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AMOL SONAWANE preparation of mpsc CALL ME-9403636554/9960376659

Estimating, Costing and Valuation:


Specification,
Estimation& costing,
Tenders and contracts,
Rate analysis,
Valuation

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Estimation and Costing.
INTRODUCTION Estimating- It is the process of calculating the quantities and costs of
the various items required in connection with the work for its
satisfactory completion. The estimate gives a theoretical cost.
Purposes of estimating:- 1. To know the approximate cost of proposed work.
2. To obtain administrative approval and technical sanction.
3. To know the requirements of tools, plants and equipments.
4. To fix up the completion period.
5. To draw up a construction schedule and programmed.
6 Valuation to know value of property.
7. To invite tenders.
8. To keep control over expenditure during construction
Costing: It is the process of determining the actual cost of the work before the
carrying out of work
purposes of costing 1. To arrange the finance for future work.
2. To know the probable cost of project before the execution.
3. For valuation of existing property.
4. To know the cost of various item, well in advance, to be
constructed

Estimating Costing
It is the process of calculating the Quantities and costs of the It is the process of determining The actual
various Items required in connection with the Work for its cost of the work Before the execution of
satisfactory completion. work
To know the approximate cost of Proposed work. To arrange the finance of or Proposed work.
Valuation to know value of property. For valuation of existing property
To know the requirements of tools, Plants and equipments To know the cost of various item, Well in
advance to be constructed

Valuation :- It is an art of finding out its present saleable value of


the property. It may be more or less than the cost of
the property or its original cost .
Factors which have complicated the process of 1) Advancement in technology
estimating. 2) Change in living standards of people
3) Bye-laws of local bodies.
4) Labour laws
5) Help from financial institutions
6) Market conditions of building materials.
7) Demand for improved services.
8)Finishing required to develop the architectural
effects.
9) Muti-storeyed buildings in town and cities.
10) Wide range of building material.

Types of an estimate
Types of approximate estimate Types of detailed estimate
a) Plinth area or square meter method a) A quantity estimate or quantity survey.
b) Cubic rate or cubic meter method b)Revised estimate
c) Service unit or unit rate method c) Supplementary estimate
d) Bay method d) Supplementary & revised estimate.
e) Approximate quantities with bill e) Annual repair& maintenance estimate.
method. f) A complete estimate
f)Cost comparison method
g)Cost from material and labour.

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Approximate Estimate 1)An approximate estimate is a rough estimate


prepared to obtain an approximate cost of a project in
a short time.
2) It is required for preliminary studies of various
aspects of a work project, to decide the financial
position and policy for administrative sanction by the
competent, administrative authority.
3)From this estimate, the approximate cost may be
known and then income and cost is studied, if it is
justified to go for project then further detailed
estimates are prepared.
4) In this type of estimate, all important works like
cost of land, cost of each building, cost of roads, etc.
are shown separately
Purpose of Approximate Estimate 1)for preliminary studies
2) To know the feasibility of project.
3)To know project duration.
4)To obtain administrative approval.
5)For insurance and tax schedule.
6)For planning the project.
7)To know benefit cost ratio.

Types of approximate estimate a) Plinth area or square meter method


b) Cubic rate or cubic meter method
c) Service unit or unit rate method
d) Bay method
e) Approximate quantities with bill method.
f)Cost comparison method
g)Cost from material and labour.

1) Plinth area or square meter method 1)Plinth area is defined as the total of the built up
covered area of a building at every floor This plinth
area of each floor for a building is worked out by
multiplying out to out dimensions in square unit
excluding plinth offsets if any.
2)If building is of one storey only, its plinth area in
square units is considered for cost calculation.
If it is multistoried structure, then the ground floor
plinth area is added to the floor areas of subsequent
floor. In case of balconies, half areas of balconies are
added.
Plinth area estimate is calculated by finding the plinth
area of the building and multiply by the plinth area
rate.
3)Approximate cost = Plinth area x Plinth area rate

The plinth area shall be calculated inclusive of (a) area of walls (b) area of mezzanine floor (c) lift
well including landing (d) porch other than
cantilevered
the plinth area will not cover the following (i) areas due to loft. (ii) Balcony (iii) Area of vertical
sun breaker (iv) Architectural features (v)
Cantilevered porch (vi) Terrace at floor one.
Advantages 1. .More accurate than service unit method.
2. It is directly related to accommodation.
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3. It is easy to remember and comprehend.
4. Useful for valuation
Disadvantages (1) Adjustments to final estimated cost cannot easily
be made to allow for differences in shape, storey
heights etc.
(2) Less accurate than cubical content method.

2) Service unit method 1)This method is used particularly in large or


complicated buildings or projects involving
several buildings where more detailed comparisons
would be too troublesome.
2)The cost obtained by this method is most
approximate because very little consideration
is given towards dimensions.
3)In this method all costs of a unit quantity such as
per km for a highway, per meter of span for a bridge,
per classroom for school building, per bed for hospital,
per liter for water tanks, per seat for cinema hall etc.
are considered first and approximate cost is prepared
by multiplying the cost per service unit by the number
of units in the structure.
Approximate estimate = Number of service units x
Cost per service unit

Advantage i) simple method of comparison in short time


ii) suitable for buildings having large variations in
their components.
Disadvantage i) Most approximate method.
ii) More previous records required.

3) Cubic meter method 1)This method is more accurate than square metre
method.
2)In this method the total volume of the proposed
building is worked out by multiplying the plinth area
with the height of building.
3)This volume is then multiplied by a rate per cubic
metre.
Approximate cost of proposed building = Volume of
building x Rate per cubic metre.
The rate per cubic metre is worked out by dividing the
known cost of construction of previously constructed
building with its volume.

uses of cubic content 1) Cubical content method is used for estimating the
approximate cost of a building is more accurately.
2) The rate/m3 of existing building is suitable to
further modified in respect of the following points :
1) Place of construction 2) Year of construction
3) Size and shape of building 4) Foundation work

Square metre method Cubic metre method


It is defined as the total built up area covered of a In the cubic meter method, the plinth area is calculated
building bounded by outer walls is calculated in square which is multiplied by the height of floor to obtain the
metre. cubical contents of the proposed building
Approximate cost of building = Total plinth area in m 2 Approximate cost of building = The volume of the
of proposed building x Rate per m of similar proposed building x Rate per m3 of similar building
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building provisionally constructed previously constructed.
The rate/m2 of existing building is further modified The rate/m2 of existing building is further modified
with respect to following points. with respect to following points.
i) Place of construction i) Place of construction
ii) Year of construction ii) Year of construction
iii) Foundation work iii) Size and shape of building
iv) Height of building iv) Foundation work
v) Change in price index.

4)Typical bay method This method is used for the buildings have similar
column spans over a larger area such as factory
buildings, go-downs, railway platform. Cost of each
bay is found out by using other method of estimation.
Then the cost of whole factory building is worked out
by multiplying the total number of bays by the cost of
construction for each bay.
Approximate cost = No. of bays x Cost of one bay

5)Approximate quantity method 1)In this method, various quantities are worked out
with the help of many short-cuts. For instance, the
wall foundations are measured in linear
measurements i.e., in running meters. The
approximate quantities of items such as excavation,
foundation concrete, brickwork up to plinth level and
damp-proof course are computed per running length
and with the help of rates of these items, a fairly
accurate rate per running meter. This rate when
multiplied by the total running measurement gives the
approximate cost of the building up to plinth level.
Similarly, the superstructure is measured in running
measurements and a suitable rate per running meter
is built-up including brickwork, inside and outside
finishing, woodwork, etc.

6) Comparison of cost method In this method appropriate cost of the proposed


structure is obtained by comparing with the past
record of cost of the similar structure.
Approximate estimate for the proposed structure is
obtained by comparing the previous cost with the
present market rates which are normally obtained by
increasing the past cost on a present basis.

Situation under the following estimates prepared 1) To give the client rough idea of probable
Approximate estimate expenditure in short time without calculating the
actual quantities, from the cost of similar structure
having similar specification, construction &
locality.
2) In case of Government & public bodies, for
sanctioning of the expenditure required for the
project in the form of Administrative approval.
3) In case of commercial projects to study the cost-
benefit ratio. If it is justified the project is
carried out.
4) For BOT/PPP Systems approximate estimates plays
important role for decision making & for
preparation of Feasibility Report of Project

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Data required for detailed estimate. 1) Drawing: - Detailed drawing showing plan,
elevation and section with all dimensions.
2) Specifications: - Detailed specification which
decides rates of various items.
3) Rates: - Market rates of various items, materials
and labours. For this DSR may be preferred.
4) Location of work: - It is needed to use appropriate
rates of items.
5) Modes of measurement: - Modes of measurements
for various items shall be decided

Steps in preparation of detailed estimate. a) Taking out quantities:


b) Squaring
c) Abstracting
a) Taking out quantities Divide the whole work into different items of works
such as earthwork, concrete, brickwork etc. take the
details of measurement of each items of work and
enter the measurement of each item of work in
measurement sheet. Once the measurement of each
item of work is entered in measurement sheet,
squaring of dimension is done.
b) Squaring: Squaring is the calculation of numbers, length, area
and volume and are entered in the last two column of
measurement sheet.
c) Abstracting The cost of each item of work is calculated at the
workable rates. The total cost is worked out and
entered in the abstract of estimate form. A 3% to 5%
is added for contingencies to allow for unforeseen
expenses during the execution of work. A 1½% to 2%
is added for work-charged establishment. The grand
total thus obtained is the estimated cost of the project

Types of detailed estimate a) A quantity estimate or quantity survey.


b)Revised estimate
c) Supplementary estimate
d) Supplementary & revised estimate.
e) Annual repair& maintenance estimate.
f) A complete estimate

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Revised estimate i) When the original sanctioned estimate is likely to


Situation under the following estimates prepared exceed by more than 5%.
ii) When the expenditure on a work exceeds or likely
to exceeds the amount of administrative sanctioned by
more than 10%.
iii) If there is change of rate or quantity of materials.
iv) Major additions or alterations are introduced in
original work.

Supplementary estimate. It is detailed estimate of additional work and is


prepared when additional works or changes are
required to supplement the original works, during the
execution of work. Then a fresh detailed
estimate of additional works is prepared in addition to
the original works.
The abstract should show the amount of the original
estimate and the total amount including the
Supplementary amount, for which sanctioned is
required.

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Revised estimate Supplementary estimate


Prepared when there is change of rate or quantity Prepared when additional work is required to
of materials or Major addition/alterations are supplement the original work during the
introduced in original work progress of work
When the original sanctioned estimate is likely The fresh detailed estimate of additional work is
to exceed by more than 5% or When the prepared in addition to the original estimate
expenditure on a work exceeds or likely to
exceeds the amount of administrative sanctioned
by more than 10%
Abstract sheet of original estimate need to be The abstract sheet should show the amount of
changed due to change in the rates or quantity original estimate & the total amount including
of the item the supplementary amount, for which sanction is
required

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TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE DEPARTMENT
Administrative Approval For any project required by a department, an approval
or sanction of the competent authority, with respect to
the cost and work is necessary at the first instance.
Thus administrative approval denotes the formal
acceptance by the administrative department
concerned of the proposals for incurring expenditure.
The engineering department prepares rough cost
estimate and submits to the concerned department for
administrative approval.
Technical Sanction It means the sanction and order by the competent
authority of the engineering department for the
detailed estimate, design calculations, quantities of
works, rates and cost of work. After technical sanction
of the estimate is received, the work is then taken up
for construction.
Competent Authority An officer or any other authority in the department to
whom relevant powers are delegated by the
Government (Financial Department).
Contingencies 1) The term Contingencies indicates incidental
expenses of miscellaneous character
which cannot be classified under any distinct sub
head, yet pertain to the work as a whole.
2) In an estimate a certain amount in the form of
contingencies of 3 to 5 percent of estimated cost is
provided to allow for the expenses for miscellaneous
petty items which do not fall under any sub head of
items of work.
3)Miscellaneous incidental expenses which cannot be
classified under any subhead or item are met from the
amount provided under contingencies.
4) If there is any saving against this amount, the
amount may be utilized with the sanction of the
competent authority for other expenses.
Centage Charges: When an engineering department executes the work
of another department of government or local bodies
etc. a percentage amount 10% to 15% of the
estimated cost is charged recovery of the cost of
establishment, planning, designing, supervision etc. Is
called as centage charges
Day Work The term Day work is used to denote a procedure of
costing or valuing an item of work on the basis of
actual labours and material required. Certain types of
work cannot be paid by measurement viz. special
types of architectural works, dismantling partition
wall, taking out root of trees during earthwork in
excavation for foundation trenches etc. are paid on the
basis of actual quantity of materials and labour hours
required to complete the job are denoted by Day
Work.
Work Charged Establishment It is the establishment which is charged to works
directly. A percentage of 1.5% to 2% of the estimated
cost is provided for this so as to avoid any excess over
the administratively approved estimate. During the
construction of a project, certain number of skilled
supervisors, chowkidars, mates and munshies etc. are
employed on purely temporary basis and their
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salaries are paid from this provision in the estimate.
Record Drawings Record drawings are prepared as soon as the work
has been completed by the officer-in- charges for
every new work or alteration of an existing work.
These drawings show the work which has been
actually completed and such drawings are approved
by the Divisional Officer. these are kept as a record in
the office. During construction there can be deviation
to some extent from the original drawings and design
so correct drawings are prepared on completion of the
job.
Ordinary Measurement Book (M.B.) It is measurement book in which entries regarding
the work done or supplies made and serviced
performed (in connection with the works) are
recorded for the purpose of making payments to the
contractors or the labour. Entries in the M.B. are
generally recorded by the sectional officer (J.E.) or by
any other officer deputed for the purpose.
Check Measurement Book check measurement book is maintained by the Sub-
Divisional Officer (S.D.O. orA.E.) with
the sole purpose of checking the measurements made
by a section officer. It is maintained separately to
avoid double payments. Check measurements are
done to the extent as under :
i)25% of the cost of work costing more than Rs. 5000
by the S.D.O.
ii)5% of the cost of work by the XEN (Executive
Engineer).
If the entries made by the J.E. differ by :
(a) 1% in the case of original work. (b) 5% in the case
of repair work and
(c) 10% in the case of earth work,
The J.E's measurements are corrected as per check
measurement. On the other hand if the difference is
more than the above limits, the whole work is
measured by the S.D.O. and the case is brought to the
notice of higher authority.
Standard Measurements Book (S.M.B.) In this book detailed measurement of a building are
correctly recorded on its completion so as to facilitate
the preparation of estimates for periodical repairs and
their execution. In case of annual repairs such as
whitewashing, colour washing, painting etc.. no
measurments need to be taken. The payment to
contractors is made on the basis of the book after
preparing the bills.
S.M.B. is checked after every five years and altertaions
if any are entered therein
Prime Cost It is the actual cost of articles at shop and refers to the
supply of articles only and not to the carrying out of
work. Sometimes it is not possible to specify exactly
the types of articles required as in the case of water
supply and sanitary fittings or door and window
fitting etc. These articles are decided during the actual
execution by the owner as such reasonable amount is
kept in the estimate as Prime Cost. Thus for the supply
of these articles the contractor is paid the actual price
paid by him to the merchants ignoring the cash
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discount he received. He may be allowed
actual cost of carriage if specified in the contract.
Tools and Plants Provision In big projects a percentage of 1% to 1.5% of the
estimated cost is provided for the purchase .of Tools
and Plants which will be required for the execution of
the work
Overhead Cost It includes general office expenses, supervision
charges, rents, taxes and other costs which are
indirect expenses.
Expenses such as an establishment, telephone,
stationary postages, travelling, rents, taxes,
supervision, handling of materials, repairs and
depreciation of T and P. workman compensation and
such other expenses etc.
For overhead expenses and contractor’s profit 10% of
the actual cost is generally added to arrive at total
cost.
Supervision Charges This terms is applied ordinarily to the charges which
are levied in addition to book value and storage
charges in respect of stock materials sold or
transferred and are intended to cover such items of
expenditure incurred on the stores as do not enter
their book value and are not included in the storage
charges. These charges are recovered on percentage
basis.
Department Charges When the engineering department takes up the work
of other department, local bodies etc.
a percentage of 10% to 15% of the estimated cost is
charge, to meet the expenses of establishment,
designing, planning, supervision, etc. and this
percentage charge is known as department charges or
departmental charges.
Approximate Cost for Water Supply, Sanitary and While preparing an estimate provisions for
Electrification Works internal services like water supply, sanitary
and electrification of building are made usually on the
basis of a percentage of the building estimate cost,
which are as follows :
(a) Water supply-4% to 5% of the estimated cost of
the building.
(b) Sanitation - 4% to 5% of the estimated
cost of the building.(12 to 15)
(c) Electrification – 9% of the estimated cost
of the building and (8 to12)
electric fans, Lights - 3% of the estimated cost
of the building.
Provisional sum - It is amount provided in the estimate for specialized
items such as
installation of lift, air conditioner, firefighting
equipment, acoustic work etc., details of
which are not known at the time of preparing
estimate.
Provisional quantities: - When the quantities of particular items are uncertain
due to unavailability of data, provisional quantities of
those items are called provisional items and
corresponding quantities are called provisional
quantities

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Modes of measurement

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Rules for deduction of opening as per IS1200 for Masonry work in superstructure - No deduction is
brickwork. made for the following
i) Openings up to 0.1 sq.m
ii) End of beams, posts, rafters, purlin etc. up to 0.05
sq.m in section
iii) Bed plates, wall plates, bearing of chajjas where
thickness does not exceed l0 cm.
iv) Bearing of floor and roof slab are not deducted
from masonry in superstructure.
Deduction is made for the following
Rectangular Openings Small Segmented Arch Openings

Quantities to be deducted = l(m) x h(m) x thickness The deduction is made for the rectangular portion
Of wall (m) upto springing line for doors and windows Small
segmental portions are
considered as solid so as to cover up the extra
expenditure for constructing the same,
quantities to be deducted = l(m) x h(m) x
thickness of wall (m).
Segmental Arch Openings Semi Circular Arch Openings

The deduction is made for the whole opening, i.e. The deduction is made for the while opening, the
rectangular portion and segmental portion. rectangular portion as well as for semi circular
portion.
The area for segmental portion =
Area of semi-circular portion=
Area of rectangular portion =
where r = rise of the arch Area of rectangular portion =

Quantities to be deducted = Quantities to be deducted =


( ) ( )

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Arch Masonry Work Lintels over Openings

The masonry work in arches is taken separately in


cubic metres.
The deduction is made from the brick work also.
Quantity of arch masonry = lm x t x thickness of wall Lintels over openings can be of any material. Generally
where lm = mean length of the arch they are of R.C.C or R.B. work. The quantities are
t = thickness of the arch calculated in cubic metres and are taken separately
They are deducted from the quantities of brick work.
Length of lintel = Clear span + 2 x bearing.
If the bearing is not given, it may be taken as equal to
thickness of lintel on each side.
Length of lintel = clear span + 2 x thickness of lintel
= (S + 2t)
Quantity of lintel = Length of lintel x thickness of lintel
x thickness of wall

Rules for deduction of plaster works as per IS i) No deduction is made for ends of beams, posts,
1200. rafters, purlins etc.
ii) No deduction is made for opening up to 0.5 sq. m.
and no addition is made for jambs, soffits, and sills of
these openings.
iii) For opening more than o.5 sq. m. and up to 3 sq. m.
deduction is made for one face only. No addition for
jambs, soffits, and sills of these openings.
iv) For opening above 3 sq. m. deduction is made for
both faces of openings and the jambs, soffits, and sills
shall be added.

Painting Work (internal) 1) No deduction shall be made for ends of joists,


beams, posts, etc, and openings not exceeding
0.5 m2 each and no addition shall be made for reveals,
jambs, soffits, sills, etc, of these
openings nor for finish around ends of joists, beams,
posts, etc.
2) Deductions for openings exceeding 0.5 m2 but not
exceeding 3 m2 each when both faces of wall
are provided with the same finish, deduction shall be
made for one face only and no addition
shall be made for reveals, jambs, soffits, sills, etc, of
these openings.
3) In case of openings of areas above 3 m2 each,
deductions shall be made for openings, but
jambs, soffits and reveals shall be measured.
4) No deduction shall be made for attachment, such as
casings, conduits, pipes, electric wiring and
the like.

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Masonry work in superstructure: No deduction shall be made for----


1) Opening up to 0.1 Sq.m. in area.
2)Ends of beams, lintels, post up to 0.05 Sq.m.
3) Wall plates, bed plates, bearing of slab etc. when
thickness does not exceed 10 cm.

Deduction in masonry as per IS1200 1) No deduction is made for opening up to 0.1sq.m


(1sq.ft)
2) No deduction for ends of beam, posts, rafter, purlins
up to 0.05sq.m of section.
3) No deduction bed plate , wall plate, bearings of
chajjas etc up to 100mm depth.
4) Bearings of floor and roof slabs, concrete blocks for
hold fasts are not deducted from
Brick Masonry
5) For other Rectangular openings , deduction will be
equal to
volume of B.M. less volume of opening. ( LX BX H – l x
bxh)
6) For semicircular arch opening
Deduction = ( (l x h)+ ¼ x l x r) x thickness of wall)

Desired Accuracy in taking measurements: 1) Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m
except
a) Thickness of slab measured nearest to 0.005m
b) Wood work is to be measured nearest to 0.002m
c) Reinforcement , to the nearest 0.005m
d) Thickness of roadwork less than 200mm, is
measured nearest to 0.005m.

The tolerances in measurements are


a) For volumes ----- 0.01 cu.m
b) For areas -------------0.01 sq.m
c) For lengths ---------- 0.01 rmt
d) For weights ----------0.001 ton or 1kg.
Fraction less than one half is neglected.
Fraction equal to one half or more than one half is
considered as one.
Approximate percentage of steel required for 1) Footing : 0.5% to 0.8 % of quantity of concrete in
cu.m
2) Column : 1% to 5% of quantity of concrete in cu.m
3) Beam : 1% to 2% of quantity of concrete in cu.m
density of mild steel
4) Slab : 0.7% to1% of quantity of concrete in cu.m

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Central Building Research Institute (C.B.R.I.)

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The most reliable estimate is (MPSC 12) While computing masonry work, no deductions are
A. Detailed estimate B. Preliminary estimate generally made for (MPSC 12)
C. Plinth area estimate D. None of these A. Opening each up to 0.10 sq. m
B. Ends of beam up to 0.05 sq. m
C. Bed plates and wall plates up to 10 cm
D. All the above
Identify correct statements from the following: For building project estimates which method is
a)Centre line method is the most common method for generally used in PWD? (MPSC 13)
calculating the quantities of walls. A .Long wall and Short wall method
b)Centre line method is suitable for determining B. Centre line method
quantities of walls which are curved in plan. C. Crossing method
c)Out-to-out and in-to-in method is the most common D .None of the above
method for calculating quantities of walls. (MPSC 12)
A.a and b B. a and c C. a only D. b and c
The quantity of arch masonry work is calculated by The brick work is not measured in m3 in case of:
the relation: (MPSC 13) (MPSC 13)
A. Span of arch x breadth of wall x thickness of arch A. One or more than one brick thick wall.
B.(Span of arch + 2 x thickness of arch) x breadth of B. Half brick thick wall.
wall C .Brick work in arches
C.(Span of arch + 2 x breadth of wall) x thickness of D. Reinforced brick work.
arch
D.Mean length of arch x breadth of wall x thickness
of arch
The unit of measurement for earthwork in surface At what change of price level is a revised estimate
excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width as well as 10 prepared? (MPSC 15)
sq.m on plan but not exceeding 30 cm in depth, is in : A.2.0% B. 2.5% C. 4.0% D. 5.0%
(MPSC 15)
A. cu. m B. sq. m C. 10 sq.m D. R.mt
The usual practice of bending of a bar near a sup-port For painting corrugated steel sheet, surfaces shall be
is at an angle of (MPSC 17) measured flat and the area worked out shall be in-
A. 30° B. 45° C. 60° D. 15° creased by (MPSC 17)
A. 10% B. 12% C. 14% D. 20%
In order to compute the quantities of R.C.C. beams, Equation for cement requirement in tones for four-
lengths of beams are measured to the (MPSC 18) storey R.C.C. framed building (super structure)
A. Nearest millimeter recommended by C.B.R.I. is (MPSC 18)
B. Nearest half centimeter A. 0.153 A + 0.57 B. 0.145 A + 0.54 C. 0182 A —0.35
C. Nearest centimeter D. 2.26 A + 66.8 (Where A is plinth area in sq. mt)
D. Nearest inch
The process of evaluating the rough cost of While computing masonry work, no deduction is
construction of a project is known as generally made for
(1)Guess work cost (2) Estimate (1)Opening each upto 0.1 sq.m.
(3) Rough cost (4) Actual cost (2)Ends of beams upto 0.05 sq.m.
(3)Bed plates and wall plates upto 10 cm.
(4)All of the above
Thickness of plastering is usually In absence of detailed design the percentage of steel in
(1)6 mm(2)12 mm(3) 25 mm (4)40 mm concrete columns is usually taken as
(1)10 to 15% (2)5 to 10% (3)1 to 5 %(4)15 to 20 %
In analysis of rates, contractor profit is taken at the In measuring form work, no deduction is made for
rate of .......... opening upto
(1)1% (2)5%(3)10% (4)20% (1)1 m2(2)0.5 m2 (3)0.4 m2(4)0.01m2
In case of steel roof truss of the total steel work, rivets, A revised estimate is not necessary if the sanctioned
bolts and nuts usually account for estimate not exceeds
(1)1% (2) 5% (3) 10% (4) 15% (1)2% (2)5% (3)8% (4)10%
Security deposit deducted at 5% from contractors bills Pick up the correct statement from the following :
is (1)The estimated value of the work excluding the
(1)refunded when the contractor completes the work. amount for contingencies, work charges
(2)refunded even before the completion of the work establishment, tool and plants, is called work value.
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provided, good progress has been established (2) The actual expenditure involved to complete a
(3)retained till the expected life of structure and spent
work including incidental, establishment and
for maintenance travelling charges, is called actual cost.
(4)refunded when the defect liability period of six (3) The formal acceptance by the administrative
months or one monsoon whichever is later is over. department for incurring an expenditure on the work,
is called administrative approval.
(4)The order of a competent authority sanctioning a
properly detailed estimate of the cost of a work of
construction or repair is called technical sanction.
(5)All of the above
Identify correct statement from the following : Pick up the correct statement from the following :
(a)Centre line method is the most common method for (1)The incidental expenses of a miscellaneous
calculating the quantities of walls. character which could not be predicated during
(b)Centre line method is suitable for determining preparation of the estimate, is called contingencies.
quantities of walls which are curved in plan. (2)Additional supervising staff engaged at work site, is
(c)Out-to-out and in-to-in method is the most common called work charged establishment.
method for calculating quantities of walls. (3)Detailed specifications specify qualities, quantities
(1) (a) and (b) (2) (a) and (c) (3) (a) only and the proportions of materials to be used for a
(4) (b) and (c) particular item.
(4)The cost per unit at which the article can be
procured from the open market at a given time, is
called 'market rate'.
(5)All of the above
Pick up the incorrect statement from the following : Pick up the correct statement regarding the centre
(1)The built-up covered area at the floor level of any line method of estimating a building
storey of a building is called plinth area. (1)Product of the centre line of the walls and area of
(2)The usable covered area of the rooms of any storey corss-section of any item, gives total quantity of the
of a building is called carpet area. item.
(3)The carpet area of a building along with area of its (2)The centre line is worked out separately for
kitchen, pantry, store, lavatory, bath room and glazed different sections of walls of a building.
verandah, is called floor area. (3)The centre line length is reduced by half the layer
(4)None of these of main wall joining the partition wall.
(4)All of the above
Pick up the correct statement from the following : Pick up the correct statement from the following :
(1)The bent up bars at a support resist the negative (1)In order to check up the average depth of
bending moment. excavation, 'Dead mans' are left at the mid-widths of
(2)The bent up bars at a support resist the shearing borrow pits.
force. (2)The earthwork calculation in excavation is made
(3)The bending of bars near supports is generally at from the difference in levels obtained with a level.
45°. (3)The earth work in excavation to firm the road
(4)All of the above embankment includes the formation of correct profile
and depositing the soil in layers.
(4)All of the above

Pick the correct statement from the following : Pick up the incorrect statement from the following :
(1)The earth work of cutting in trenches or borrow (1)Dimensions are measured to the nearest 0.01 m
pits in fairly uniform ground is measured with the (2)Areas are measured to the nearest 0.01 sq. m.
help of average depths of the dead men. (3)Cubic contents are measured to the nearest 0.1
(2)The earth work in trenches or borrow pits in cm
irregular ground is measured by taking the difference (4)Weights are measured to the nearest 0.001 tonnes
in levels before and after completion of work.
(3)The earth work in trenches or borrow pits, where
neither a nor b is feasible, are measured from the
fillings after deduction of voids.
(4)All of the above
Pick up the excavation where measurements are in Pick up the incorrect statement from the following :
square metres for payment: (1)No deduction is made for the volume occupied by
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(1)Ordinary cuttings upto 1 m reinforcement
(2)Surface dressing upto 15 cm depth (2)No deduction is made for the openings upto 0.1 sq.
(3)Surface excavation upto 30 cm depth m.
(4)Both (2) and (3) (3)No deduction is made for volumes occupied by
pipes, not exceeding 10 sq. cm. in cross-section.
(4)None of these
For the construction of buildings, the subheads of the A property whose owner is in the absolute possession
estimate are of the property, and the owner can utilise the same in
(1)Earthwork, Concrete work, Brick work. any manner he likes subject to the rules and
(2)Brickwork, Stone work, Roofing. regulations of Government and local authorities is
(3)Brickwork, Flooring, Wood work, Steel work. known as
(4)Plastering or pointing, Finishing, Water supply and (1) Leasehold property
Sanitary work. (2) Saleable property
(5)All of the above (3)Freehold property
(4)Absolute property
The quantity of arch masonry work is calculated by While computing masonry work, no deductions are
the relation generally made for
(1)Span of arch x Breadth of wall x Thickness of arch. (1)opening each upto 0.10 sq. m.
(2)(Span of arch + 2 x Thickness of arch) x Breadth of (2)ends of beam upto 0.05 sq.m.
wall (3)bed plates and wall plates upto 10 cm
(3)(Span of arch + 2 x Breadth of wall) x Thickness of (4)All of the above
arch
(4)Mean length of arch x Breadth of wall x
Thickness of arch
For building project estimates which method is The brick work is not measured in m3 in case of
generally used in PWD ? (1)One or more than one brick thick wall.
(1)Long wall and short wall method (2)Half brick thick wall.
(2)Centre line method (3)Brick work in arches.
(3)Crossing method (4)Reinforced brick work.
(4)None of the above
Due to change in price level, a revised estimate is A revised estimate is usually prepared when the
prepared if the sanctioned estimate exceeds original estimate has exceeded by more than
(1)2.0%(2)2.5%(3)4.0%(4) None of these (1)1% (2)2% (3)10% (4)100%
Of the total estimated cost of a building electrification Which of the following is necessarily an accurate
usually accounts for estimate ?
(1)1% (2)2% (3)8% (4)15% (1) Plinth area estimate
(2) Cubical content estimate
(3) Revised estimate
(4) None of the above
Which estimate is expected to be least accurate ? The measurement is not made in square metres in
(1) Preliminary estimate case of
(2) Plinth area estimate (1) D.P.C.
(3) Detailed estimate (2) R.C. Chhajja
(4)Supplementary estimate (3) Concrete Jeffries
(4) Form works
The main factor to be considered while preparing a Pick up the correct statement from the following :
detailed estimate is, (1)Pointing is measured in sq. m
(1)Quantity of the materials (2)Plastering is measured in sq. m
(2)Availability of materials (3)Glazing is measured in sq. m
(3)Transportation of materials (4)Striking is measured in sq. m
(4)Location of site and local labour charges (5)All of the above
(5)All of the above
The item of the brick structure measured in sq. m. is In a detailed estimate, the provision for contingencies,
(1)Reinforced brick work is usually
(2)Broken glass coping (1)1% (2)3% to 5% (3)10% (4)12% to 25%
(3)Brick edging
(4)Brick work in arches
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While preparing a detailed estimate Which of the following is necessarily a detailed
(1)Dimension should be measured correct to 0.01 m. estimate ?
(2)Area should be measured correct to 0.01 sq.m. (1)Supplementary estimate (2)Revised estimate
(3)Volume should be measured correct to 0.01 cu.m. (3)Both (1) and (2) above (4) None of the
(4)All of the above above
The most reliable estimate is Detailed drawing is not necessarily required for which
(1)Detailed estimate (2)Preliminary estimate of the following estimate ?
(3)Plinth area estimate (4)None of these (1)Detailed estimate (2) Revised estimate
(3) Supplementary estimate (4) Rough cost
estimate
Estimate expected to be least accurate is Total expenditure on annual repair and special repairs
(1)Supplementary estimate to a building should not be more
(2)Plinth area estimate than of the capital cost.
(3)Detailed estimate (4)Revised estimate (1)1.5%(2) 2%(3) 2.5% (4)5%
The centre line method is specially adopted for In distance between the walls and
estimating 1) breadth of the wall
(1)octagonal buildings (2)hexagonal buildings 2)half breadth of wall on each side
(3)circular buildings (4)all of the above 3)one forth breadth of wall on each side
4) None of these long and short wall method of
estimation, the length of long wall is the centre to
centre

While estimating for lintels over openings, if the The main factor to be considered while preparing a
dimension for bearing is not given, the bearing is detailed estimate, is
usually taken as equal to A. Quantity of the materials
(1)half the thickness of lintel or 12 cm whichever is B. Location of site and local labour charges
higher C. Transportation of materials
(2)thickness of lintel with a minimum of 12 cm D. All the above
(3)twich the thickness of lintel with a minimum of 12
cm
(4)none of the above
The damp proof course (D.P.C.) is measured in In long and short wall method of estimation, the
A. Cub.m B. Sq m C. Metres D. None of these length of long wall is the
A. centre to centre distance between the walls and
breadth of the wall
B. half breadth of wall on each side
C. one fourth breadth of wall on each side
D. None of these

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Valuation

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1] Rental Method Procedure
Suitable: When property is given on rent basis. 1] Determine 'Gross rent' of property from actual
rent collected or making local enquires.
2] Calculate out goings = 30% x gross rent.
Out goings:
a] Municipal taxes
b] Property tax
c] Wealth tax
d] Maintenance charges
4] Capitalized value = Net income X ( 100/i)

1] Land and building method


a] Book value method b] Present land value method
Suitable: Suitability; For sale and purchase of property.
1] For valuation of properties which do not fetch any Similar to above, only here present land value is
rent such as property occupied by owner / school / considered.
college. Valuation of property = Cost - depreciation + Present
2] For assessment of balance sheet of companies or market value of land.
govt. offices. c] Reproduction and replacement value method
Procedure Procedure
1] Calculate original cost of construction. 1] Determine present cost of similar new structure in
2] Calculate scrap value = 10 x cost of construction. the area.
3] Depreciation at any year say m can be calculated 2] Calculate cost of land on which building to be
as follows. constructed by comparing it with
Value of property at year say *m' similar land.
= (Original cost) - (Depreciation) + (Original land 3] Calculate depreciation cost by Sinking fund
cost) method for past life of structure.
Drawback Valuation = (Present cost of similar building) -
Original cost of land considered, but actually cost of (Depreciated cost by sinking fund
land increases with year. method) + (Present value of land at current market
rate.)

3] Development Method Step:


Suitable: a] For properties which are undeveloped 1] Calculate probably selling price
or in developing stages. 2] Calculate net future returns from property
b] When large area divided in to number of plots 3] Capitalized value = Net future returns x Y. P.
(Land developers use this method)

4] Valuation on profit basis Steps:


Suitable: Valuation of hotels, cinema houses for 1] Calculate gross profit
which capitalized value depends on profit only. 2] Net profit = gross profit - Outgoings
3] Capitalized value = Net profit x (Y. P.)

5) Direct comparison with Capita value: This method is adopted when net income from the
property is not known i.e. for a property occupied
by owner. Under such circumstances sale a price of
similar property may be available. The capital
comparison with capital value of another similar
property
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6] Depreciation method of valuation a] Valuation of building divided in to parts as -


i)Wall 2] Floor 3] Roof 4] Door and Windows
b] Cost of each part work out at present rate by
detailed measurement.
c] Fix life of each part
d] Depreciated value of each part calculated
separately and added.
Formula Used:
D = (Cost at present market rate) x (1 - r)n
Where, r = rate of depreciation
n = life in year at which value is determine.

Free Hold Property and Lease Hold Property


Free Hold is a highest and best form of ownership of property The owner of free hold property is in absolute
possession and perpetual possession of the property owner holds the property without any payment in the
form of rent. The owner can use his property as helices. Owner may develop his property or sell or transfer or
lease it without the the consent of any other person. the power of free of hold property are restricted by
1) Law of land: While developing or carrying out any modification in the free hold property, the owner has to
obey prevailing laws of land and laws of town planning authorities.
2)The rights of others: The free fold property owner can develop or modify the property without interfering
natural rights of neighboring property

Lease Hold Property: When the free property holder grants the exclusive possession of the premises to
another for certain period, in consideration of payment of rent, the owner is said to have let out the property.
Such letting of the property is known as lease. The person who grants the lease is called lesser and who takes
the lease is called lessee or lease holder.
Types of lease:
1. Building lease: The owner of the freehold land may give his freehold property to somebody i.e. leaseholder
who invest and construct suitable building. The leaseholder pays yearly ground rent to free holder. After
completion of the building the lease holder gets rent for the building. The difference between this rent and
ground rent he pays to free holder is termed as income from the property. The lease period is generally 99 or
999 years as lease holder invest huge money for the construction of building.
2. Occupation lease: When the free holder grants the lease of land and building for occupation purpose such as
factory, shop, office such lease is termed as occupation lease. Occupation lease is for shorter duration than
building lease such lease is for a period of 20 to 30 years. Occupation lease may be granted on rising rent basis
due to possible future development of nearby areas.
3. Sublease: As per the terms and conditions in the original lease, lease holder may grant sub lease of fill! or
part of premises to other person sub lease is granted for a period less than the original lease period. The
original lease holder is the lesser for sub lease holder.
4. Leases for life: When the period of lease granted by the free holder is for the duration of We of lessee such
lease is called lease for the !life.
5. Perpetual lease: it is granted for number of years. This lease is renewed from time to time as per the desire of
lease holder in perpetuity and is continuous transaction

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Methods of valuation of Land
1] Comparative method
By direct comparison with similar land.
2) Abstractive method
a] Determine nearby rent of land
b] Calculate capitalized value.
C =Rent X Y.P.
3] Belting Method
Divide land into number of belt, usually 3.
a] Considering size, shape, location etc. determine rate of 1 belt
b] Rate of second belt = 3/4 x Rate of first belt
c] Rate of third belt = 1/2 x Rate of first belt

Belting Method Of Valuation :- When a plot of big size is to be valued or when a plot with less frontage & more
depth is to be valued, then Belting method is adopted.
It is due to the principle that frontage land has a greater value than back land. So to find out value of land, the
entire plot is divided into a number of convenient strips by lines parallel to the center line of the road.
Each such strip of land is known as belt.
The depth of front belt is judicially ascertained on the consideration to what depth of the land does the
maximum value extended.
Then relationship regarding the value & depth of each belt to the front belt is fixed up & the rate per sq. in. of
land for first belt is worked out.
Multiply the area of each belt by respective related rate per unit area & after summing the value of each belt,
the value of entire plot of land can be known. This system of valuation is known as belting method of valuation
Important facts should be kept in mind.
1. Depth of front belt : No uniform rule for deciding the optimum depth of front belt.
It will depend on various factors such as location of the property, suitability for development, instances of sales
for comparison, zoning regulations, etc.
2) Sufficient data :- The method can prove to be perfectly scientific, if sufficient data & sales are available
showing relative values of land according to the distances from the main road.
3) Utility :- The method is full of assumptions & it must be used by only experienced valuer. The method is
practically useless for agricultural lands & garden lands which are usually sold by hectares.

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Standard Rent and Standard Rent Fixation
The rent is determined from the value of a property. Greater the value of a property, greater is the rent. The
rent of a building is fixed on the basis of certain percentage of the annual ..interest on the capital cost, less all
possible annual outgoings. The rent fixation should not exceed the standard rent so that it
can be challenged at the court of law. The capital cost includes the cost of construction of the
building, cost of sanitary, water supply work, electric installations.
The cost of construction also includes the expenditures on the following.
1) Raising leveling & dressing sites, 2) Construction of compound walls, fences & gates, 3) Storm water drains &
4) Approach roads within the compound.
Therefore, the rate of interest is considered for a fair secured returns by way of interest. Considering the
drawbacks such as security & regularity of the income, the liquidity of the capital, inflation, etc., the rate of
interest should be considered 2 percent higher than interest on government security bonds.

fixation of rent.
Annual or periodic payment for the use of land or of land and building.
Procedure to Fix rent
1 )Capitalized value of property is known.
2) Divide capitalized value by Y. P. to calculate net income.
3)Gross rent per year = (Net income per year) + (Outgoings per year)
4) Rent per month = (Gross rent per year / 12)
5) The rent worked out known as -Standard Rent'.
6) Actual rent known as contractual rent, which may be higher of lower than standard rent.

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Periodical payment for repayment of capital amount Sinking fund is ___
invested in a property for a specific period is called as a) the fund for rebuilding a structure when its
1. Sinking fund 2. Depreciation 3. Revaluation 4. economic life is over
Annuit b) raised to meet maintenance costs
c) the total sum to be paid to the municipal authorities
by the tenants
d) a part of the money kept in reserve for
providing additional structures and structural
modifications
Periodical deposit for the replacement of the property The amount paid by the contractor to the
at the end of its usefull life is organization before getting the work order, as a
1. Annuity 2. Sinking fund 3. Depreciation 4. guarantee of execution of the work as per the contract
Revaluation(WRD2016) is known as(WRD2016)
1. Liquidated damages 2. Earnest money 3. Security
deposit 4. Bank guarantee
The work order for starting of work to the contractor Loss in the value of property due to its use, wear and
after accepting of tender is issued only after payment tear, obsolescence etc. is called as
of 1. Book value 2. Scrap value 3. Depreciation 4.
1. Security deposit 2. Liquidated damages 3. None Salvage value
of these 4. Earnest money

6.A property whose owner is in the absolute


possession of the property, and the owner can utilize
the same in any manner he likes subject to the rules
and regulations of Govt, and local authorities is known
as (MPSC12)
A. Leasehold property B. Saleable property C.
Freehold property D. Absolute property
Which value of asset will fetch more money from A building was constructed 20 years ago at ? 50000.
market? (MPSC12) The estimated life of the building is 90 years. What is
A. Distress value B. Monopoly value the present value of the building using straight - line
C. Sentimental value D. Potential value method? Use 10% scrap value. (MPSC13)
A. 40000 B.38888 C.45000 D.35000
Security deposit deducted at 5% from contractor's The method used for valuation of building is: .
bills is: (MPSC13) (MPSC13)
A .Refunded when the contractor completes the work. A. Rental method of valuation
B .Refunded even before the completion of the work B. Depreciation method of valuation
provided good progress has been established C. Valuation based upon cost
C. Refunded till the expected life of structure and D.Any of the above
spent for maintenance
D. Refunded when the defect liability period of six
months or one monsoon whichever is later over.
Salvage value is defined as: (MPSC15) The rights and privileges which an owner of a
A. Value of dismantled materials of a property at the properly enjoys through or over the property of
end of its utility period another is known as: (MPSC15)
B. Estimated value of a built up property at the end A. Property right B.Lease right
of its useful life without being dismantled C. Legal right D. Easement
C. Value of the property shown in the account book in
that particular year
D.Present value of a property considering it to be re-
placed at the current market rates
Which method of depreciation is suitable for finding Security deposit is (MPSC18)
depreciation of a building having a life of 100 years? A. Deposited at the time of filling tender.
(MPSC17) B. Deposited by the contractor whose tender is
A. Constant percentage method accepted.
B. Straight-line method C. Deposited at the time of opening tenders.
C. Sinking fund method D. Deposited for fair competition.
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D. Quantity survey method

The valuation of a building depends upon The valuation of a property is done when
(1) its structure and durability (2) size, shape and type (1)owner of the property wants to sell it
(3) quality of material used (4) all of the above (2)municipal tax, wealth tax, estate duty etc. have to
be fixed
(3)insurance of the property has to be done
(4)all of the above
The gradual reduction in value with age of a property The amount of money whose annual interest at the
is known as highest prevailing rate of interest will
(1)devaluation (2)revaluation be equal to the net income from the property, is
(3)depreciation (4)appreciation known as
(1)Rental value
(2)Capital cost
(3)Property value
(4) Capitalized value
Net rent + Outgoings = The net annual letting out value of a property, which is
(1)Total rent obtained after deducting the amount of yearly repairs
(2)Annual rent from the gross income, is known as
(3)Depreciation value (1)Market value
(4)Gross rent (2)Book value
(3)Sinking value
(4)Rentable value
A person who advances loan against the mortgage of a Total depreciation during first five years of a cement
property is known as concrete structure is usually taken as
(1)Lessee(2)Broker (3)Financer (1)Nil (2)1/2% (3)1% (4)2%
(4)Mortgager
Annual periodic payments for repayment of the If the amount of annuity is paid for a definite number
capital amount invested in a property, is known as of periods of year, it is known as
(1) Installment (2) Depreciation (3) Annuity' (4) (1)Known annuity (2) Annuity certain
Replacement (3) Annuity plan (4) Deferred annuity
A fixed stipulated sum of penalty payable by the A penalty imposed by railway for the delay in
contractor having no relationship with removing goods and for keeping railway
real damage, is known as space occupied beyond a certain allowable period, is
(1)Fixed penalty known as
(2)Liquidated damages (1) Demurrage (2) Warfage (3) Penalty (4)
(3)Unliquidated damages Damage
(4)Terminal damage
If the amount of annuity is paid at the beginning of The functional obsolescence may be due to
each period of year and payments (1)advancement in the planning ideas
continued for definite number of years, it is known as (2)extra high ceiling
(1)Future annuity (2) Annuity due (3) Annuity (3)ill-lighted and ventilated rooms
plan (4) Deferred annuity (4)Any of the above

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The capitalized value of a property fetching a net A machine is purchased for Rs. 10,000,00/- and has an
annual rentof ? 1000 with highest rate estimated life of 10 years. The salvage value at the end
of interest prevailing being 5%, would be of 10 years is Rs. 1,50,000/-. The book value of the
(1) 800 (2) 1000 (3) 10000 (4) machine at the end of 5 years using general straight
20000 line met hod of evaluation of depreciation is
(WRD2016)
1. Rs. 6,50,000/- 2. Rs. 5,75,000/- 3. Rs. 8,50,000/-
4. Rs. 4,75,000/-

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The book value of a machine at the end of 8 years is If book value of the equipment at the end of fourth
Rs. 3,20,000/-. If estimated life of machine is 10 yrs & year is Rs. 6,60,000/- and end of sixth year is Rs.
salvage value at the end of 10 years is Rs. 1,50,000/-. 4,90,000/-. If estimated life of equipment is 10 years,
The purchase cost of machine using general straight then salvage value of the equipment at the end of 10
line method of evaluation of depreciation is years using general straight line method of evaluation
(WRD2016) of depreciation is
1. Rs. 6,50,000/- 2. Rs. 8,50,000/- 3. Rs. 10, 000,00/- 1. Rs. 2,50,000/- 2. Rs. 2,00,000/- 3. Rs. 1,00,000/-
4. Rs. 5,75,000/- 4. Rs. 1,50,000/-

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The original cost of an equipment is Rs.10000. If the original cost of an equipment is Rs.12000. If
salvage value at the end of its total useful life of 5 salvage value at the end of its total useful life of five
years is Rs. 1000. Its book value at the end of 2 years years is Rs.1500. Its book value at the end of two
of it's useful life (as per straight line method of years of its useful life (as per straight line method of
evolution of depreciation) will be (PWD19) evaluation of depreciation) will be (PWD19)
A. Rs. 8800 B. Rs. 7600 C. Rs. 6400 D. Rs. 5000 A. Rs.7800 B. Rs.7200 C. Rs.7300 D. Rs.7400

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The original cost of an equipment is Rs.15000. If Calculate the total quantity of plastering of 12 mm
salvage value at the end of its total useful life of ten thickness in cement mortar of (1:6) for 1 brick thick
years is 2000. Its book value at the end of three years wall on the both faces. Dimension of the wall is 6 m X
of its useful life (as per straight line method of 3 m width opening of 1 m X 2 m in it (WRD2016)
evaluation of depreciation) will be (PWD19) 1. 33 Sq.m 2. 36 Sq.m 3. 32 Sq.m 4. 34 Sq.m
A. Rs.11200 B. Rs.11100 C. Rs.12100 D. Rs.13200

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Size of door opening is 1 m X 2 m then total quantity An owner of a building requires Rs.15,000 to repair
of painting will be (WRD2016) his building after 5 years. What sum should the owner
1. 5 Sq.m 2. 4 Sq.m 3. 2 Sq.m 4. 4.5 Sq.m have to invest now in order to receive the required
amount of money at a rate of compound interest 8%?
(MPSC17)
A. Rs. 10,207.50 B. Rs. 10,720.50
C. Rs. 10,270.50 D. Rs. 10,072.50

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The capitalised value of a property fetching a net Annual income from a property is 25,000. The cap-
annual rent of Rs. 1000 with highest rate of interest italized value of this property for a prevailing rate of
prevailing being 5%, would be: (MPSC15) 12.5% interest is (MPSC12)
A. Rs. 800 B. Rs: 1400 A. 5,00,000 B. 2,00,000
C. Rs. 10,000 D. Rs. 20,000 C. 2,50,000 D. 3,12,000

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Tenders and Contracts
Contracts

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Which of the following documents will not be required 16.Which of the following documents will not be re-
for drafting the tender notice? (MPSC12) quired for drafting the tender notice? (MPSC13)
A. Nature of work and its location A.Nature of work and its location
B. Estimated cost of the work B.Estimated cost of the work
C. Mode of submitting tender C.Schedule-A of the work
D. Schedule A' of the proposed work D.Mode of submitting tender
.Which of the following represents the requirements for a contract to be valid:
of valid contract: (MPSC13) (a)Parties to the contract should be competent
a.It must be in writing (b)Proper proposal and its acceptance
b.Can be enforced in court of law (c)Free consent of parties involved in the agreement
c.Particles should give the consent for agreement (MPSC15)
d.Parties concerned must be competent A. (a) and (c) B. (c) only
A.(a) and (b) of the above C. (a), (b) and (d) D.All of the above
B.(a) and (c) of the above
C.(c) and (d) of the above
D.(a), (b) (c) and (d) of the above
A tender is said to be informal: (MPSC15) Which committee recommended that an allow-ance of
(a)When it is not submitted in the form sold by the 10% of the prime cost as the contractor's profit would
department be reasonable? (MPSC15)
(b)When the tender is not properly filled in or signed A. The Rates and Costs Committee, 1957
by the contractor B. MPWD Committee, 1940
(c)When the tender is made conditional by way of C.CPWD Committee, 1950
adding indefinite an uncertain liabilities of usual D.MPSC Committee, 2010
character to it.
(d) When it is not supported by the requisite earnest
money in the manner prescribed for the purpose in
PWD form:
A.(a), (b), (c) B. (a), (b), (c), (d)
C. (a), (d) D. (d)
While submitting a tender, the contractor is required In case of which type of contract, unbalanced ten-der
to deposit some amount with the department, as is not possible ? (MPSC18)
guarantee of the tender, known as : (MPSC15) A. Open tender
A. Bank Guarantee B. EMD. B. Item rate contract
C. S.D. D. F.D C. Percentage rate contract
D. Unit price contract
Which of the following types of contract is used for Assertion (A): Earnest money deposit is usually 1% to
execution of large works financed by public bodies or 2% of the total estimated cost of the work. Reasoning
the government (MPSC18) (R): Earnest money deposit prevents unnecessary and
A. Item rate contract unhealthy competition. (MPSC18)
B. Percentage rate contract A. Both A and R are true.
C. Cost plus type contract B. Both A and R are false.
D. Target contract C. A is true and R is false.
D. A is false and R is true
While submitting tender by three envelope method, Proper Form No. for indent for demanding material is
which envelope contains rates/amount offered by the ____
tenderer ? (MPSC18) a) 26 b) 24 c) 33 d) 22
A. Envelop: 3 B. Envelope nos: 1 and 2
C. Envelope: 1 D. None of the above

When a contractor is paid certain percentage over the An agency which is employed to execute a work or
actual cost of the construction as his profit, such part of a work at the cost of contractor who fails to
contract is termed as complete the work, is known as
(1)Lump-sum contract (2)Piece work contract (1)Secondary agency (2)Substitute agency
(3)Schedule contract (4)Cost plus percentage (3)Debitable agency (4)Creditable agency
contract. (5) Any of the above

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Rate Analysis
Rate Analysis It is defined as Determination of rate per unit of a
particular item of work from the quantities and cost of
materials, labours, tools and plants etc. required is
denned as "Rate Analysis"
The rate per unit of particular item depends
(a) Quantity of materials and cost.
(b) Labour costs.
(c) Transportation of materials.
(d) Cost of tools and plants.
(e) Contractor's profit.
Purpose of rate analysis (a) To find the actual cost of item at the locality
(b) To check the rates offered by contractors
(c) To calculate the exact quantity of materials and
labours
(d) To fix up labour contract rates
(e) To examine most economic method of
construction.
(f) For preparing supplementary estimates.
Data Required for Rate Analysis 1. Market rate of material.
2. Market rate of labours.
3. Task work.
4. Details of operations involved in constructions.
5. Tools, equipment’s and their outturn
Factors affecting the rate analysis (a) Major factors (b) Minor factors
a)Major Factors (b) Minor factors : These are to be considered
The cost of work is mainly due to cost of material, under special conditions as follows.
cost of labour and specification of item (a) Special plants and equipments : If the
(i) Materials execution of an item requires use of special
Material is the major part required for the equipments, the cost Of using such equipment
construction work. About 50% of total cost of should be taken into account.
work is due to the cost of materials. (b) Place of work : If the site is far away, cost will
Hence, it is necessary to work out the exact increase due to extra transportation. Again if the
quantity of materials required. The excess site of work is congested, stacking the material
quantity of material or shortage of material near the place of work will not be possible. The
greatly affect the rate analysis. Cost of materials material will have to be stacked on main road and
includes material cost, freight, transportation, then taken to place of work in hand carts. This
sales tax and insurance charges. If materials like increases the labour cost due to double handling
cement, steel, stone chips and bitumen are of materials.
supplied by the department then profit on cost of (c) Magnitude of work : Greater the magnitude
material is not allowed but only transportation of work, lesser will be the cost.
cost shall be added. d) Specifications : If the specifications require
(ii) Labour : Labour force is required to install use of superior quality of materials, the rate will
the materials to complete the item of work. be higher.
Labour is the most uncertain acts in determining (e) Site conditions : For difficult site conditions,
the cost of any item of work. The amount of the cost will be on higher side.
labour force required depends upon the task (f) Conditions of contract : If the conditions of
work. In any case, the labour force required will contract are rigid, the cost per unit of an item will
depend upon the efficiency of the labour and be higher.
wages paid. It is therefore necessary to study (g) Overhead charges : These charges mainly
carefully the task work and wages paid before consist of depreciation of machinery, testing and
starting the process of rate analysis. By knowing storage of materials, power and water supply
the amount of labour force and their wages, the connections, office expenses, like stationary,
cost of labour can be worked out. typing, telephone bill, rent, salary of staff etc.
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These varies from 2 to 5% .
(h) Contractor's profit: (Usually 10% profit is
allowed to the contractor for this services).
Categories of labour : Labour is classified in the
following three categories-
(i) Skilled labour,
(ii) Semi-skilled labour, and
(iii) Unskilled - labour
The labour wages vary from place to place. Hence
while carrying out the rate analysis, prevailing
wages for various labours from their areas should
be first ascertained.

Lead 1)It is the horizontal distance between the trench pit


and the place where excavated earth is deposited.
2) Normally lead is taken as 30 m.
3)Separate measurements are taken for every 30 m
lead.
4)Extra lead - It is difference between actual lead and
standard lead. For extra lead rates will be different

Lift 1)It is the depth of excavation or the vertical


movement of material is called lift. 2) Normally lift is
taken as 1.5 m.
3) Separate measurements are taken for every 1.5 m
lift

Task-work It is a quantity of work which is an average skilled


labour (Artisan) can do in one working day of eight
hours. It is also known as out turn of a skilled labour
in one day, or labour constant. The task-work depends
upon the nature of work. location, climatic conditions,
techniques adopted, equipment employed, wages paid
and site organization.
Factors affecting the task-work 1) Output of different skilled worker varies
considerably according to their skill.
2) Output of an individual worker also varies
considerably according to their skill.
3) Efficient site organization & management increases
the labour output whereas faulty or slack organisation
will decrease it.
4) Higher wages, incentive payments & other
amenities such as clean & healthy labour camps, less
working hours improve the output.
5) Peculiarities of job & site conditions may have some
effect on the output

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Task work or out-tum per day per skilled labour
Sr. Item Labour Quantity
No
1 Brick-work in foundation and plinth Labour Mason 1.25cu.m.
2 Brick-work in superstructure Mason 1.00cu.m.
3 Half brick wall in portion Mason 5.00cu.m.
4 Uncoursed rubble masonry Mason 1.33cu.m.
5 Coursed rubble stone masonry Mason 0.80cu.m.
6 Random rubble stone masonry Mason 1.00cu.m.
7 Ashlar masonry Mason 0.40cu.m.
8 Stone arch work Mason 0.40cu.m.
9 Plain cement concrete(1:2:4) Mason 5.00cu.m
10 R.C.C.work Mason 3.00cu.m
11 12mm thick plastering with lime or cement Mason 8.00sq.m
12 Pointing with cement o rlime Mason 10.00sq.m
13 Whitewashing/colour washing 3 coats Painter 70.00sq.m
14 Whitewashing/colourwashing3coats Painter 200.00sq.m.
15 Painting or Varnishing doors/windows one coat Painter 25.00sq.m.
16 Distempering one coat Painter 35.00sq.m
17 Timber framing teak wood Carpenter 0.070cu.m.
18 Timber framing country wood Carpenter 0.15cu.m.
19 Doors/windows shutters paneled or glazed Carpenter 0.07cu.m
20 Primer coat with ready mix primer on wood or steel. Painter 40.0cu.m.
21 Mangalore Tiling Tilelayer 6.00sq.m.
22 Breaking of Brick ballast 40mm down Labour 0.75cu.m
23 Breaking of stone ballast Labour 0.40cu.m.
24 Ashlar stone dressing Cutter 0.70cu.m.
25 4cm thick I.P.S.flooring Mason 7.5sq.m
26 A.C.sheet Roofing Fitter 5.0sq.m
27 Excavation-ordinary soil Labour 3.0cu.m.
28 Excavation-Hard soil Labour 2.0cu.m
29 Excavation-Hard rock Labour 1.0cu.m.
30 Surface dressing 15 cm Labour 30.0cu.m.
31 Excavation over are as ord. soil Labour 5.50cu.m
32 Removing excavated material Labour 8.00cu.m.
Vertical(1.5mlift) Labour 10.00cu.m.
Horizontal(50m)
33 Filling in cart sand trucks Labour 0.07cu.m.
34 Reinforcement(Ba rbending) Fitter 1,Quintal

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SR.NO MATERIAL THEORETICAL WEIGHT IN Kg/cum


01 Cement 1440
02 Steel 7850
03 Dry sand 1600
04 River sand 1840
05 Stone 2850 to 2960
06 Water 1000
07 P.C.C 2240
08 R.C.C. (2% steel) 2420
09 Bricks 1600 to 1920
10 Brick masonry 1920
11 Soil 1760
12 Cement concrete block (solid) 1800
13 Cement mortar 2080
14 Lime mortar 1760
15 Lime 640
16 Glass 2530
17 Teak wood 670 to 830
18 Sal wood 990
19 Marble stone 2620
20 Granite stone 2460 to2800
21 Cuddappa 2720
22 Bitumen 1040

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The estimated quantity of cement required per m3 In case of beams, the ratio of breadth to depth is
in a compacted cement concrete of 1:2:4 nominal mix usually taken as (MPSC 12)
(MPSC 12) A. 0.5 to 0.7 B. 0.9 to 1.0
A. 305 kg B. 330 kg C. 285 kg D. 255 kg C. 1.2 to 1.4 D. 1.8 to 2.0
Assertion (A) : Rate analysis is carried out to work out The work output of a mason for brick work in cement
the actual cost of the structure or building. mortar for foundation work is roughly expected to
Reason (R) : Rate analysis is carried out to revise the be(MPSC 13)
schedule of rates. State whether(MPSC 12) A.0.5 cu.m.per day B. 1.25 cu.m.per day C. 2.00
A.Both A and R are true cu.m.per day D. 5.00 cu.m.per day
B.A is true and R is false
C.A is false and R is true
D.Both A and R are false
The rate of a particular item of work depends on: Purposes of rate analysis are(MPSC 17)
(MPSC 13) a. To determine the current rate per unit of an item at
a)Specifications of works and materials. the locality
b)Quantities of materials and their rates. b. To examine the viability of rates offered by contrac-
c)Location of the site of work. tors
d)Profit and overhead expenses of contractor. Answer c. To calculate the quantity of materials and labour
options: strength required for project planning
A. (a) and (b) B. Only (d) d. To fix labour contract rates Answer options:
C. (a), (c) and (d) D. (a), (b) (c) and (d) A. a, b and d B. b, c and d
C. a, band c D. a, b, c, and d
The nominal lead and lift allowed for earthwork in For 1 cumec of cement concrete proportion with stone
excavations of foundations are (MPSC 17) chips 1 : 2 : 4, the required number of cement bags is
A. 30 m and 1.5 m B. 15 m and 3.0 m (MPSC 17)
C. 20 m and 2.0 m D. 10 m and 4.5 m A. 6.34 B. 6.0 C. 5.5 D. 4.5
If the length of 16 mm diameter bar is 10 m, then its
weight is (MPSC 18)
A.16.5 kg B. 16.9 kg C. 15.8 kg D. 16.2 kg

How many bricks a truck usually carries How many bricks 20 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm will be
(1)2000(2)3000(3)4500(4)7500 required for one cubic metres of masonary work
(1)500 (2)5,000(3)50,000 (4)5,00,000
The method used for valuation of buildings is The rate of an item of work depends on
(1)Depreciation methodof valuation (1)Specifications of works
(2)Valuation based on profit (2)Specifications of materials
(3)Valuation based on cost (3)Proportion of mortar
(4)Rental method of valuation (4) ethod of construction
(5)Any of the above (5) all of the above

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Specification
Specification Specification: A contract document specifying the
quality of material to be used and procedure and
method of workmanship to be adopted
in the construction work is called as specification.
2)If the project is to be properly executed, the
specification is the best guide to all, including owner,
department, contractor, sub- contractor, suppliers,
engineers, architects and supervisors. It serves as a
useful legal document in case of dispute between
different
Following are the various types of specification :
a. Brief specification
b. Detailed specification
c. Standard specification
d. Manufacturers specification
(a) Brief specification The general specification used for estimating the
project is the brief specifications. The specification
which gives the brief description of various items of
work, specifying the materials, quantities, proportion
of materials and gives general idea about the whole
work
(b) Detailed specification The specification in which detailed information of the
various quantities of materials, procedure of
workmanship to be adopted, nature and class of work
is mentioned. The details specification describes the
item of work in details, accurately and complete in all
respects in relation to the drawings of the work.
(c) Standard specification Detailed specifications for various works are drawn
up by an engineering department and these
specifications are printed and used as a standard
specification. Hence most of the items in works are
made to standardized specifications.
(d) Manufacturers specifications This type of specifications in which the properties of
products such as strength, thickness, depth, elasticity,
chemical composition etc. are mentioned.

Brief specification Detailed specification


The specification which gives the brief description of The detailed specification describes the item of work
various items of work. in details.
Brief specification specifies the materials, quantities, The specification in which detailed information of the
proportion of materials various quantities of materials, procedure of
workmanship to be adopted.
It gives general idea about the whole work It gives nature and class of work in detail.
The general specification used for estimating the The details specification describes the item of work
project is the brief specifications. accurately and complete in all respects in relation to
the
drawings of the work.

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Purpose of Specifications i. To give the required information for an item of
work.
ii. To help the contractor in giving necessary quotation
for work.
iii. To carry out supervision work effectively during
construction.
iv. For necessary execution of the work.
v. It protects the owner from any damage due to bad
workmanship or low quality of material.
vi. Witness in the court to settle the disputes.
vii. To avoid extra items.
Viii. It is helpful to prepare rate analysis of various
items.
ix. It helps to the contractor in preparing and pricing
the tender.
x. specification is an important tool or document and
play the important role for arbitration.

The Importance of specification 1. The cost of a unit quantity of work is governed by its
specification. Specification specifies method of doing
work; thus specification serves as a guide to the
supervising staff.
2. Contractor is paid only when the work is carried out
according to the specification.
3. Any changes in specification changes the tendered rate.
4. Tender paper without specification is incomplete and
invalid.

Legal aspects of specification 1)The tender documents and agreements towards


legal aspect are incomplete and invalid without
specifications.
2)in case of discrepancy between the drawings and
specifications, the specification act as a legal proof.
3) Specification fixes the responsibilities of owner and
contractor
4) Specification is an important tool or document and
play the important role for arbitration.

Principles of specification i) Subject matter


ii) Grammer
iii) Abbreviations
iv)Development of style
v) Selection of words
vi) Accuracy
vii) Conflicting statements
viii) Practical limits and commercial sizes
ix) Clearity
x) Fairness
xi) Brevity
i) Subject matter : The contents of the specifications
must relate to the requirements of work. It should
only state what is to be done. Repetition of matter
should be avoided.
ii) Grammer : All the rules of grammar should be
followed. The style and tense should be the same
throughout. Use of pronoun should be avoided.
iii) Abbreviations : Only those abbreviations which
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are approved in building industry should be used.
iv) Development of style : Each person should
develop his own style of writing.
v) Selection of words : Only suitable words with
desired and single meaning should be used. Unusual
technical terms should be avoided.
vi) Accuracy : The information given should be
complete and correct.
vii) Conflicting statements : The clauses of
specifications should not create any conflict. In other
words, meaning of two sentences should not
contradict each other.
viii) Practical limits and commercial sizes : While
writing specifications what is practically impossible
should not be specified. So also it should mention only
the commercial sizes which are readily available in the
market.
ix) Clearity : The specifications should be clear and
should not be open to different interpretations.
x) Fairness : The specifications should be fair to all
the parties. It should not throw all the risks and
responsibilities on the contractor.
xi) Brevity : The sentences of specifications should be
short, simple and concise. Brevity is the essence of
specifications.

Sources of specification writing i) Contract drawings.


ii) Previous specifications which are always referred
as a basis for writing new specifications.
iii) Owner's requirements.
iv) Site investigations which provide useful
information and
v) Trade catalogues supplied by manufacturers.

Specification paragraphs 1) Specification for material.


2) Combination or proportion of mixture of different
materials.
3) Preliminary works prior to the construction or
installation of material.
4) Method of workmanship.
5) Tests and inspections if any.
6) Clearing of site of completion of work.
7) Mode of measurements and payment

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points to be observed in framing specifications of 1. Clear facts of the quality of material and
a work item. workmanship mentioned in the specification should
be observed.
2. Specification depends upon the site conditions;
hence it is to be observed the nature of work and
purpose for which the work is carried out.
3. Well-known or familiar abbreviations in building
industry are to be used without giving information.
4. Proper and suitable words with required meaning
should only be used. Unfamiliar works should not be
used in specification.
5. Prepare the specification by observing the rules of
grammar.
6. The information about quality of the material and
procedure of workmanship to be adopted should be
complete and accurate.
7. Avoid cross-references.
8. The specification should state looking to view that
what the contractor shall or shall not do and not what
the contractor should or should not do.
9. The subject matter mentioned in the specification
should relate to the information required when the
contract is given to the contractor.
10. Unfair specifications are not desirable, meaning
that throwing all the possible risks on the shoulders of
contractors is unfair and hence such specification
should not be mentioned.
11. The sentences of the specification should be
simple and short so as to avoid the risk of legal
difficulties and allegations.
12. Specifications of various items should be framed
by keeping the practical limitations of materials and
workmanship in mind.

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Detailed specification for RCC slab 1:2:4.
(i) Materials:
a) Coarse aggregate:
Coarse aggregate shall be from hard broken stone of
compact basalt or granite or similar stone and shall be
free from dust, dirt, oil and other foreign matters.
Size of stone shall be 20 mm and down and all sizes of
stones shall be retained in a 5 mm square mesh and
well graded. Size of stone aggregate depends upon the
thickness of concrete and nature of work.
b) Fine aggregate:
Fine aggregate shall have coarse sand consisting of
hard, sharp and angular grains.
Sand shall be as per the standard specification.
Sand shall be clean and free from dust, dirt, oil and
other organic matter.
c) Cement :
Cement shall be fresh, not old & as per the standard
I.S. specification and shall have required compressive
strength and fineness.
d) Water :
Water shall be clean water, free from any impurities
and free from alkaline and acid matters; water shall be
suitable for drinking purpose.
ii) Reinforcement: It shall be of mild steel free from
corrosion .All bars shall be made and placed as per bar
schedule & design. Proper
overlapping shall be provided.
iii) Proportion :
The proportion of concrete shall be such that it should
give strength of at least 20 N/mm2 .1:2:4 proportion of
cement, sand and course aggregate by volume shall be
used, unless otherwise specified. All ingredients shall
be dry. Bulking of sand allowance shall be made for
wet sand.
iv) Mixing of concrete:
a)Machine Mixing :
Cement, sand and coarse aggregate shall be taken into
the mixer in required proportion. The mixing time
shall not be less than 3 minutes Mixed concrete shall
be discharge on a masonry platform or on a
flat iron sheet.
b)Hand Mixing :
Hand mixing is allowed for small work only. Mixing of
ingredients shall be done on masonry platform or flat
iron sheet. Then water shall be added slowly and
gradually and then turning the mix up and down at
least three times by spade till to obtain a plastic mix of
the required workability and water–cement ratio.
v) Form work/Centering :
Form work and centering shall be used as per the
standard specifications Internal surface of formwork
shall be applied by oil so as to avoid sticking of
concrete during removal of the formwork.
vi) Laying of concrete :
Concrete shall be laid gently and compacted with rods
and tamping with wooden tampers or with
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mechanical vibrating machine until a dense concrete
is obtained. Immersion type vibrators or needle
vibrators shall be used for thick concrete or mass
concrete. Surface vibrators or form vibrators shall be
used for thin concrete. There shall not be over
vibration. Concrete shall be laid continuously
(vii) Curing :
When concrete is on the point of hardening, after and
about two hours laying, then it shall be kept wet by
covering with wet gunny bags for 24 hours and then
cured by flooding with water. Making mud wall 75
mm high or by covering with wet sand continuously
for 15 days.
(viii) Measurement :
The measurement shall be taken as per the drawing or
as per instruction of the engineer. The measurement
shall be in cubic meter without deducting volume of
steel. The rate of RCC shall be for the complete item
which includes shuttering, tools and plants. The
measurement shall confirm IS 1200.

Detailed specification for M20 grade of concrete in footing and column.


1. Proportion: Proportion of 1: 1.5: 3 shall be adopted by taking one part of cement, 1.5 parts of sand or fine
aggregates and three parts of coarse aggregate by volume.
2. Concrete Ingredients:
Cement: Cement shall be measured by weight as per the standard requirements.
Fine Aggregate: The sand shall be free from impurities like dust, clay, oil etc. It shall be well washed before use.
Coarse Aggregate: The coarse aggregate shall consist of 67% of size from 20mm to 40mm and 33% size from
20mm to 6mm. The coarse aggregate shall also be free from impurities like clay, dust, oil and
organic material.
Water: The water shall be clean, fresh and drinkable.
3. Steel: Steel reinforcing bars used in concrete shall be of mild steel or deformed steel as per the standard
specifications and shall be free from corrosion, loose rust scales, paint, grease, oil etc. Joints in the
bar shall be prevented. When joints have to be made, then an overlap of 40 times diameter of the bar shall be
given. Bigger diameter bars shall be joined by welding. Proper cover shall be maintained for steel
bars, so as to prevent from exposing to atmosphere.
4. Concreting Operations:
Mixing: The mixing of concrete shall be done in a mechanical mixer for large scale concrete or by hand
operation for small scale concrete work.
Form work: The formwork shall be oiled from inside before concreting the formwork. The concrete shall be laid
in the forms and tapped in such manner that no honeycomb surface shall appear on removal of the forms.
The formwork and centering shall be made of dressed timber of well seasoned wooden boards to give a smooth
and even surface and the joints shall not allow leakage of cement paste.
Laying of concrete: Concrete shall be laid continuously, if laying is suspended for rest, then end shall be sloped
at an angle of 300 and made rough for proper bonding and key. When the work is resumed, the previous sloped
portion shall be made rough, clean and watered. A coat of neat cement paste shall be applied on this roughened
portion and fresh concrete shall be laid.
Compaction: Concrete shall be compacted by mechanical vibrators so as to have a dense concrete. Over-
vibration shall be prevented. Hand compaction shall be done with the help of punning rods and tamping rods
and tamping with the wooden tampers so that concrete is thoroughly compacted and completely walked into
the corners of the form work. After removal of the form work, the concrete surface shall be free from any
defects such as honey combing, air holes, cracks etc.
Curing: Freshly laid concrete shall be protected from direct sun, rain etc. When the concrete is set or harden
about 2 hours after its laying, it shall be protected with gunny bags. After 24 hours of laying; the concrete
surface shall be cured by flooding with water by making small ponds. The minimum period for
curing shall be 14 days.
5. Measurement: Length, breadth and depth or thickness shall be measured correct to a cm and the
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consolidated cubic contents of the concrete shall be calculated net to the nearest 0.01 cubic meter.
Concrete laid in excess of the dimensions shown in the drawings shall not be measured.

Detailed specification for external plastering in cm (1: 4) with 20 mm thickness of a new brick wall.
(i)Material Cement: Ordinary Portland cement shall be used .The
cement shall conform to IS: 269 latest versions.
Sand: Fine aggregate shall be natural sand obtained
from a river bed and shall conform to 15:383-1 and to
the relevant portion of IS: 515- 1959. Sand shall be
clean, hard, strong, durable and free from organic
matter, dust, clay, shale, alkali, salts, soft or flaky
particles or other injurious substances.
Water: Potable water shall be used for mixing the
mortar.
(ii)Proportion Cement and sand shall be mixed in the proportion of
one part of cement to four parts of sand.
Mixing: Mortar shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer
of an approved pattern at the site of work The drum
shall be rotated for a minimum period of 2 minutes
The mortar shall be used within 30 minutes of adding
water or by hand mixing
(iii)Plastering The mortar shall be firmly applied on the surface
from top to down and well pressed into the joints. The
mortar shall then be rubbed and leveled with a flat
wooden rule until a perfectly plane and even surface is
achieved. All corners shall be finished to their angles,
unless otherwise directed by the engineer: The jambs
and reveals Of door and window openings shall be
finished perpendicular to the sill and lintel bottom.
Plastering shall be done in squares or strips as
directed by the engineer. Strips or squares shall be so
formed that dayto- day breaks are made to coincide
with architectural breaks.
Finish: While the plastered surface is fresh, a thick
coat of cement slurry shall be applied and rubbed
smooth.
Curing: All plastered surfaces shall be kept
continuously damp for a period of 14 days.
(iv)Mode of Measurements The unit of measurement shall be the
square meter as per IS: 1200

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Specifications for 1st Class Brick in Cement Mortar (1:6):
A) Material:
I) Brick - The brick snail be molded from good earth free from salts. Bricks shall be of standard
specifications, regular in shape & size with sharp edges and corners. The bricks shall be well burnt
from an approved kiln of deed red or copper color, free from cracks, flaws and lumps& shall not
show any signs of efflorescence in dry as well as wet state Dry Brick shall not absorb more than 20% of their
weight when immersed in water for 24 hours. Brick shall have an average compressive strength of 10 N/mm2.
Bricks shall give clear ringing sound when struck. The bricks shall be of standard dimensions as per IS (size 190
mm x 90mm x 90 mm) or as prescribed by PWD.
B) Soaking of bricks: All bricks shall be thoroughly soaked in water by submerging bricks - clear water for at
least 4 hours before use.
C) Brick laying: Brick laying shall be in specified bond as directed by the engineer in-charge. A layer
of mortar shall be spread on full width over a suitable length of the lower course. Each brick shall be laid
properly with frog upward and set to true line and plumb. Every course shall be leveled by gently tapping.
Broken bricks shall not be used except as closers of required shape vertical joints in alternate courses shall
come directly one over the other.
i) brick work shall be carried out to uniform height of not more than 1 meter per day.
ii) Mortar joints shall not be more than l0 mm in the thickness. Joints snail be full of mortar.
iii) All mortar joints on surface of wall shall be raked to a minimum depth of 15mm, when the walls are to be
plastered
v) All iron fixtures, pipes, outlets for water, hold fast for doors and windows which are required to be built in to
the wall shall be embedded in cement concrete as specified at correct position.
D) Curing: Brickwork shall be protected from rain when the mortar is green. Masonry work shall be moist on
all faces for minimum period of at least 7 days.
E) Scaffolding: Scaffolding shall consist of the sound & strong vertical supports tied together with horizontal
timber pieces over which horizontal planks shall be fixed, 'the holes left in masonry, works for scaffolding
purpose shall be filled with cement mortar before plastering

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Specification for IInd Class B.B.M. in 1:6 cement mortar.
1. In case of II class brickwork, bricks shall be of second class and mortar shall be as specified cement mortar of
1:6 proportion.
2. Mortar joints shall not be more than 10mm in thickness. Bricks shall be soaked in water for at least three
hours before use
a) Material of bricks 1. The bricks shall be table moulded, well burnt,
copper coloured, free from any cracks fissures and
defects and with sharp edges.
3. The bricks shall be of uniform shape and size. When
two bricks struck with each other, bricks should give
clear ringing sound.
4. The crushing strength or compressive strength of
brick shall not be less than 10.5 N/mm2.
5. The bricks shall not absorb water more then one
fifth of their weight when soaked in water for one
hour.
b) Mortar 1. The brick work shall be worked in cement mortar
and mixing of cement, sand and water shall be as per
the specified proportion. In case of wet sand, its
quantity shall be increased suitably so as to allow for
bulkage.
2. In case of cement mortar the unit of measurement
shall be a bag of cement (0.035 cu.m.) Sand shall be
measured in boxes of suitable size 35cm X25cm X
40cm as per the specified proportion
c)Mixing 1. Materials of mortar shall be first mixed without
water until a uniform colour is obtained. The mixing
shall be done on a clean water tight platform. After
addition of required fresh potable water, the mixture
shall be mixed at least three times with the help of
spade. Only the quantity of cement mortar
which can be used within 30 minutes shall be
prepared at a time.
2. The bricks shall be well soaked in water for at least
3 hours before their use.
3. The broken bricks shall not be used except as closer.
The mortar joints shall break for bonding and good
key and shall not be more than 10mm in thickness.
4. Bricks shall be laid with frogs upward, except in the
top course. Brickwork shall not be carried out more
than 1m in height at a time. All joint shall be raked and
faces of wall shall be cleaned at the end of each days
work.
5. The brickwork shall be cured for at least 15 days.
6. For all exposed brickwork, double scaffolding shall
be used. For all other brickwork in building, single
scaffolding shall be permitted.
d)Measurement The length and height shall be measured as on at site.
The thickness of walls shall be paid for as one brick,
one and a half bricks, two bricks in cu.m.

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12 cm thick cement plaster to brick work in cubic meter (1:6)
sand - Sand shall conform to IS 383, shall be clean, hard, strong, durable, free from silt
Cement- Cement shall be OPC conforming to IS 269 - 1958. Cement shall be measured on weight basis. All
standard tests shall be earned out to ensure that cement is of required quality.
Water : Shall be clean, free from salt. Only potable water shall be used
Proportion : Cement and sand shall be mixed in the proportion of 1 part of cement to five parts of sand by
volume.
Mixing : Cement and sand shall be thoroughly mixed in dry state to give a uniform colour. Mixing shall be done
on a smooth watertight platform of sufficient size to allow truing of mix. The mix shall be turned several times
after adding water Water shall be added by hose only. The quantity. of cement mortar that can be used within
30 minutes shall be prepared.
Preliminary Work Prior to Plastering : In case of old work, all joints shall be raked out to a depth equal to its
width. Smooth surfaces, if any, shall be roughened. All dust, dirt, oil, paint, etc. shall be removed. The surface
thus prepared shall be kept wet for at least six hours prior to plastering. The patches of plaster 15 cms x15 cms
shall be put on about 3 metres apart for the thickness of plaster. The surface of all such patches shall be in one
vertical plane.
Plastering: The plastering shall be started from top downward. Mortar shall be firmly applied on the surface
and well pressed into the joints. The mortar shall be rubbed and leveled with a flat wooden batten until a-
perfectly plain and, even surface is obtained. All corner shall be finished true to their angles. The jambs and
reveals of door and window openings shall be finished perpendicular to the still and lintel bottom. Plastering
shall, be done squares or strips.
Curing : All plastered surfaces shall be kept wet continuously for a period of 14 days. Curing shall begin
12hours after the plastering is finished.
Scaffolding : Scaffolding shall consist of the sound & strong vertical supports tied together with horizontal
timber pieces over which horizontal planks shall be fixed, 'the holes left in masonry, works for scaffolding
purpose shall be filled with cement mortar before plastering
Mode of measurement : Measurement shall be taken as per IS : 1200-1965. The unit shall be square meter.

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Detailed specification for UCR masonry work in CM (1:4) for foundation work.
The Detailed specification for UCR Masonry can be divided as
i) Materials ii) Mortar iii) Laying iv) Measurement
(i) Materials (a) Stone :
Stone shall be hard, able to dress, sound, free from
decay, defect and weathering. Stones with pores and
defects shall be rejected.
Size of stone shall not be less than 150 mm in any
direction.
Stones will be dressed and brought to required size
and shape. Stones with rounded surface shall not be
used for the work
(b) Sand or fine aggregate :
Sand or find aggregate needed for mortar shall be as
per the standard specification. Sand shall be well
graded and sized, clean and free from dust ,dirt, and
organic matter foreign matter
(c) Cement :
Cement for mortar shall be as per the standard
specification. It shall be fresh shall be of uniform color
and free from lumps. If doubtful it shall be checked
and subjected to tests and used only after found
satisfactory
d) Water
water fit for drinking purposes shall be used for
construction purpose
(ii) Mortar Various ingredients of mortar shall be first mixed in
prescribed proportion of 1: 4 with measuring box and
first mixed dry to have uniform colour on water tight
platform and then mixed wet at least three times by
adding water evenly and gradually in appropriate
proportion as specified.
(iii) Laying 1)The foundation trench shall be clean properly and
sprinkled with water
2)All the dressed stones shall be wetted thoroughly
before laying in stone work. The walls shall be carried
up in line and truly plumb.
3) Face stone shall not be narrower than that of its
height shall tail back and bond well into backing .
4) Stones shall be laid with break joint on the face for
at least half the height with those of courses above or
below.
5) All joints after laying the stones shall be filled by
mortar completely and thickness of joint shall not
more than 20 mm.
6) So as to prevent thick beds of joints and mortar,
interstices between stones shall be filled with stone
chips and spalls.
7) Bond stones at least 450 mm long shall be given
one for every half sq.m face in the interior thickness of
the walls.
8) Through stones (H) shall be approximately
provided so as to have the key bonding in between
facing and backing.
9) The masonry wall shall be carried out together with
a line and truly plumb so as to have uniform height.
iv) Measurement of stone work Measurement of UCR masonry shall be taken in cu.m
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Detailed specification for internal Painting with 3 coats of dry distemper.


Cleaning The surface to be painted shall be cleaned and made
smooth by rubbing sand papers of different grades
cracks loose plaster shall be bought up by plaster
work and all the holes and undulations shall be filled
up with plaster of Paris and rubbed smooth

Distempering The distemper shall be of best quality and the color


should be as specified. The distemper should be mixed
and prepared and water added as laid down in the
instruction of the manufacturers.
First a paste is made by adding little hot water to the
distemper powder and stirred thoroughly and the
paste is allowed to stand for a few minutes. The paste
is thinned with water and stirred thoroughly all the
time The surface must be perfectly dry before
distempering is to be started. In new cement plaster
the surface
shall be washed over with a solution of zinc sulphate.
In old surface the surface shall be repaired with
plaster of Paris where required and then whole
surface shall be washed and allow to dry
Coating the number of coats shall be two or three as
specified,The distemper shall be kept well in stirred in
containers and shall be applied with broad brushes
first horizontally and immediately crossed vertically
.Brushing should not be too long to avoid
brush marks The second coat shall be applied after
first and coat is dried up and after this final coat shall
be applied Distempering should be carried out during
dry weather but nor during too hot and wet weather
Workmanship The distemper shall be applied in the best
workmanship manner the brushes shall be of best
quality and they shall be worked in such manner that
a surface of uniform shade is obtained without
any hair crack drops etc. after each days of work
brushes shall be washed and kept dry.
Measurement Distempering shall be taken in Sq.m stating number of
coats and measurement shall be taken flat.

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Specifications in Hints
1)Specification for R.C.C. stair Proportion-Cement-fine aggregate-coarse aggregate-
water- reinforcement-couring -mixing-design of stair-
curing-finishing- measurement (Four steps for half
landing).
2)Specification for coursed rubble masonry I, II, III Properties of equal height (I), different height (II,III)
in C.M.(1:6) - Soaking in water-mortar-workmanship(I). Each
coarse of equal height, thickness of joint not exceeding
to 10mm (II),only two stones course & thickness of
joint 12mm, for (III) 3 stone coarse and thickness of
joint 16 mm- measurement-scaffolding.
3)Specification for Madras Terrace Roof Terrace brickwork brick aggregate- Mixing and laying
of Lime concrete-curing -Measurement.
Specification of
4)Abestos Cement corrugated sheet roofing Sheets — Purlins —Laying —Fixing — Slope —Ridges
— Windties — Measurement
5)Specification of Door Windows Properties — Chaukhats—Shutter or Leaves--Fittings
and Painting — Measurement
6)Specification for Damp Proof Course Material properties — mixing — laying— curing—
painting with Asphalt.
7)Specification for Earthwork in excavation in Excavation-finish of trench —Finds — water in
foundation foundation — Trench filling — Measurement.
8)Specifications for driving precost R.C.C. piles properties of piles — Vertical alignment — Driving by
piling machine — setting —Measurement—Finishing
9)Specification for uncased cast-in-situ R.C.C. piles Properties of material-Excavation-(digging above)-
Method of construction (inserting casting, casting
tube, cone, is placed, rammed-Measurement
10)Specification for marble finish Properties of marble-clamps-anchors, dowels-laying
vertical & horizontal surfaces-machine polished-
workmanship-finishing with wax or other-
measurement
11)Specification for terrazzo finish :- Material & their properties-First coat (1:3 cement
mortar)- Second coat (1:3 cement : marble chips) -
Polishing process-Measurement
12) Specification for 160 mm Water Bound Properties of road metal — Subgrade preparation —
Macadam road|for heavy traffic - placing compaction, rolling of road metal —Finishing
coat with rolling measurement.

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While writing specifications, the following principles Which of the following specifications are not correct
shall be adopted: (MPSC 17) with reference to a brickwork? (MPSC 17)
a. Description of materials a.Brickwork shall be done in such a way that all joints
b .Workmanship, tools and plants are full of mortar.
c. Protection of new work b.For all exposed brickworks, double scaffolding
d. Clauses of the specifications having two sets of vertical supports shall be provided.
e. Expression Answer options: c.Bricks required for brick masonry with mud mortar
A. a, b and e B. a, b, e, d and e need not be soaked.
C. b and e D. a, d and e Answer options:
A. a and b only B. a and c only
C. b and c only D. None of the above

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