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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi




Electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range Microwaves

from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more.

The wavelengths for microwave frequencies, which is 1 cm and 60 cm slightly

than infrared energy. longer

The name given to microwave signals, because of

“Microwave” waves
3) their inherently high frequencies, have short

Each frequency is divided in half with the lower half

Full-Duplex (Two-way)
4) identified as the low band and the upper half as
narrow band.

Communications system used to carry information

for relatively short distances such as between cities Short Haul
the same state.

Microwave systems that is used to carry information

Long Haul
6) for relatively long distances, such as interstate and
backbone route applications.

7) Microwave Radios
It propagate signals through Earth’s
atmosphere between transmitters and receivers
often located on top of tower spaced about 15 miles
to 30 miles apart.

Advantages of Microwave Radio:

 Radio systems do not require a right-of
way acquisition between

 Each station requires the purchase or
lease ofonly a small area of land.
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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

 Because of their high operating

frequencies, microwave radio systems
can carry large quantities of
 High frequencies mean short
wavelengths, which require relatively
small antennas.
 Radio signals are more easily
propagated around physical obstacles
such as water and high mountains
 Fewer repeaters are necessary for
 Distances between switching centers
are less.
 Underground facilities are minimized.
 Minimum delays are introduced.
 Minimal crosstalk exists between voice
 Increased reliability and less
maintenance are important factors.

Disadvantages of Microwave Radio:

 It is more difficult to analyze and design
circuits at microwave frequencies.
 Measuring techniques are more difficult
to perfect
and implement at microwave
 It is difficult to implement conventional
circuit components at microwave
 Transient time is more critical at
microwave frequencies.
 It is often necessary to use specialized
components for microwave frequencies.
 Microwave frequencies propagate in a
straight line, which limits their use to
line-of-sight applications.

Propagates signals outside the Earth’s atmosphere

and are capable of carrying signals much farther Satellite Systems
utilizing fewer transmitters and receivers.

9) Frequency Modulation
It is used in microwave radio systems rather than
amplitude modulation because AM signals are more

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

sensitive to amplitude nonlinearities inherent in

wide-band microwave amplifiers.

Major factor when designing FM Radio systems. It is

10 caused by repeater amplitude nonlinearity in AM, Intermodulation Noise
) while in FM, it is caused by transmission gain and
delay distortion.

The composite signal that modulates the FM carrier

and may comprise one or more of the following:

 Frequency-division multiplexed voice-

11 band channels Baseband
)  Time-division-multiplexed voice-band
 Broadcast-quality composite video or
picture phone
 Wideband data

It provides an artificial boost in amplitude to the

12 Preemphasis Network
higher baseband frequencies.

Frequency modulation index used in the FM deviator.

13 Low-Index
Typically, modulation indices are kept between 0.5
and 1.

14 FM signal that is produces at the output of the Narrowband FM

) deviator with a low-index frequency modulation.

15 A receiver and a transmitter placed back to back or

Microwave Repeaters
) in tandem with the system.

16 Repeater Station
) It receives a signal, amplifies and reshapes it, and
then retransmit the signal to the next repeater or
station down line from it.
Types of Microwave repeaters:
 IF
 Baseband
 RF

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

The received RF carrier is down-converted to an IF

17 IF Repeater
frequency, amplified, reshaped, up-converted to an
RF frequency, and then retransmitted.

18 Baseband Frequencies
Generally less than 9 MHz.
19 IF frequencies
The range id 60 MHz to 80MHz.

Another name for a Local oscillator, is considerably

20 lower in frequency than either the received or the Shift Oscillator
transmitted radio frequencies.

Transmission used by microwave systems wherein a

direct signal path must exist between the transmit Line-of Site Transmission
receive antennas.

22 A temporary reduction in signal strength which last Radio Fade

) in milliseconds for several hours or even days.

It suggests that there is more than one transmission

23 path or method of transmission available a Diversity
) transmitter
and a receiver.

It is simply modulating two different RF carrier

24 Frequency Diversity
frequencies with the same IF intelligence, then
transmitting both RF signals to a given destination.

The output of a transmitter is fed to two or more

25 Space Diversity
antennas that are physically separated by an
appreciable number of wavelengths.

26 Polarization Diversity
) A single RF carrier is propagated with two different
electromagnetic polarizations. It is generally used in
conjunction with space diversity.

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

It is more than one receiver for a single radio-

27 frequency channel. With frequency diversity, it is Receiver Diversity
) necessary to also use receiver diversity because
each transmitted frequency requires its own receiver

Another form of Hybrid diversity and undoubtly

28 provides the most reliable transmission but most
Quad Diversity
) expensive. It combines frequency, space,
polarization and receiver diversity into one system.

A specialized form of diversity that consist of a

standard frequency diversity path where the two
29 transmitter/ receiver pairs at one end of the path are Hybrid Diversity
) separated from each other and connected to
different antennas that are vertically separated as in
space diversity.

Alternate facilities temporarily made to avoid a

service interruption during periods of deep fades or
failures. Protection Switching
) types of protection switching arrangements:
 hotstandby
 diversity

30 Each working radio channel has a dedicated backup

Hot Standby Protection
) or spare channel.

31 A single backup channel is made available to as Diversity Protection

) many as 11 working channels.

In hotstandby protection, it splits the signal power

32 Head-End Bridge
and directs it to the working and the spare (standby)
microwave channels simultaneously.

33 Diversity Protection
It has two working channels, one spare
channel, and an auxiliary channel.

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

34 A low-capacity low-power microwave radio that is Auxilliary Channel

) designed to be used for a maintenance channel only.

Reliability Objectives
35 It is where the number of repeater stations between
of the Systems
) protection switches depends.

Points in the system where baseband signals either

originate or terminate.
four major sections:
 baseband Terminal Stations
 wireline entrance link (WLEL)
 RF sections

Points in a system where baseband signals may be

37 Repeater Stations
reconfigured or where RF carriers are simply
“repeated” or amplified.

Stands for WireLine Entrance Link, it serves as the

interface between the multiplex terminal equipment
and the FM_IF equipment.

A balanced modulator that, when used in conjunction

with a microwave generator, power amplifier, and
39 Transmod
band-pass filter, up-converts the IF carrier to an RF
carrier and amplifies the RF to the desired output

It must be capable of amplifying very high

frequencies and passing very wide bandwidth signals
for microwave radios.

devices used in microwaveamplifiers:

40 Power Amplifiers
 Klystron Tubes
 Traveling-wave tubes (TWTs)
 IMPATT (Impact avalanche and transit

41 Microwave Generator

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

It provides the RF carrier input to the up-converter. It

is called as microwave generator rather than an
) oscillator because it is difficult to construct a stable
circuit that will oscillate in the gigahertz range.

It operates in the range 5 MHz to 25 MHz, used to Crystal-controlled

provide a base frequency that is multiplied up to the Oscillator
desired RF carrier frequency.

A unidirectional device often made from ferrite

material. It used in conjunction with a channel-
43 Isolator
combining network to prevent the output of one
transmitter from interfering with the output of
another transmitter.

44 Stands for Automatic Gain Control, is a circuit in an AGC

) IF amplifier.

45 It occurs only when three stations are placed in a

Multi-hop Interference
) geographical straight line in the system.

It prevents the power that “leaks” out the back and

46 sides of a transmit antenna from interfering with the
) signal entering the input of a nearby receive

47 The signal entering the input of a nearby receive Ring around

) antenna.

48 It means that this channels are propagated with V Channels

) vertical polarization.

49 The line-of-sight directly between the transmit and Free-Space Path

) receive antenna. Also called as the Direct Wave.

50 It consists of the electric and magnetic fields Surface Wave

) associated with the currents induced in earth’s
51 Ground-Reflected Wave

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

The portion of the transmit signal that is reflected off

Earth’s surface and captured by the receive

The portion of the transmit signal that is returned

52 Sky Wave
back to Earth’s surface by the ionized layers of
earth’s atmosphere.

The loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as it

53 propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with Free-Space Path Loss
) no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby

A phenomenon wherein electromagnetic energy is

54 Spreading Loss
spread out as it propagates away from the source
resulting in lower relative power densities.

The reduction in signal strength at the

55 Fading
input to a receiver.

The difference between the nominal output power of

a transmitter and the minimum input power to a
56 System Gain
receiver necessary to achieve satisfactory

Sometimes called as Link Margin, is essentially a

“fudge Factor” included in system gain equations
57 Fade Margin
that considers the non ideal and less predictable
characteristics of radio wave propagation and terrain

He described ways of calculating outage time due to

fading on a non diversity path as a function of
58 W.T. Barnett
terrain, climate, path length, and fade margin, in
April 1969.

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Communications System By
Wayne Tomasi

From Bell Laboratories, he derived formulas for

59 calculating the effective improvement achievable by Arvids Vignant
) vertical space diversity as a function of the spacing
distance, path length, and frequency in June 1970.

60 The ratio of the wideband “carrier” to the wideband
Ratio (C/N)
) noise power.

Also called Receiver Sensitivity, is the minimum wide

61 Receiver Threshold
band carrier power at the input to a receiver that will
provide a usable baseband output.

Pre-detection Signal to-

Noise Ratio
) The carrier-to-noise ratio before the FM demodulator.

63 Postdetection Signal-
) The carrier-to-noise ratio after the FM demodulator. to-Noise Ratio

64 A ratio of input signal-to-noise ratio to output signal Noise Factor (F)

) to noise ratio.

65 The noise factor stated in dB and is a parameter Noise Figure

) commonly used to indicate the quality of a receiver.

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