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Mentee Jocelle May V.

Mentor Mrs. Genelyn Baluyos
Subject Biology
Year Level/ Section K- 8
Method 4As

I. Objective:
1. Explain ingestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion

II. Subject Matter: Explaining Ingestion, Absorption, Assimilation, and Excretion, Ref. Science and
Technology 8, Gerona, pp. 94-101, K-12 Curriculum Guide, p 49 #1

Materials: pictures, video, activities sheets, rubrics

Learning Activities: Roadside Shop, Chain Technique

III. Learning Experience:

Teacher Activity Student Activity

1. Old Lesson

a. Drill
Let’s have an activity. I’ll group the class into 2. I
have two pictures of the digestive system on the
board. And beside them are the names of the major
organs of the digestive system. What you need to do
is to identify and label the parts correctly. The group
who finishes first with the most correct answers will
win the game.



mouth anus


Small intestine

Large intestine
Teacher Activity Student Activity
Are you ready? Yes teacher.
Start! (Students do as told)

Group 1 and 2 Group 1 and 2



esophagus pancreas
rectum gallbladder

small intestine large intestine

Small intestine

large intestine anus


b. Review
What are the seven (7) major organs in the The seven (7) major organs in the digestive
digestive system? system are mouth, esophagus, stomach, large
intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Cite the major salivary glands and their location. The parotid salivary glands are found near the ear.
The sublingual salivary glands are found under the
tongue. The submandibular salivary glands are
located under the mandible or jaw.

What are the three regions of the small intestine? The three regions of the small intestine are the
duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.

2. New Lesson
A. Preparation
a. Motivation
What are the foods that you usually eat everyday? I usually eat rice, meat, and vegetables.
Why do eat that kind of food? We eat that kind of food because it’s nutritious
and rich in vitamins.
And why do we need to eat nutritious foods? Nutritious foods keep us healthy.
Do you know what happens to the food you ate
after you swallowed it? No, teacher

Now, I have a slice of cake on the table. Take a (Students will eat the food )
bite of the cake, and be aware of how your teeth tear
and grind the cake into pieces. While doing so, what
is the taste of the cake? The cake is sweet.
Teacher Activity Student Activity
How did the saliva help make swallowing easier? Saliva helps soften the food that makes
swallowing easier.

Where do you think your food will go after you No., teacher.
swallowed it? Will it turn into feces immediately?

Do you want to know the processes involved in Yes, teacher.

digesting the food that you eat?

b. Presentation
For us to further understand the passages of food
and the processes it undergoes, this morning, we are
going to discuss ingestion, absorption, assimilation,
and excretion.

B. Developmental Activities
a. Activity
Let’s have an activity.
I’ll divide the class into two. This is called the
roadside shop. The first group is going to buy the
organs needed to be able to trace the path of food
during digestion. The second group will post the
purchased organs on the board according to the
correct path from the time you it the food until you
discharged it out of the body. The reporter of each
group will explain the items purchased and the
arrangement made. Both group can coach each other
in purchasing items and in arranging.

Do you understand? Yes, teacher.

Start! (Students do as told)

Group 1 and 2 Group 1 and 2


Small intestine Liver Stomach

Pancreas Heart
Mouth Pharynx/Throat Esophagus

Bladder Mouth Brain Large intestine

Pancreas Liver Stomach

Rectum Spleen Kidneys

Small intestine Large intestine

Anus Larynx Ovaries

Thyroid gland Anus Rectum

Testes Blood vessels

Lungs Pharynx/Throat Esophagus

Teacher Activity Student Activity
Now. Let us listen to the answers of each group. The first part where the food passes through is the
mouth. After the food is swallowed, it passes
through pharynx/throat, and then passes through the
esophagus. The food will then get into the stomach.
The liver and the pancreas will produce juices that
will help break down the food. And then it goes to
the small intestine and then to the large intestine.
The undigested food will be stored in the rectum
and eliminated through the anus.

b. Analysis
Before we analyze your answers, I will be
showing you a video clip about the processes of the
digestive system.

As shown on the video, what did he do with the He put the food in his mouth and ate the food.

That process of taking food into the mouth or oral

cavity is what we call ingestion.

What is the other term for ingestion? It is also called the act of eating.

When you eat food, what did you do first? We bit, torn, and crushed the food using our teeth.

So, that process is called mechanical digestion.

What helps breaks down the food from the saliva? The saliva has enzymes that help break down
When the enzyme of the saliva breaks down
complete carbohydrates into simple sugars, the
process is called chemical digestion.

After you swallow the food, where will the food The food will pass through the food pharynx and
pass? Where will it be temporarily stored? esophagus. The food will be temporarily being
stored in the stomach.

While the food is in the stomach, what are the two The stomach has gastric glands and mucosal
glands that produce acid and enzymes that help glands that produce acid and enzymes that help
further digestion of the food? further digestion.

Which gland produces hydrochloric acid? The gastric glands produce the hydrochloric acid.

Hydrochloric acid kills the bacteria in the food The soupy substance is called the chyme.
and turns the bolus into a soupy substance. What do
we call that substance?

What do you call the enzyme that is also produced The enzyme is called pepsin.
by the gastric gland that digests proteins in the
stomach, converting these into polypeptides?
Teacher Activity Student Activity
How do mucosal glands work during digestion? The mucosal glands produce a thick, sticky
substance called the mucus that protects the
stomach from harmful effects of gastric acids and

After the food has been broken down into simpler The liver and pancreas produces bile and
substances, it will be emptied into the small pancreatic enzymes.
intestine. What are the digestive juices that are
secreted by the liver and the pancreas?

The bile is produced by the liver and stored in the The bile dissolves the fats.
gallbladder. How does bile works?

When the pancreas produces the pancreatic The pancreatic enzymes break down the
enzymes, what does it do with the carbohydrates carbohydrates and proteins as well as fats.
and proteins?

The breakdown of carbohydrates in to glucose, The will be absorbed through the small intestine
fats into fatty acids, and proteins into amino, how into the blood.
will they be taken up by the body?

And the uptake of vitamins and nutrients by the

body through the small intestine after the food has
been broken down into the smallest form is the
process called absorption.

What quality does the small intestine has that Due to the folds of the linings and the presence of
increases its surface for absorption? millions of villi of the small intestine, it has a very
large surface for absorption.

What happens to the food after it has been It will be taken up into the cells to be used as
absorbed into the bloodstream? energy.

And this is the process of assimilation wherein

nutrients and vitamins will be taken into the cells,
like glucose that breaks down into water and carbon
dioxide that releases energy.

What will happen to the unabsorbed food? It will enter the large intestine.

What happens in the large intestine? No digestion of food takes place in the large
intestine. Only reabsorption of water and the
formation and movement of feces to the anus.

What do we call the process when we remove The process of removing fecal matter through the
fecal matter through the anus? anus is called excretion. We can also call it

Excretion is the general term of the act or process

of passing out waste from the body.
Teacher Activity Student Activity
c. Abstraction
To sum up our discussion, what are the four stages The four stages of digestion are ingestion,
of digestion? absorption, assimilation, and excretion,

What is ingestion? Ingestion is the process of taking food into the

mouth or oral cavity. It is also the act of eating.

What are the two types of digestion that occurs in Mechanical digestion happens as the food is
the mouth? Explain the difference of each. bitten, torn, and crushed between the teeth.
Chemical digestion begins when the enzyme from
the saliva breaks down complete carbohydrates into
simple sugars.

Why do we need to chew the food properly? We need to chew the food properly for proper

How does egestion different from excretion. The process of removing fecal matter through the
anus what we call egestion. Excretion is the general
term of the act or process of passing out waste from
the body.

What is the right direction when you clean your Always wipe from front to back to prevent feces
anus after defecation? Explain your answer. from coming in contact with your genital area and
causing infection.

d. Application
Let’s have another activity.
We will be still using the same groupings. This
activity is called the chain technique. What you
need to do is to illustrate the correct sequence of the
four digestive processes. You are going to write the
major processes in the big chain templates. If there
are other processes under one major process, write it
in the small chain templates. After 5 minutes, the
group reporter will present and explain their
answers to the class. You will be rated based on the
Do you understand? Yes, teacher.
Start! (Students do as told)

Group 1 and 2 Group 1 and 2

Mechanical Chemical
digestion digestion



Teacher Activity Student Activity
IV. Assessment
I. Multiple choice
Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
Encircle your answer.

1. Which of the following defines digestion?

A. The process of taking food into the mouth or
oral cavity
B. The process of breaking down food by 1. B
mechanical and chemical action in the
alimentary canal into substances that can be
used by the body
C. The process of which food is bitten, torn, and
crushed between the teeth.
D. The reabsorption of water and the formation and
movement of feces to the anus.

2. What digestive organ does assimilation happens?

A. Mouth 2. C
B. Pancreas
C. Small intestine
D. Large intestine

3. How does bile helps in digestion?

A. It dissolves the fats.
B. It breaks down the fats.
C. It protects the stomach from the harmful effects 3. A
of gastric acid.
D. It supports absorption of nutrients.

4. Which among of the following is NOT a process

in digestion?
A. Excretion
B. Ingestion
C. Reabsorption 4. C
D. Assimilation

5. Which of the following best describe the process

of assimilation?
A. A general term of the act or process of passing
out waste from the body.
B. The process where food is taken into the cells.
C. The uptake of vitamins and nutrients by the 5. B
D. The act of discharging undigested or waste
material from a cell or organism
Teacher Activity Student Activity
II. Essay
Directions: Explain your answer on the questions
briefly. Refer to the rubric given for your
easy reference as to what is expected of

Scale Description

5 points Facts are consistently detailed/precise and very

relevant. Uses correct spelling and grammar
effectively almost all of the time. Addresses the
question completely.

4 points Most facts are detailed/ precise and relevant. Uses

spelling and grammar with considerable accuracy
and effectiveness. Addresses the question, but left
out few details.

3 points Lacks few substantial details and examples to

support ideas. Spelling and grammar require
moderate editing. Addresses the question, but
provided few details.

2-1 points More specific details and examples are needed to

support opinions. Spelling and grammar require
considerable editing. Addresses the question, but
in very few details.

1. Explain Why the small intestine the site for The small intestine has the following discrete
absorption. features which are not observable from the outside:
the mucosal folds; villi and micovilli. All of these
are responsible for the surface area expansion of the
organ thus increases area for absorption.

2. In what organ does digestion ends? Support your Digestion of food ends in the large intestine. After
answer. the food is moved into the large intestine,
reabsorption of water happens and fecal matter will
be formed and is pushed and stored into the rectum.

3. Compare and contrast absorption and Absorption and assimilation are both consumption
assimilation. of nutrients in the body; however, absorption the
uptake of vitamins and nutrients by the body into
the bloodstream through the small intestine, on the
other hand, assimilation is the uptake of nutrients
and vitamins that will be taken into the cells and
will be converted into energy.
Teacher Activity Student Activity
V. Assignment:
Directions: In a short bond paper, create a collage
that reflects the four processes of digestion. Then
describe your work in a paragraph form. You are
graded according to the following criteria:

Creativity- 5 points
Accuracy- 5 points
Paragraph- 5 points