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COREX PROCESS ®

AN EFFICIENT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY


FRIENDLY SMELTING REDUCTION

PRESENTED BY:

BAJAN, ROSEMARIE A.
BAYANG, ANDRO P.
BULARON, VIA G.
LY, SOPHIA EMM S.
LUNIO, DESIREE JANE V.
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Blast Furnace
• Metallurgical coal
• Conversion of metallurgical coal
to blast furnace coke

Costly
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COREX
• First and the ONLY commercially
established Smelting-Reduction
Process
VOEST  late 1970
• High smelting intensity
• Ability to use various types
of non-coking coals
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COREX
• First and the ONLY commercially
established Smelting-Reduction
Process
VOEST  late 1970
• Use of ore fines
• Low net operating cost
• Generation of power
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COREX
• First and the ONLY
commercially established
Smelting-Reduction Process

• First pilot plant was installed in


Kehl, Germany in 1981.

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Features of COREX
• hot metal quality suitable for
steelmaking

• low investment and operational


costs due to the elimination of
coke ovens and by product plant

• low process related emission rates

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Features of COREX
• use of a wide variety of iron ores
and especially non-coking coals

• generation of a highly valuable


export gas which can be used for
various purposes such as electric
power generation, DRI production,
or natural gas substitution

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COREX
Technology

Industrially and
commercially proven
direct smelting
reduction process

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COREX

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COREX

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Jindal South West Steel Ltd.

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Essar Steel
Hazira, India

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𝑰𝑵𝑷𝑼𝑻 = 𝑶𝑼𝑻𝑷𝑼𝑻

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INPUTS
• Iron ore
- lump ore, pellets or a
mixture thereof
• Additives
- limestone and dolomite
• Non-coking Coal
• Pure Oxygen

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OUTPUTS

• Hot metal
• Slag
• Export gas

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Production of ELECTRICAL ENERGY

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Typical Analysis:
Hot Metal Slag
Carbon 4.5 % CaO 35 %
Silicon 0.5% MgO 13%
Manganese 0.08% SiO2 31%
Sulfur 0.03% Al2O3 15%
Phosporus 0.1% FeO 0.4%
TiO2 0.5%
S 1.2%
@ 1470 deg C to 1500 deg C. @1520 deg C to 1580 deg C
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Top Gas Reduction Gas Export Gas
CO – 42 % CO – 62 %, CO – 44
H2 -19 % H2 – 23 %, H2 – 21 %,
CO2 – 31 % CO2 – 9 %, CO2 – 30 %,
CH4 – 1.9 methane – 2 %. moisture – 1 %,
N2 – 2 %,
CH4 – 1.5 %
dust content – less
than 5 mg/N cum.

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EQUIPMENT AND
PROCESS

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Lump Ore/Pellets/
Coal Scrubber
Additives
Top Gas Export Gas

Reduction
Shaft Reduction Scrubber
Gas

Hot-Gas
Cyclone

Gas Cyclone

Melter
Gasifier Dust

Hot Metal Oxygen


and Slag
Reduction Shaft

Melter Gassifier

Oxygen

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Iron Ore:
• Lump Ore
• Pellets
Lock Hopper
System Additives
• Limestones
• Dolomite
𝑇𝑒 = 250 − 300°C

P = 3-bar REDUCTION GAS


T = 800 - 850°C
𝑚3 • Counter-current flow to
Gas flow = 1200 𝑡 avoid clustering

D= 5-m • Fe ore  DRI


90% METALLIZATION
 Direct Reduced Iron
Factors Affecting Degree of Metallization

• Amount & quality of the reduction gas flow.


• Temperature of the reduction gas.
• Reducibility of iron bearing burden.
• Average particle size and distribution of the
solids charged.
HOT DRI
600 - 800°C

Coal

MELTER GASIFIER
P = 3 - 5 bars

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DOME

CHAR BED

HEARTH ZONE

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Scrubber
Top Gas Export Gas

Reduction
Shaft Reduction Scrubber
Gas

800 - 850°C

Hot-Gas
Cyclone

Gas Cyclone

Melter
Gasifier Dust

Oxygen
COREX PROCESS
CHEMISTRY

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Process Stages

1. Iron Ore Burden Hot Direct Reduced Iron (DRI)

2. Melting and Carburizing of Hot DRI

3. Maintenance of fluidized bed of coal char

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions
850 – 1050 ᵒC: Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 → FeO → Fe by CO and H2

CaCO3(limestone) + heat → CaO + CO2

CaCO3 ۰MgCO3 (dolomite) + heat → CaO۰MgO + 2CO2

2CO → CO2 + C + heat


Reduction Shaft

3Fe + 2CO → Fe3C + CO2 + heat


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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions

CaCO3(limestone) + heat → CaO + CO2

CaO + H2S → MgS + H2O

CaCO3 ۰MgCO3 (dolomite) + heat → CaO۰MgO + 2CO2


Reduction Shaft
MgO + H2S → MgS + H2O

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions
• 100 ᵒC- Drying Coal
• 200 – 950 ᵒC – Devolatilization of coal, liberation
of methane and higher hydrocarbons
• Decomposition of volatile matter, 1050-1000 ᵒC
Melter-Gasifier
CnHm = nC + (m/2) H2

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions
• Other reactions (free board zone)
CO2 + C = 2CO (Boudouard Reaction)
H2O + C = CO + H2 (Water Gas Reaction)
CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 (Shift Reaction)
Melter-Gasifier

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions
• Calcination of the uncalcined limestone and dolomite
• Reduction of the residual iron oxide in the sponge iron
• Direct reduction of FeO in the DRI takes place by
carbon in the char bed
Melter-Gasifier

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COREX PROCESS CHEMISTRY

Reactions
• Combustion of coal char by oxygen
2C + O2 = 2CO
2CO + O2 = 2CO2
C + CO2 = 2CO
Melter-Gasifier
• Melting and formation of hot metal and slag, resp.

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ADVANTAGES

Economic Benefit

Ecologic Benefit

Beneficial By-Products
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ADVANTAGES

Resource Preserving

Product Quality

Operational Flexibility
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DISADVANTAGES

Optimized distribution of coal and DRI

High Consumption of Coal

Maintenance
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DISADVANTAGES

Jamming of Dust Recycling Systems


and Gas Cleaning Systems

Sensitiveness of the Process Inputs


Quality Parameters

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