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PHY 802


Part A
Ques 1: What are the important characteristics of real-life sensors? What qualities
make them eligible for data acquisition and error identification?


[1]. One of characteristics, that describes the functional relationship between physical
input and electrical output is Transfer Function Transfer function is a graph that shows
relationship between the input and output signal. Depending details of this characteristic
it may be a complete description of sensor characteristics. Transfer function may be used
as a calibration curve.

[2]. Another characteristic is Dynamic Range of sensor. This term defines the input signal
that can be converted to electrical. Signals outside the range may cause large inaccuracy.
Dynamic Range of transducer is typically defined by manufacturer with other
characteristics as well.

[3]. Another actual parameter is Sensitivity of transducer. This describes the relationship
between input and output signals. Sensitivity is a ration between change in electrical
signal to a change of input physical signal. As mentioned above temperature sensors
sensitivity would be described in units Volts/Kelvin. High sensitivity would be when
small temperature change would result in a large voltage change

[4]. Other characteristics that are used are:

(1) Accuracy: the largest expected error between actual and ideal output signals.

(2) Hysteresis when sensors doesn’t return to the same value during cyclic changes of
input .

(3) Linearity a deviation from linear transfer function over dynamic range.
(4) Noise output noise that adds to output signal.

(5) Resolution minimal detectable signal fluctuation.

(6) Bandwidth defines a response time to a instant change of physical signa

Ques 2: Identify the different sensors, actuators and warning

signals required in an aero plane?


Sensors required in aeroplane:

(1) Optical Sensors/Smoke Meter (% Obscuration)

(2)Thermal Sensors (Temperature)

(3) Gas Sensors (CO and CO2)

Actuators required in aeroplane:

(1) Novel Actuators for Flight Control Systems

(2) Piezo Actuators for Active Rotor Control

(3) Vibration and Noise Control Actuators

(4) Space & Military Actuators

Warning signal in aeroplane:

(1) landing lights

(2) white beacons

(3) wingtip strobes

(4) wingtip navigation lights

Ques 3: What are the important environmental factors which must be
taken care for successful operation of sensors?

(1)temperatures of air and surrounding components,



(4) ionizing radiation,

(5) electromagnetic

(6) gravitational forces

Part B
Ques 4: What is the role of dielectric constant of a material to its
sensing properties?

Ans:Dielectric constants must be specified for test frequency and temperature. Some
dielectrics have a very uniform dielectric constant over a broad frequency range (e.g.,
polyethylene), whereas others display a strong negative frequency dependence; that is, a
dielectric constant decreases with frequency. The temperature dependence is also

In a “good” capacitor, a dielectric constant K and geometry must be stable.Ideally, they

should not vary with temperature, humidity, pressure, or any other environmental factors.
“Good” capacitors are essential components of electronic circuits. However, if you want
to design a capacitive sensor, you need to make a “bad” capacitor, whose value varies
with temperature, humidity, pressure, or whatever you need to sense. By allowing a
capacitor’s parameter to vary selectively with a specific stimulus, one can build a useful
Ques 5: What will be the electric field strength of a linear charge
system with two point charges 2e and 4e separated by 3 cm, at the
distance 2 meter from 2e charge?


Ques 6: Two spheres of radii 3cm and 8cm are charged with 4x10-9C
and 16x10-9C of electricity respectively. If they are joined by a fine
wire, find how much charge will flow from one sphere to another?