 160) − (170 − 163)
∆TLM = = 2,75 ℃
(10)
ln
(7)
Q 4340 kW
A= =
U∆TLM 2,75 ∗ 900

A = 2,25 m2

f= 0,001

Friction Loss in Straight pipe

F= 2 * fV2 * ( Le + L ) / D

∑F =720 j/kg

Ws = 0 + 19 + 23 + 720

91
Ws = 762 J/kg

Theoretical Pump Power (PPump,theoritical ),

PPump,theoritical = m × Ws
kg 1 min J
PPump,theoritical = 120 × × 762
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 s kg
Ppump = 1524 W

Real pump power (PPump,real ),

PPump,theoritical
PPump,real =
η
1524 W
Ppump,real = = 3048 W
0.5

Table 26 Specification Sheet for Pump 102

Equipment No P-102

Pump Type Centrifugal

Material of Constraction Carbon Steel

Pump Power 3,04 W

Capacity m3
0,14
s

Pipe-line No 5

Pipe size 0,1 m

Pipe lenght 2m

Fittings 2-globe, 5-gate, 1-check


valves, and 3-90 ̊C elbows

92
Table 27 Material of Construction Table 28 For Cumene Column

Trays Carbon steel Feed Distillate Bottom


Molar Flow 4,45 4,263 5,189
Column Carbon steel
Rate kmol / kmol / kmol /

Condenser Heat 2,24 kW min min min

Duty (kW) Pressure 1,2 atm 1 atm 1 atm


Temperature 163oC 158oC 210oC
Reboiler Heat Duty 34 kW
( kW)

Pump (W) 3,04 kW

93
Table 29 Column Specification

Theoretical Number of Stages 9

Actual Number of Stages 11

Column Efficiency (%) 0,75

Feed Plate Location NB = 3 ND=8

Tray Spacing (m) 0,6

Column Diameter (m) 2,9

Column Height (m) 6,11

94
Table 30 HAZOP Analysis for Columns
Equipment Selected Range for 1)Possible deviation 1)Consequents events
Code Parameters Pressure 2)Which parameters effect? 2)Precautions
3)How often? Why?

1) Pressure increases. 1)Volality is reduced so, cumene quality drop,


C-104 T: 160 oC 0.4-0.8 atm
(DİPB column) P: 0.4 atm 2) Air leaks into equipment that may be dangerous.
SD :0.98 2)The pressure relief valve opens.
3)Medium often, because there is a probability of air entry. Regular check.

1)Accumulation may occur so, pressure may increase. 1)Product quality drops.
2)Removing te accumulated component from the
2)An intermediate component can get tropped and accumulate distillation clumn.
in a column. Increased pressure due to clogging. Modifying column and internals.

3)Medium often, because the intermediate component can get


trapped when it can’t get out the top (too cold) or the bottom
(too hot).

1)The operators thought the cause was plugged trays, but a


careful engineer looked deeper and found the water supply
valve to the condenser only one-fourth open. The previous 1)Not enough product is obtained.
product run didn’t require any more condenser cooling than
this. 2)Opened the valve.

2)Medium often, because the operator may be distracted. 1)More utility is used and cost is increased.

1)Pressure increases. 2)Back up pump requires and it should be run.

95
2)Feed line error.

C-102 T: 90 oC 12 atm-14 3)Medium often, because the pump is a malfunction device.


(benzene P:12 atm atm
column) SD:0.99 1)Valve malfunction. 1)More utility is used and cost is increased.

2)Medium often, because valve malfunction is possible that 2)Back up valve requires and it should be run.
valve failures may occur.

1)Pressure increases. 1)According to LEL and UEL, explosion may occur.


2)Put the cooling water into the circuit.
2)Feed line error. Active steam barriers.

3)Medium often, because the pump is a malfunction device.


1)There is too much flow. 1)More utility is used and cost is increased.
2)Pump fault.
3) Medium often, because the pump may malfunction. 2)Back up pump requires and it should be run.

1)There is less flow. 1)Product quality drops.

2)Valve partially closed. 2)Regular check.

3)Medium often, because


the valve may malfunction.
1) Low flow of cooling water. 1) The temperature of the process fluid remains
constant. Product temperature increases and top
2)The pipe is blocked. pressure increases.
2) Put in athermocouple.
3)Medium often, Invert streams to increase activity.
the pipe may be blocked due to contamination.

96
6. HEAT EXCHANGERS
In order to achieve optimum process operations, it is essential to use the right type of
process equipment in any given process. Heat exchangers, commonly used to transfer energy
from one fluid to another, are no exception. The selection of the proper type of heat
exchangers is of critical importance. Selecting the wrong type can lead to sub-optimum plant
performance, operability issues and equipment failure.
The following criteria can help in selecting the type of heat exchanger best suited for a given
process:
• Application (i.e. sensible vapor or liquid, condensing or boiling)
• Operating pressures & temperatures (including startup, shutdown, normal & process
upset conditions)
• Fouling characteristics of the fluids (i.e. tendency to foul due to temperature,
suspended solids ...)
• Available utilities (cooling tower water, once through cooling water, chilled water,
steam, hot oil...)
• Temperature driving force (i.e. temperature of approach or cross and available LMTD)
• Plot plan & layout constraints
• Accessibility for cleaning and maintenance
• Considerations for future expansions
Mechanical considerations such as:
1) material of construction;
2) thermal stresses (during startup, shutdown; process upset and clean out conditions);
3) impingement protection
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers accounts for more than 50% of all heat exchangers
installed. However, in many cases, there are more attractive alternatives in terms of cost and
energy recovery. Any time a heat exchanger is being replaced, the opportunity should be taken
to re-assess if the type used is best for the given process. Operating changes since initial
installation as well as advancements in the field of heat transfer may point towards a different
type as being optimal.

6.1. HEAT EXCHANGER SELECTION


Past experience, is always the best place to start to guide the selection of heat
exchanger types. Understanding the reasons behind both successes and failures will lead to
better equipment selection.
When comparing different types of heat transfer equipment, one must take into
consideration the total cost of the equipment which includes:

97
1. Purchase cost
2. Installation cost
3. Operating cost (pumping, fan…)
4. Maintenance cost
The principal types of heat exchanger used in the chemical process and allied industries
are listed below:
1. 1.Double-pipe Exchanger: The simplest type, used for cooling and heating.
2. 2.Shell and tube exchangers: Used for all applications.
3. 3.Plate and frame exchangers(plate heat exchangers): Used for heating and cooling.
4. 4.Plate-fin exchangers
5. Spiral heat exchangers
6. Air-cooled : Coolers and Condensers
7. 7.Direct contact: Cooling and quenching.
8. 8.Agitated Vessels
9. Fired Heater

6.1.1.Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


Shell and tube heat exchangers in their various construction modifications are probably
the most widespread and commonly used basic heat exchanger configuration in the process
industries. The reasons for this general acceptance are several. The shell and tube heat
exchanger provides a comparitively large ratio of heat transfer area to volume and weight. It
provides this surface in a form which is relatively easy to consruct in a wide range of sizes and
which is mechanically rugged enough to withstand normal shop fabrication stresses, shipping
and field erection stresses, and normal operating conditions.
There are many modifications of the basic configuration which can be used to solve
special problems. The shell and tube heat exchanger can be reasonably easily cleaned, and those
componcents most subject to failure-gaskets and tubes- can be easily replaced. Finally, good
design methods exist, and the experise and shop facilities for the successful design and
construction of shell and tube are available throughout the world.[33]
6.1.2.Heat Exchanger Tube
The preferred lengths of tubes for heat exchangers are: 6 ft. (1.83 m), 8 ft (2.44 m), 12
ft (3.66 m), 16 ft (4.88 m) 20 ft (6.10 m), 24 ft (7.32 m). For a given surface area, the use of
longer tubes will reduce the shell diameter; which will generally result in a lower cost
exchanger, particularly for high shell pressures. The optimum tube length to shell diameter will
usually fall within the range of 5 to 10. If U- tubes are used, the tubes on the outside of the
bundle will be longer than those on the inside. The average length needs to be estimated for use
in the thermal design. U-tubes will be bent from standard tube lengths and cut to size [33]. The
pipe diameter will lead to increased costs in producing the desired size from the standard values
to be selected will be better than at the end of design of the product obtained.

98
6.1.3.Heat Exchanger Pitch and Layout
The standard length of tubes in a shell and tube heat exchanger is 8, 12, or 16 ft, and
these standard-length tubes are available in a variety of different diameters and wall thickness.
Exchangers with small diameter tubes are less expensive per square foot of heat transfer surface
than those with large diameter tubes, because a given surface can be fitted into a smaller shell
diameter; however, the small diameter tubes are more difficult to clean [35]. Tube diameter to
be used fluid property. If the fluid with a high dirty factors, maybe fluid can make blockages in
the small diameter.
Tube pitch is defined as the shortest center-to-center distance between adjacent tubes,
while the shortest distance between two tubes is designated as the clearance. In most shell and
tube exchangers, the pitch is in the range of 1.25 to 1.50 times the tube diameter. The clearance
should not be less than one-fourth of the tube diameter, and & in. is usually considered to be a
minimum clearance [34]

Figure 20 Figure 6. Number of tubes in convectional tube sheet layout [34]

6.1.4.Shells
The British standard BS 3274 covers exchangers from 6 in. (150 mm) to 42 in. (1067
mm) diameter; and the TEMA standards, exchangers up to 60 in. (1520 mm).
Up to about 24 in. (610 mm) shells are normally constructed from standard, close tolerance,
pipe; above 24 in. (610 mm) they are rolled from plate.For pressure applications the shell
thickness would be sized according to the pressure vessel design standards. The minimum
allowable shell thickness is given in BS 3274 and the TEMA standards. The shell diameter must
be selected to give as close a fit to the tube bundle as is practical; to reduce by passing round
the outside of the bundle. The clearance required between the outermost tubes in the bundle and

99
the shell inside diameter will depend on the type of exchanger and the manufacturing
tolerances.[33]
6.1.5.Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tubes,to increase the
fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer. The most commonly used type of baffle is
the single segmental baffle. Other types are; segmental and strip, disc and doughnut and
orifice.

figure 21. Types of baffle used in shell and tube heat exchangers
.
(a)Segmental (b) Segmental and strip (c) Disc and doughnut (d) Orifice [33].

6.2. CALCULATION OF HEATEXCHANGERS


Heat Exchanger Design Basis

For alkylation reactor feed temperature should be 170oC according to the alkylation reactor
energy balance. Normally feed temperature of stream which inlet reactor was 61oC , to
obtain the wanted conversion (0,99 ) we should provide the energy requirement so we must
use a heat exchanger. Reactor outlet stream is also feed stream of depropanizer and is 224oC.

100
Depropanizer feed temperature should be 80oC. So we have decided to use the shell and tube
heat exchanger.
Cold Flow
mcold,in=5,34kmol/min
mhot,in=3,56kmol/min
Q=nʃcpdT
170˚𝐶
Qbenzene=𝑛 ∫61 ˚𝐶 (−33.86 + 47.85 × 10−2 𝑇 − 30.14 × 10−5 𝑇 2 ) dT
170°𝐶 𝑇2 𝑇3
Qbenzene= 𝑛 ∫61°𝐶 −33.86T + 4.85 × 10−2 − 30.12 × 10−5
2 3
170˚𝐶
Qpropylene=∫61 ˚𝐶 (3.7 + 23.4 × 10−2 𝑇 − 11.58 × 10−5 𝑇 2 ) dT
170°𝐶 𝑇2 𝑇3
Qpropylene = ∫61°𝐶 (3.7 + 23.4 × 10−2 − 12.2 × 10−5 )
2 3

Q=Qbenzene+Qpropylene=400kj/s=400000 j/s
Qabsorbed = Qlost
𝑚̇×𝐶𝑝 ×∆𝑇=𝑚̇ 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑦 ×H
400000j/s= 𝑚̇ x H
(Ti=334K ,To=443K)
Hutility=2091 kj/kg (APP-2)
400=𝑚̇ 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑦×2091 kj/kg)
𝑚̇ 𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑦 = 0,2 kg/s
Assumption for overall coefficient value
U range is 100- 300 W/m2K
Assumption 250 W/m2K
T1= Hot fluid inlet temperature
T2=Hot fluid outle)t temperature
t1=Cold fluid inlet temperature
t2 =Cold fluid outlettemperature
T1= Hot fluid inlet temperature
∆Tlm=(∆T1 -∆T2)/ln(∆T1/∆T2)
=22,8 K
Q=U*A*∆TLm
400000 J/s = (250W/m2K)*A*(28,8K)
A = 45,5 m2
Selected 0,094 outside diameter(Do) and inside diameter(Di) 0,013 mm

101
Selected 1,5m tube lenght
Selected triangular

A=π*Do*L A = π*(0,019)(1,5m)*N = 45,5m2


N=667 tube trıangular N=745
So, for one tube one pass = 745
Tube cross sectional area = 𝜋 ×(D0)2/4 = 3,14x 0.0192/4 = 2,83*10*-4 m2
Total flow area of At =745× 2,83*10*-4 = 0,211 m2
V=11.72kg/s =0.58 m/s
𝑁𝑅𝑒 = (0.019𝑚)*(95,14kg/m3)*(0,58m/s)/ (3,7*10-5𝑃𝑎. 𝑠) = 28336
NRe=28336> 4000 Turbulant flow
Pr ➔ (3,7*10-5𝑃𝑎. 𝑠)*(95,14kg/m3)/43W/m2K) Pr=4,9*10-5
For turbulent flow , Jh= 0,1
Nu= Jh*Re*Pr0,33*(μ/μw)-0.14 , (μ/μw)-0.14≈1
Nu= 0,372
Nu=(ho*Di)/ K , ho= (0,372*43)/ 0,019
Ho= 841 W/(m2. ⁰C)
St.Pr2/3 = 1.80x ( D / L)1/3x(Re)-2/3
D=0.094 L = 1.5
Re =7933.6 St =0.100
Nu=St x Re x Pr = (7933.6)x(8.2x10-4)x(0.1) =0,58 h0=260
1/U = 1/hi + 1/ ho
U=198 Uasmp=250 ➔ % error = (250-198)/198 = %14 ➔ %14 < %30 acceptable
Pressure drop in the tube side;
Pt = Np ( 8 Jk( L/D ) ( /u)-0.14*2.5 + 2.5 )*  vt 2/ 2
Pt = 1 ( 8*0.1*( 1.5/ 0.019 )*0.11 -0.14*2.5 + 2.5 ) 98.14* (0.58)2 / 2 ➔0.4

Pt= Np ( 8 J ( L/D ) ( /u)-0.14*2.5 + 2.5 )*  vt 2/ 2


Pt = 1 ( 8*0.3*( 1.5/ 0.09 )*0.62 -0.14*2.5 + 2.5 ) (( 605)* (4.77*10-3)) / 3 ➔1.7

102
7. COST OF EQUIPMENTS

➢ Cost of Flash Distillation Column


D= 4m
H = 19,1 m
Purchased cost of column is 28000 $ (at Jan. 2002 ) [APP-]
Material adjustment factor: 3.0 (for Carbon Stell)
Pressure Adjustment factor: 4.6
(CColumn )2002 = (28000 $) ∗ 3.0 ∗ 4.6 = 386 400 $

CEPCI2016
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (CColumn )2002
CEPCI2002

645.3
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (386 400 $) = 569 929 $ [APP]
437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Trays


Tray Number : 20
Cost per tray is 800 $ ( at Jan. 2002, for Sieve trays , carbon steel) [APP]
(CTrays ) = (800 $) ∗ 1 = 800 $
2002

645.3
(CTrays ) = ( ) (800 $) = 1779 $ [APP]
2016 437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Distillation Column = 569 929 + 1779 $ = 571708 $


➢ Cost of Continues Distillation Column
D = 1,58 m
H = 13,04 m
Purchased cost of column is 28000 $ (at Jan. 2002 ) [APP]
Material adjustment factor: 3.0 (for Carbon Stell)
Pressure Adjustment factor: 4.6
(CColumn )2002 = (28000 $) ∗ 3.0 ∗ 4.6 = 386 400 $

CEPCI2016
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (CColumn )2002
CEPCI2002

645.3
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (386 400 $) = 569 929 $ [APP]
437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Trays

103
Tray Number : 20
Cost per tray is 800 $ ( at Jan. 2002, for Sieve trays , carbon steel) [APP]
(CTrays ) = (800 $) ∗ 25 = 20000 $
2002

645.3
(CTrays ) = ( ) (20000$) = 29910 $ [APP]
2016 437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Distillation Column = 569 929 + 29910$ = 599839 $

Cost of Condenser
A= 0,0025 m2
➢ Purchased cost of condenser is 10100 $ (at Jan. 2002, for 304 carbon stell) [APP]
558.9
(CCondenser )2016 = ( ) (10100 $) = 19816 $ [APP]
356.9

Cost of Reboiler
Q = 21387 kW A=4m2

➢ Purchased cost of reboiler is 1300 $ (at Jan. 2002, for carbon stell tube and shell from)
[APP-15d]
558.9
(CReboiler )2016 = ( ) (1300 $) = 2035 $ [APP]
356.9

Cost of Pumps
• Purchased Cost of Pump (P-101)
Pump Power = 753 W
m3
Capacity = 2.07 ∗ 10−3 s

Purchased cost for P-101 pump is 2002 $. (at Jan. 2002, for centrifugal pump) [APP]

Material adjustment factor: 2.4 (for carbon stell)

(CPump1 ) = (2000 $) ∗ 2.4 = 4800 $


2002
970.1
(CPump1 ) = ( ) 4800 = 6660 $ [APP−]
2016 699.2

➢ Cost of Cumene Distillation Column


D = 6,67 m

104
H = 1,9 m
Purchased cost of column is 20000 $ (at Jan. 2002 ) [APP-]
Material adjustment factor: 3.0 (for carbon Stell)
Pressure Adjustment factor: 4.6

CEPCI2016
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (CColumn )2002
CEPCI2002

645.3
(CColumn )2016 = ( ) (27600 $) = 407090 $ [APP−]
437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Trays


Tray Number : 20
Cost per tray is 800 $ ( at Jan. 2002, for Sieve trays , carbon steel) [APP−]
(CTrays ) = (800 $) ∗ 11 = 8800 $
2002

645.3
(CTrays ) = ( ) (8800$) = 12979 $ [APP−]
2016 437.5

➢ Purchased Cost of Distillation Column = 407090 + 12979$ = 420069 $

Cost of Condenser
A= 3,5 m2
➢ Purchased cost of condenser is 10100 $ (at Jan. 2002, for 304 carbon stell) [APP-]
558.9
(CCondenser )2016 = ( ) (1000 $) = 1565,9 $ [APP−] Cost of Reboiler 102
356.9

Q = 2,24 kW A=2,25m2

➢ Purchased cost of reboiler is 1300 $ (at Jan. 2002, for carbon stell tube and shell from)
[APP-15d]
558.9
(CReboiler )2016 = ( ) (1300 $) = 2040 $ [APP−]
356.9

Cost of Pumps
• Purchased Cost of Pump (P-102)
Pump Power = 3,04kW
Purchased cost for P-101 pump is1200 $. (at Jan. 2002, for centrifugal pump) [APP−]

Material adjustment factor: 2.4 (for carbon stell)

105
970.1
(CPump2 ) = ( ) 1200 = 1664 $ [APP−]
2016 699.2
Table 31 Total Cost of Distillation Column

Flash Distillation 387580$

Continues Distillation 406400$

Continues Distillation 420069$

Condenser C-101 = 15816 $


C-102 = 1565,9 $
Reboiler R-101 = 2035 $
R-102 =2040 $
Pump P-101 = 6660 $
P-102 = 1664 $

106
8. DISCUSSION
In order to be able to realize cumene production, appropriate operating conditions were

decided and equipment designs were made. The weather conditions of Izmir are taken into

consideration in the design of the tank. The hottest weather conditions have been taken into

account because of the risk of evaporation in the tank. The storage tank type is determined

according to the evaporation risk. Accident risk should be avoided in the storage tank. If

evaporation occurs the boss falls into financial diffuculties.

prevent temperature increase. Residence time is 2 days for propylene tank, and 7 days for
benzene tank tank because If the residence time is kept too long, the

tank volume increases so, the cost increases and If the residence type is kept too short, the

entire process stops when an accident occurs. Safety factor is %10 (for height). The safety

factor is taken so that there is no explosion.

In the reactors (R-101 and R-102), is liquid phase.

Alkylation reactor and transalkylation reactor was selected fixed bed.

Fixed bed reactor is suitable for reactor type selection because CSTR volume is big.

This means high cost. The results calculated for each reactor fall within the appropriate ranges

in the limitations found. This indicates that there is no problem in reactor design.

Determination of the material structure of the reactors has taken into account pH ranges and

corrosion overrun.

R-101 and R-102 are carbn steel, while R-102 is carbon steel.

When the distillation design is started, the first column is multicomponent, the second

column is vacuum distillation and this is more dangerous than distillation operating at high

pressure. However, vacuum distillation is necessary for we can not distinguish the cumene

hydroperoxide from the cumene near the boiling points. Even small air entry into this

distillation column is even dangerous. This is the end result Cumene and Alphamethyl

107
styrene’s quality drop, volatility is reduced. The third and fourth distillation columns are also

multicomponent. The fifth column is binary distillation.

. Corrosiveness

is very important for sieve tray. Sieve tray is a more sensible choice than other tray variants in

terms of gas distribution and cheapness. The final distillation column has a H / D ratio of 6,

which is not high. The colony should not be too long and upright because there is a risk of

overturning. In this case, 20 km wind load has been taken into account when we plant the

factory in İzmir. The results calculated for each distillation fall within the appropriate ranges

in the restrictions found. This indicates that there is no problem in distillation design.

Determination of the material structure of the distillations has taken into account pH ranges

and corrosion.

When the distillation design is started, the first, second and third column is multicomponent.

The colony should not be too long and upright because there is a risk of

overturning.

In this case, 20 km wind load has been taken into account when we plant the

factory in İzmir. The results calculated for each distillation fall within the appropriate ranges

in the restrictions found. This indicates that there is no problem in distillation design.

Determination of the material structure of the distillations has taken into account pH ranges

and corrosion, so material constructions are carbon steel.

Heat exchanger design tube use; It is not used in high pressure steam. It may cause

jamming in the tubes and therefore the tubes may be thrown out. It is more necessary to use U

tube in the low pressure.

Cooling water is cheaper than other materials. But pre-purification is a serious cost..

The heat exchanger design must always pass through the corrosive material shell.

108
109
9. RESULTS

Figure 22 Flow Diagram for Mobile Badger

110
10. CONCLUSION
Main and auxiliary equipments are prepared to product 100 thousand tone cumene per year by
Mobil Badger process. Heat exchangers, reactors, storage tanks, distillation column units are
designed for Mobil Badger process to produce cumene. For this aim, material balance, energy
balance are used to find storage tank sizes (h/d ratio), stream temperatures, reactors sizes,
distillation columns sizes, heat transfer area, heat transfer coefficient. Also all of the
equipment cost have calculated. Materials of constructions for the system equipment are
decided as carbon steel because of the non corosive materials.

For alkylation reactor while reactor’s outlet temperature were selecting , XA-T graph was
drawed to obtaine 99% conversion. The temperature is close to equilibrium curve was
selected because of the less volume and outlet temperature was decided as 224oC. Reactor
inlet temperature was calculated using the energy balance for first reactor and was found
150oC. Benzene to propylene feed ratio is 2:1. Reactor volume was calculated as 17,2 m3 and
catalyst volume was found 8,2m3. H/D ratio is selected as 3. Reactor diameter is 2,7m, reactor
height is 8,1m. Because of the reaction which placed in alkylation reactor is exothermic,
thermal run away probability is high.Reactor inlet pressure increases with temperature
increasing and exploses. So reactor thicknes was decided as 53mm according to the reactor
pressure,high pressure 35 atm. Reactor cost was calculated 136472,25$.

For transalkylation reactor while reactor’s outlet temperature were selecting again XA-T
graph was drawed to obtain 55% conversion. Reaction which placed in transalkylation reactor
is endothermic.According to the XA-T graph outlet temperature was found 170oC. Reactor
inlet temperature is 150oC.Reactor operational pressure is 35 atm. DIPB to Benzene feed ratio
is 1:1. Reactor volume is 14,25m3,catalyst volume is 7,12 m3. H/D ratio is selected as 3.
Reactor diameter was found 1,82m, reactor height was found 5,46 m. Reactor cost was
calculated 47100$.

To obtaine the product on want purity 4 seperation units were used.These are flash
distillation,benzene column,cumene column and diisopropylbenzene column.These units’
seperation degrees are 0,99.Distillation column pressure was selected close to athmosperical
pressure because of the decomposition temperature of the materials are higher than boiling
temperature of the materials. Feed phase was selected saturated vapor for distillation
columns. Condensers were selected as partial,reboilars as total.

111
Type of heat exchanger which use on the process is shell and tube to recovery the energy of
process stream.Storage tanks are optimized and their cost are calculated.Propylene is stored in
spherical tank and benzene is stored cylindrical tank. Cumene is stored in internal floating
roof cylindrical tank.

At the result of investigations and calculations have discussed. Acceptability of theinvestment


was decided according to all of the optimization methods for cumene production to feed
preparation units have made a decision.

112
11. REFERANCES
[1] DAVID,R.L.,CRC HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS,87TH
EDITION,TAYLOR&FRANCIS GROUP,2006. & nistwebbook & cameochemicals & wiki-
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[2] Sinnott, R.,K., “Chemical Engineering Design”, 4th Ed, Butterworth-Heinemann,
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[3] Kirk - Othmer D., “Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology”, 3rd Ed., John Wiley, New
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[6] https://ch-msds.shell.com/MSDS/000000000733_CA_EN.pdf
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[10]https://www2.iccsafe.org/states/Virginia/Fire_Prevention/PDFs/Chapter%2034_Flammab
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[12] http://www.ambrsoft.com/CalcPhysics/Density/Table_2.htm
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[14] Masi,M., ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF HYDROCARBONS, VOLUME V/ INSTRUMENTS,
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[15] buble column reactor design, Levelspiel
[16] KINETICS OF LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION OF CUMENE IN BUBBLE COLUMN"
KAZUO HATTORI, YUJI TANAKA, HIROYUKI SUZUKI, TSUNEO IKAWA AND
HIROSHI KUBOTA, p-75, eq-16.

[17] Harriott,P.,Chemical Reactor Design,Chemical Industries, CRC Press, 2002.


[18] Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide M.E. Levin , N.O. Gonzales
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[19] Mann,U., Principles of Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design_ New Tools for Industrial
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113
[20] Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry, vols. 1 to 39.
[21] Germain, A. H.; Lefebvre, A. G.; L’Homme, G. A. Experimental Study of a Catalytic
Trickle-Bed Reactor. Chem. React. Eng. 1974, II, Chapter 13, 164.
100 𝑚2
[22] Trickle Bed Reactor kısmında a = 3500 𝑚3 (Rule of thumb)

[23]Timmerhaus, K. D., West R., E., Peters M., S., Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineers”, 5th Edition, New York, 2004.
[24] https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-azeotrope-605826
[25] Walas, S.M., “Chemical Process Equipment - Selection and Design”, 1st ed., Butterworth-
Heinemann publications, Reed Publishing USA, 1990.

[26] Uysal, B.Z., Akışkanlar Mekaniği, Alp Yayınevi, 2nd Edition, October 2006.
[27] https://tr.scribd.com/document/260243433/HAZOP-reactor-Autosaved-docx
[28] Zakoshanskii, V. M. , Koshelev, Yu. N., Alternative Methods of Processing of α-
Methylstyrene: Hydrogenation into Cumene and Isolation as Commercial Product, Russian
Journal of General Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 79, No. 6, pp. 1355–1360.

[29] http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/385604
[30] https://tr.scribd.com/doc/133240775/REAKTOR-TASARIMI
[31]https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/ets/allowances/docs/bm_study-
chemicals_en.pdf
[32]https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=JRJBAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA539&lpg=PA539&dq=
acetophenone+corrosion+rate&source=bl&ots=4MnUdygkeY&sig=APCZosUmVxOeDyGX
MMqZQdhcAKU&hl=tr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjL66LF-
dfaAhXGJJoKHSU6A38Q6AEIOjAD#v=onepage&q=acetophenone%20corrosion%20rate&f
=false
[33] Sinnott, R.,K., ‘’Chemical Engineering Design’’, 4th Edition,Elsevier Butterworth-

Heinemann, Amsterdam, 2005

[34] Peters M.S., Timmerhaus K.D., “Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers”,
McGraw-Hill, International Student Ed., Singapore, 1981.

[35] Green D.W., Perry R.H., 2008, “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook”, Eighth Ed.,
The McGraw-Hill Companies,NewYork.

[36] https://www.corrosionpedia.com/definition/1005/saturated-steam

114
[37] https://www.quora.com/When-we-use-triangular-pitch-and-when-we-use-
square- pitch-in-a-heat-exchanger

115
12. APPENDIXES
Appendix A
1.Tank selection criteria A simplified example of tank selection by fluid stored is
shown in the table below.
Table : Storage Tank labeling

Key: A = atmospheric, less than 0.5 psig L = low pressure, less than 15 psig but greater than
0.3 psig H = high pressure, greater than 15 psig
(Myers, Philip E., Aboveground Storage Tanks, Ecology and Environment, 1982)

2.Joint Efficiency

116
Appendix B

117
Appendix 3

Chart forestimating values Csb [2]

118
Appendix 4

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient [3]

119
Appendix 5

Steel Pipe Dimensions [2]

120
Appendix 6

Friction Factors for Turbulent Flow Through Valves and Fittings [2]

121
Appendix 7

Fanning Friction Factors for Long, Straight Pipes [2]

122
Appendix 8

Purchased cost of vertical column

123
Appendix 9

Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index [4]

124
Appendix 10

Purchased cost of Condenser

125
Appendix 11

Purchased cost of Reboiler

126
Appendix 12

Purchased cost of Pumps

127