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Session -1

PEMP- AME501

CAE an Introduction

Session Speaker Mr. Umesh S.

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Session Objectives

At the end of the session, the delegate would have understood about –

– CAE Systems and its components

– Product development cycle and the role of computers in product development

– The need for product data management in a modern design and manufacturing cycle

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Computer Aided Engineering

• Why CAE ?

• Need of new technology based on Computer aid

– In today’s competitive world, industries can not survive unless they introduce new products –

• With better quality

• At lower costs

• With shorter lead time

– Traditional engineering and production tasks are cumbersome and there is no

integration, Hence need for modern technologies to be adopted to achieve the goal

– The modern computers have:

• Large memory capacity

• High computing speeds

• User-friendly capabilities

• Affordable

• Communication facilities and so on…

– These systems help achieve the goals using new technologies

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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• Introduction

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– CAE is the performance of engineering tasks or functions with the aid of a computer.

– The greatest impact of CAE has been in engineering drawing/ modelling. It gives us a great savings on time in 3D modeling.

• The abilities of the computer in CAE

Analysis

Powerful, rapid & accurate numerical analysis

Data handling

Storage, management and rapid access of large amount of data

Error handling

Logical and systematic approach to error detection

Communication

Rapid and accurate reproduction and transmission of data

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Engineering

The Computer and Engineer

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Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore
Engineering The Computer and Engineer PEMP- AME501  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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• Why CAE ?

PEMP- AME501

– With the assistance of computer and these aid or tools can be categorized into four main areas.

– Drafting & Design, Modelling & Analysis, Production Planning & Control, Manufacturing

– CAE techniques provide the means to cope with the demand for

increased productivity of more sophisticated and reliable product

design and manufacture.

Modern Days Demands Sophisticat Greater ed productivity designs The computer aided solution
Modern Days Demands
Sophisticat
Greater
ed
productivity
designs
The computer
aided solution

• What CAE needs

– Good system design

– Efficient and reliable hardware

– Effective usable software

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• Universal CAE software model

PEMP- AME501 • Universal CAE software model  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Computer Aided Engineering

• The Categorization of CAE

– The mechanical / manufacturing engineers use it for a variety of activities

– There is a computer assisted means for all of these: design, numerical methods, analysis techniques, manufacturing techniques, organization planning, control

– Three dimensional modeling provides geometric and mathematical description

– Used for analysis, design optimization, simulation, rapid prototyping, manufacturing

– 3D model ties with the extensive use of FEM, makes possible interactive simulation such as stress analysis, fluid flow, kinematics.

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Computer Aided Engineering

• The Categorization of CAE

– In CAE, the data can flow electronically between the departments and the whole operations can be monitored and controlled.

– Computer extends the designers’ capabilities: Organizing & handling time consuming operations, Repetitive operations, Analyse complex problems

– Modern information handling: Enterprise-Requirement Planning (ERP), Product Data Management (PDM), Component and supplier management (CSM)

– The assistance of computer, the aids or tools of CAE can be grouped to FOUR main areas.

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Engineering

• The Categorization of CAE

– There is overlaps and can not be isolated. They depend on departments. The trend is to adapt concurrent engineering.

– The link between the areas of draughting and design, modeling and analysis is very strong

of draughting and design, modeling and analysis is very strong  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Engineering

• Non-computer aided environment

– Modelling is carried out by production of physical model of component; analysis by use of prototypes in laboratory tests

• Computer aided environment

– CADD systems provides 3D models for these purposes and generate 2D drawing for manufacturing

– checking for interference between parts on an assembly

– calculations of surface area and mass properties

– Stress analysis on components are carried out by the use of numerical methods such as FEA

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Role of CAE in Product Development

Product Development Cycle

The product development life cycle is a sequence of all the required activities that a company must perform to develop, manufacture, and sell a product. These activities include marketing, research, engineering design, quality assurance, manufacturing, and a whole chain of suppliers and vendors. The process also comprises all strategic planning, capital investments, management decisions, and tasks necessary to create a new product.

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Role of CAE in Product Development

An important part of product development is the engineering design process, which can be defined as the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.

Engineering design consists of several sequential and/or parallel activities that begin with identifying a need and conclude with a ready-to-manufacture product (prototype).

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Role of CAE in Product Development

The Evolution of Product Development

Product development is evolving from a sequential process carried out primarily by engineers to an integrated process incorporating a cross functional team. Similar steps are followed in either case, but they are accomplished concurrently and with higher speed in the integrated process

environment. Four logical groups of activities can be identified in product development:

1.Identifying an opportunity or demand for a new product

2. Creating the technical specifications for the new-product idea

3. Developing the manufacturing process to produce the new product

4. Fabricating the new product

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Role of CAE in Product Development

Sequential Product Development In the traditional development environment, each of the four logical groups occurs sequentially.

each of the four logical groups occurs sequentially. Figure: Sequential Product Development  M.S Ramaiah

Figure: Sequential Product Development

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

© M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

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Role of CAE in PD

Simultaneous/Integrated Product Development

The main disadvantage of the sequential method is the weakness of links between the functional departments that should be cooperating to develop a new product.

To overcome this weakness, it is necessary to change the steps of development into a more simultaneous and less sequential process, as illustrated in Figure.

The change of the development steps from sequential into simultaneous can be facilitated by the use of the concurrent engineering (CE) philosophy.

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Role of CAE in PD

Concurrent engineering can be defined as an integrated and systematic approach to the design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing, testing, and services.

Concurrent engineering improves quality, reduces costs, compresses cycle times, increases flexibility, and raises productivity as well as efficiency.

flexibility, and raises productivity as well as efficiency. Figure: Simultaneous/Integrated Product Development  M.S

Figure: Simultaneous/Integrated Product Development

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PEMP- AME501 Figure: An integrated approach to product design  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Figure: An integrated approach to product design

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PEMP- AME501

Role of CAE in PD

PEMP- AME501 Role of CAE in PD  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Role of CAE in PD

• CAE in the product development process

Role of CAE in PD • CAE in the product development process  M.S Ramaiah School

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Role of CAE in PD

 

Terms in CAE

 

CADD CAM CAPP CIM CMM FAS FMS MDA MRP PLC DFA CNC DNC

Computer Aided Design & Drafting Computer Aided Manufacturing Computer Aided Process Planning Computer Integrated Manufacturing Coordinate Measuring Machine Flexible Assembly Systems Flexible Manufacturing Systems Mechanism Design Analysis Materials Requirement Planning Programmable Logic Controller Design for Assembly/Automation Computer Numerical Control Direct/Distributed Numerical Control

CAD

Computer Aided Design Just In Time Local Area Network Finite Element Analysis

JIT

LAN

FEA

FDA

BOM

Finite Difference Analysis Bill Of Materials

   

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Role of CAE in PD

• Elements of CAE

Draughting and Design CADD DFA CADCAM link to CAM

Modelling & Analysis FEA, FDA - Mechanism design, dynamic analysis, discrete event simulation, continuous simulation

CAE

 

Manufacture

 

CAM

Production planning & control CAPP MRP BOM JIT (Production planning & control, scheduling, quality control)

CNC/DNC

PLC

CMM

FAS

FMS

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PEMP- AME501

• Implementation of a typical CAD and CAM process

PEMP- AME501 • Implementation of a typical CAD and CAM process  M.S Ramaiah School of

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Computer Aided Design

• CAD is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to assist in:

– Creation

– Modification

– Analysis

– And optimization of a design

– Modification – Analysis – And optimization of a design  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

Typical CAD Process

Definition of Geometric Model

Definition of Geometric Model Definition Translator

Definition

Translator

Definition of Geometric Model Definition Translator

Geometric

Modeling Interface Algorithm
Modeling
Interface
Algorithm

Design & Analysis Algorithm Drafting & Detailing

Geometric Modeling Interface Algorithm Design & Analysis Algorithm Drafting & Detailing
Geometric Modeling Interface Algorithm Design & Analysis Algorithm Drafting & Detailing

Documentation

Algorithm Drafting & Detailing Documentation To CAM process Design Changes  M.S Ramaiah School of

To CAM process

Drafting & Detailing Documentation To CAM process Design Changes  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Design

Changes

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• CAD

PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

– CAD is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to assist in Creation, Modification, Analysis and optimization of a design

• Computers in Design Process

– Some of the tools provided in a CAD environment are,

• Innovative and conceptual design

• Qualitative design analysis

• Structuring of parts (eg. assemblies)

• Knowledge based/intelligent design tools

• Engineering design information

• Optimization, Design interfaces, and tools

– Some applications are well suited to 2D CAD systems,

• PCBs (Printed Circuit Board Design)

• ICs (Integrated Circuit Design)

• Mapping (road maps, topographical maps)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

• CAD systems provide advantages such as,

– Visualization, Graphical display of hard to visualize information

– Minimizes design errors, Easy to change designs

– Standardized drawings, and documents

– Optimization, Faster lead time

– Customer perception is improved

– Productivity improvement over time

– Developing alternate concepts

– Evaluation of alternate concepts

– Analytical investigation of parts

– Experimental investigation

– Detailed drawings and specifications

– Preliminary ‘construction’ of design prototype

– Easy bridge to prototype construction

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

• CAD tools required to support the design process

Design phase

Required CAD tools

Design conceptualization

Geometric modeling techniques; graphics aids, manipulations, and visualization

Design modeling and simulation

Same as above; animation; assemblies; special modeling packages

Design analysis

Analysis packages; customized programs and packages

Design optimization

Customized applications; structural optimization

Design evaluation

Dimensioning; tolerances; BOM

Design communication and documentation

Drafting and detailing; shaded images

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

• Definition of CAD tools based on their constituents

(implementation in a design environment)

Hardware (central

unit, display terminals, input/output devices)

Design tools + computers Computer graphics concepts CAD tools Design tools (analysis, codes, heuristics, etc.)
Design tools
+ computers
Computer
graphics
concepts
CAD
tools
Design tools
(analysis,
codes,
heuristics,
etc.)
Geometric
modeling
(analysis, codes, heuristics, etc.) Geometric modeling Software (graphics, modeling, applications, programs) 

Software (graphics, modeling, applications, programs)

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

= CAD tools
=
CAD
tools

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

CADD

– There are hundreds of CADD programs available in the CADD industry today.

– CADD is an electronic tool that enables you to make quick and accurate drawings with the use of a computer.

– Unlike the traditional methods of making drawings on a drawing board, with CADD you can sit back in an easy chair and create wonderful drawings just by clicking the buttons of a keyboard.

– Moreover, drawings created with CADD have a number of advantages over drawings created on a drawing board.

– CADD drawings are neat, clean and highly presentable.

– Electronic drawings can be modified quite easily and can be presented in a variety of formats.

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Design

• What to Expect from CADD

– The following are some of the important capabilities that make CADD a powerful tool:

• Presentations

• Flexibility in editing

• Units & accuracy levels

• Sharing CADD drawings

• Storage and access for drawings

• Project reporting

• Engineering analysis

• Design

• Add-on programs

• Computer Aided Manufacturing

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Engineering

• CAE is the technology concerned with the use of computer systems to:

– Analyze CAD geometry

– Simulate

– And study how the product will behave so that the design can be refined and optimized

• CAE tools are available for wide variety of analysis.

• Some of them :

– Kinematic Programmes- to determine motion path and linkage velocities in mechanisms

– FEM - determines stress, deformation, heat transfer, magnetic field distribution and so on

– CFD – helps to study flow behavior of fluids in the systems with wide range of conditions

– And many more…

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Computer Aided Manufacturing

• CAM

– CAM is the technology that uses computers to:

• Plan, Manage, and Control the operations of manufacturing plant either direct/indirect computer

interface with plant’s production resources.

• CAM Planning areas

– Cost Estimating

– CAPP

– NC Part Programming

– Machinability Data Systems

– Computerized Work Standards

– Materials Requirement Planning

– Capacity Planning

– Production & Inventory Planning

• CAM Control areas

– Process Monitoring

– Process Control

– Shop Floor Control

– Cost Control

– Computer Aided Quality Control

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Manufacturing

• CAM tools required to support the manufacturing process

Manufacturing

Required CAM tools

phase

Process planning

CAPP techniques; cost analysis, material and tooling specification

Part programming

NC programming

Inspection

Inspection software

Assembly

Robotics simulation and programming

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Aided Manufacturing

Definition of CAM tools based on their constituents (implementation in a design environment)

Hardware (central unit, display terminals, input/output devices)

Software (CAD databases, NC, CAAP, MRP, etc.)

Networking Manufacturing tools + computers Concepts CAM tools Manufacturing CAD (Computer Aided Design) tools
Networking
Manufacturing
tools +
computers
Concepts
CAM
tools
Manufacturing
CAD
(Computer
Aided Design)
tools
(processes,
heuristics,
etc.)

=

CAM

tools

Design) tools (processes, heuristics, etc.) = CAM tools Networking (of robots, manufacturing cells, material

Networking (of robots, manufacturing cells, material handling systems, etc.)

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Computer Aided Manufacturing

Geometric

Geometric Model Interface Algorithm Process Planning NC Programme Inspection

Model

Interface

Algorithm

Geometric Model Interface Algorithm Process Planning NC Programme Inspection

Process

Geometric Model Interface Algorithm Process Planning NC Programme Inspection

Planning

NC Programme

Geometric Model Interface Algorithm Process Planning NC Programme Inspection

Inspection

Algorithm Process Planning NC Programme Inspection Assembly Packaging Typical CAM Process To shipping &

Assembly

Process Planning NC Programme Inspection Assembly Packaging Typical CAM Process To shipping & marketing

Packaging

Typical CAM Process

To shipping & marketing

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

• What is CAD/CAM

– Using computers for design and manufacturing to provide solutions to existing problems and to make business profitable.

– Computerize the tasks, which are tedious and mistake prone when done manually.

– In CAD, design product geometries, do analysis, and produce final documentation.

– In CAM, parts are planned for manufacturing (e.g. generating NC code), and then manufactured with the aid of computers.

– For example, analysis of a part under stress is much easier to do with FEM, than by equations, or by building prototypes.

– The systems are easy to interface with humans. This technology is proven, and has been a success for many companies.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Design tools (analysis, codes, heuristics, etc.) Computer Geometric graphics modeling CAD concepts CAM tools
Design tools
(analysis,
codes, heuristics,
etc.)
Computer
Geometric
graphics
modeling
CAD
concepts
CAM
tools
Manufacturing
tools
(processes,
heuristics,
Networking,
integration &
automation
concepts
etc.)

Definition of CAD/CAM tools based on their constituents (implementation in a design environment)

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

• CAD/CAM and CIM

– CAD/CAM is a collection of technologies which can be run independently, or connected. If connected they are commonly referred to as CIM.

– CAD/CAM involves the use of computers to make Design and Manufacturing more profitable.

– Parts of CIM use CAD/CAM techniques and products to try and make the factory fully connected using computers.

– The essential difference is CAD/CAM provides the tools, CIM is philosophy which is used for organizing computers, programs, etc. and all the information that flows between them.

– Another way to think of CIM is that it allows the structure of an organization to be entered into the computers.

– CIM focuses on connecting the various CAD/CAM modules.

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Need for Central Database

PEMP- AME501 Need for Central Database  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore 40

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CAM CAD (Plannin g) Factory Operati on CAM CIM (Contro l)
CAM
CAD
(Plannin
g)
Factory
Operati
on
CAM
CIM
(Contro
l)

• CIM

– CIM is a concept for integrating all components involved in the production of an item

– Integration media is through

– communication networks using LAN/WAN/INTERNET

technology

– The product cycle includes: idea generation, product design, procurement, process planning, product manufacture, quality control, packaging/shipping, after sales service

– The engineering functions including NC, CNC, DNC, CAD, CAM, GT, CAPP, RP, AGVs are integrated with business activities

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Islands of automation

– CAD, CAM and CAE are concerned with automating specific functions of the product cycle and making them more efficient

– These are implemented separately

– They have not fully realized the potential of integrating all activities

– CIM is aimed at integrating “islands of automation” in to a single system

– CIM is concerned with using computer database as a way to run an enterprise including:

• Engineering Design

• Production

• Accounting

• Scheduling

• Shipping

• And other management functions

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Using CAD/CAM/CAE Systems for Product Development – An Example

• Consider development of an injection molded component as an example.

• Various stages:

– Geometric modeling and styling from the concept

– Design analysis – Pre-processing, Finite Element analysis on FE model, Post-processing.

– Physical prototype building using Rapid Prototyping for aesthetic or functional evaluation of the design

– Part drawing – Automatic part drawing generation.

– Injection mold design- core, cavity and side cores designing using the CAD model data

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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Using CAD/CAM/CAE Systems for Product Development – An Example

– Mold Base selection – from the core, cavity and side core data, proper mold base can be selected from the standard mold base database

– Designing of gates, runners, cooling channels and other mold components

– Simulation to predict the mold flow behavior

– Heat transfer analysis to verify the cooling channels design

– CAM tool- to generate the tool path required to machine the cavity plate and core plate

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

CAD Hardware and Networking

Session speaker Mr. Umesh S.

PEMP- AME501

Session Objectives

At the end of the session, the delegate would have understood about

– The CAD/CAM system architecture

– The types of computer systems used in CAD/CAM implementations

– The main components of a PC based system and its configurations

– How to configure a system for CAD and its peripherals

– The role and importance of networking in CAD/CAM implementations

– Various components used in building a computer network and topologies

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

CAD/CAM/CAE System Architecture

• The system can be thought of as comprising:

Hardware – the computer and associated peripheral equipment

Software – the computer programme(s) running on the hardware

Data – the data structure created and manipulated by the software

Human knowledge and activities

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PEMP- AME501

CAD System Architecture

Model Defn. Manipulation Picture Gen INPUT OUTPUT Utilities Database Mgmt Applications
Model Defn.
Manipulation
Picture Gen
INPUT
OUTPUT
Utilities
Database
Mgmt
Applications

Database Component Models Drawings Standards Library Data

Working Data Geometry Associated Data Manufacturing

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CAD/CAM/CAE System Hardware Software Computing Machine Graphics Devices Display Processing Unit Display Device
CAD/CAM/CAE System
Hardware
Software
Computing Machine
Graphics Devices
Display Processing Unit
Display Device
Input Device
Output Device

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Graphics Devices

RasterRaster GraphicsGraphics DeviceDevice

Graphics Devices RasterRaster GraphicsGraphics DeviceDevice VectorVector--refreshrefresh GraphicsGraphics DeviceDevice

VectorVector--refreshrefresh GraphicsGraphics DeviceDevice

VectorVector--refreshrefresh GraphicsGraphics DeviceDevice  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore 50

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PEMP- AME501 CathodeCathode RayRay TubeTube C/sC/s Scanning Pattern for Scanning Pattern for Raster Refresh Raster

CathodeCathode RayRay TubeTube C/sC/s

Scanning Pattern for

Scanning Pattern for

Raster Refresh

Raster Refresh

for Scanning Pattern for Raster Refresh Raster Refresh  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies -

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Color Definition, using

Color Definition, using

24-bit planes

24-bit planes

using Color Definition, using 24-bit planes 24-bit planes  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies -

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CAD Hardware

• Main Frame Based System

• Mini Frame Based System

• Work station Based System

• PC Based Systems

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Mainframe Computers

• Very large computers used to process very large volumes of data

• Applications include:

– commercial data-processing

• payroll

• billing

• accounting

• inventory control

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Mainframe Computers

• Applications include:

– Scientific Applications

• Simulation

• Modelling

• Fast, accurate, extensive calculations

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Mainframe Computers

• Channels

– Normally, all operations are funneled through a single CPU

– But I/O to devices is much much slower than speed of the CPU

– A channel is a separate processor which handles all I/O to memory

– CPU is then free to execute instructions at the same time as the channel is doing I/O

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Mainframe Computers

• Time-Sharing

– Sharing of a single (very fast) processor which switches back and forth among many separate programs in memory

– Historically, this was used to allow many (up to 100s) of users to use a mainframe simultaneously

– The advent of the PC and networks has meant that time-sharing is on the decline

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Minicomputers

• Effectively the same functions as mainframes

• Due to improvements in technology

• Reductions in costs

• Tend to be smaller and cheaper

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Microcomputers

• A computer with a CPU based on a single- chip microprocessor

• Today’s microprocessor-based microcomputers are much more powerful than mainframes of 10 years ago

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Workstations

• A ‘High-End’ computer

• Significant computing power

• Used for scientific and engineering work

• Typically offers excellent graphic capabilities (visualization)

• Inexpensive workstations are equivalent in power to top-of-the-range PCs

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Workstations

• Client/Server Computing

– A form of distributed computing

– The application is distributed into cooperating parts which are independent of one another

– And run on different, but inter-linked (networked) computers

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Workstations

• Client/Server Computing

• A client is an end-user computer or program which requests resources or services across a network

• A server is a computer running software which fulfills those requests across the network

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Workstations

• Client/Server Computing

• For example, a networked, distributed computing environment might have a database server, an e-mail server, an application software server

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Client/Server Architecture

Application Server

Print Server Client Client Client
Print Server
Client
Client
Client

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Supercomputers

• Some applications require more processing power than even the most powerful of mainframes or workstations

• For example, weather forecasting, design of cars, analysis of metal deformation during impact

• Typically, these are simulation applications

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PEMP- AME501

Main Components of a Computer

– Processor- Speed and make system

– RAM - Capacity

– Mother Board - Features

– Graphics Display card -

Resolution,VRAM Capacity

– Monitor - Size 17”, 19” or 21”

– Hard Disk Drive – Capacity, Speed

– FDD, CD-ROM or CD R/W

– Key Board, Mouse, Scanner or any other input Device

– Printers, Plotters – Type, speed, media

– Operating System – Unix, Linux or

Windows (Win 9X, 2K)

– LAN – Supported or not

Linux or Windows (Win 9X, 2K) – LAN – Supported or not  M.S Ramaiah School

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PEMP- AME501

Typical Configuration - PC Based System

• Processor – Intel® Pentium® 4, 3.0 GHz, Dual Processor Support

• RAM –2GB

• Slots – 5 PCI + 1 AGP

• Ports – 1 Parallel + 2 USB + 2 Serial

• Monitor – 19” NI

– 1 Parallel + 2 USB + 2 Serial • Monitor – 19” NI • Network

• Network Support - Intel® 10/100 Base T Ethernet Card

• HDD – 120 GB, Integrated Dual ATA-EIDE / Adaptec Dual Ultra-2 SCSI

• CD ROM / DVD Drive – 52 X MAX

• Sound Card - Sound Blaster AWE128 sound

• Operating System – Windows 2000

Blaster AWE128 sound • Operating System – Windows 2000 Professional • Mouse, Keyboard, FDD, USB Support

Professional

• Mouse, Keyboard, FDD, USB Support

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Typical Configuration – Workstation Based System

Key Specifications:

Powered by up to two 900-MHz or 1050 MHz UltraSPARC-III Cu (64 Bit) CPUs. 8 MB L2 Cache Delivers up to 8 GB of main memory and up to two 72 GB of 10,000-rpm FC-AL disk storage. Three removable media slots for choice of DVD-ROM, 4-

Three removable media slots for choice of DVD-ROM, 4- SUN BLADE 2000 WORKSTATION mm tape, or

SUN BLADE 2000 WORKSTATION

mm

tape, or floppy; smart-card reader is standard.

I/O:

External SCSI,Serial, Parallel, Audio ports.

Network: Ethernet/FastEthernet(10/100 Base-T) Graphics & Imaging: Two graphics UPA slots and four 64-bit PCI Slots Supports – Sun XVR-1000, SunPGX64, Sun Expert3D-Lite and many more.

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PEMP- AME501

Other Peripherals:

PEMP- AME501 Other Peripherals: Stylus Digitizer (Tablet ) Puck  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Stylus

Digitizer (Tablet)

PEMP- AME501 Other Peripherals: Stylus Digitizer (Tablet ) Puck  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
PEMP- AME501 Other Peripherals: Stylus Digitizer (Tablet ) Puck  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Puck

PEMP- AME501 Other Peripherals: Stylus Digitizer (Tablet ) Puck  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Wide Format Scanners

• Photo-realistic vivid colors Crisp, clear black-and-white Super wide 50" imaging area Thick originals - up to 0.6“

• Scanning Superiority

• Image Enhancement Power

to 0.6“ • Scanning Superiority • Image Enhancement Power  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
to 0.6“ • Scanning Superiority • Image Enhancement Power  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Wide Format Plotter

Features:

– Up to A0 (A00) Size

– CMYK Color Ink Jet

– High Speed with Paper Cutter facility

– Choice of media

– Network compatibility

– Example: HP DesignJet 5000 Series (42” &

60”)

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PEMP- AME501

Communication

• Communication between computers plays an important role in CAD/CAM/CAE implementation

• To exchange data between CAD systems, it not only requires compatibility of application data formats but also the hardware system compatibility

• Computers are required to communicate with each other. – E.g: A workstation might be connected to a supercomputer for analyzing FE models and to computers on a shop floor for transmission of manufacturing data to machine tools

• The locations of these computers may be within the same building, within the same campus or may be spread geographically

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PEMP- AME501

• Computer networks

– Local Area Network LAN

– Wide Area Network WAN

• Connecting media

– Twisted pair

– Co-axial cable

– Optical fiber link

– Microwave links and so on.

• Topologies

– Bus

– Star

– Ring

links and so on. • Topologies – Bus – Star – Ring  M.S Ramaiah School
links and so on. • Topologies – Bus – Star – Ring  M.S Ramaiah School
links and so on. • Topologies – Bus – Star – Ring  M.S Ramaiah School

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PEMP- AME501

BUS STAR RING LAN TOPOLOGIES
BUS
STAR
RING
LAN TOPOLOGIES

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WORKSTATIONS

SCANNER

PRINTER

PEMP- AME501

SERVER

N/W PRINTER / PLOTTER

General Arrangement of Workstations

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PEMP- AME501

Network Devices

HUB

SWITCH

BRIDGES

ROUTERS

GATEWAYS

FIREWALLS

Network Devices HUB SWITCH BRIDGES ROUTERS GATEWAYS FIREWALLS  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies -
Network Devices HUB SWITCH BRIDGES ROUTERS GATEWAYS FIREWALLS  M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies -

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies - Bangalore

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PEMP- AME501

Network Devices

• For communication to be successful, closely defined standards for all aspects of the communications are required.

• Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol – TCP/IP is the widely used set of network and application-oriented protocols

• Manufacturing Network Applications

– Manufacturing Automation Protocols (MAPs) proposed by General Motors for Factory communications systems

– Technical and Office Protocols(TOPs) proposed by Boeing Computers Services specifically for office equipment

• INTERNET has seen a tremendous growth

• The CAD/CAM/CAE systems are also designed to be more Web- centric to exploit the capabilities of the INTERNET technology

• Because of this, newer practices are emerging in these areas

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PEMP- AME501

Session Summary

• Definition of CAE, its components were discussed

• The product cycle and role of computers in it have been discussed

• Essentiality of central database in modern design & manufacturing activity have been illustrated

• CAD/CAM system architecture were discussed

• The types of computer systems used in CAD/CAM implementations were illustrated

• The main components of a PC based system and its configurations were explained

• Configuring a system for CAD and its peripherals was briefed

• The role and importance of networking in CAD/CAM implementations were discussed

• Various components used in building a computer network and topologies were illustrated

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