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To study the operation of micro controller based over current relay using
transformer protection kit.

1. Transformer protection kit
2. Rheostat 100ohm / 10A
3. Power chords
4. 15A patch chord

Over current protection of a transformer is a backup protection to the differential
protections when it is used and it also performs as a primary short circuit protection when
the differential protection is not used for small transformers. It also acts for through faults
for the transformer as a back up to protection relays on the load side of the transformer.
Causes of over current in transformer:
If any internal fault occurs like short circuit or ground fault there will be over current
flow through the transformer windings from the source. Normally, if the differential relay
used, it will detect the fault and it operates and safeguards the device. If it is not used then
over current relay operates and safe guards the device.
Over current may occur due to over loading of the transformer i.e. suddenly if an
extra high rating motor is loaded on transformer secondary then there will high motor
starting current which increases transformer secondary current. Due to this transformer
primary current also increases which increases the heat and may damage the transformer. If
any short circuit occurs in the load side and if it is not cleared by the downstream
protections then also over current may occur in the transformer windings.
Operation of over current relay:
The connection diagram of over current relay for a three windings transformer with
each phase consists of one over current relay. I.e. on each phase a current transformer is
mounted, and the CT output is compared with the threshold setting value.
In transformers below 10MVA, normally fuses are used for over current protection.
Time over current relays (50) or instantaneous relays (51) are used for over protection of
transformers and in some high-power applications both are used with instantaneous
protection as back up to time over current with higher setting value. The setting of these
fuses and over current relays depends on the thermal balance of the transformer core and
tank. The relay settings will be chosen below the thermal balance of transformer and
transformer magnetization current rating is also taken in to consideration.
The time over current (IDMT) relay is normally set for operation at about 150% of
the rated current of the transformer. The time delay must be long enough to avoid tripping
due to the magnetizing in rush current when the transformer is energized. Time selectively
must also be attained between the relays on the primary and secondary side of the
The instantaneous element has to be set about 25% above the maximum through fault
current and above the maximum in rush current with this setting, instantaneous tripping is
only obtained for severe faults on the feeding side of the transformer. There can, for
example be faults on the transformer winding close to the bushing, faults or on the circuits
between the CTs and the transformer.

1. Connection should be given as per the circuit diagram.
2. Connect the EB supply terminal (R, Y, B, N) to the (R, Y, B, N) input terminals
of 3 phase auto transformer.
3. Connect the (R, Y, B, N) output terminals of 3 phase auto transformer to the (R,
Y, B, N) input of transformer protection kit.
4. Connect the (R, Y, B, N) input of the module to the transformer (R, Y, B, N) 3
phase AC input terminal of transformer protection module.
5. Connect the transformer-1 secondary neutral terminals (black) together and
connect them to the N terminal output.
6. Connect the transformer-1 secondary red, yellow, blue colour terminals to the R,
Y, B terminals.
7. Connect the transformer-1 output terminals (R, Y, B) to the transformer-2 input
terminals (R, Y, B).
8. Connect the transformer-2 primary neutral terminal (black) together.
9. Connect the R, Y and B terminals to any one of red, yellow and blue colour
tapping of transformer-2 primary.
10. Connect the transformer-2 secondary neutral terminals (black) together and
connect them to the neutral (N) terminal.
11. Connect the R terminals to anyone red colour tapping of transformer-2
12. Connect the Y terminal to anyone yellow colour tapping of transformer-2
13. Connect the B terminal to anyone blue colour tapping of transformer-2
14. Connect the 3 phase load R terminal of transformer protection module to one
end of rheostat.
15. Connect the other end of the rheostat to the 3 phase load N terminal of
transformer protection module.

Thus the operation of micro controller based over current relay using transformer
protection kit was studied and verified successfully.