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August 7, 2019.

Trade wars are economic conflicts in which countries or states impose tariffs over each
other. These tariffs work as taxes and countries are using these trying to move towards
an autarky position to make them look self-sufficient. There have been many trade
wars all along history. For instance, the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1784), for control over
the seas and trade routes. In the second war, England tried to end the Dutch
domination of world trade during a period of commercial rivalry and disagreements
among European countries. Moreover, there have been other trade wars like the:
Opium Wars (1839–1860), Banana Wars (1898–1934) or Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act
(1930).

The “America First” economic policy created by Donald Trump is a series of tariffs
imposed to reduce the United States trade deficit by changing the trade policy from
multilateral free trade agreements to bilateral trade deals. The difference is that
multilateral trade agreements are commerce treaties between three or more nations.
These agreements are aimed to decrease tariffs helping the importation and exportation
business. On the other hand, Bilateral agreements are much easier to negotiate due the
fact that they are only between two countries and its impact on economic growth is
noticeably less.

It is well known that President Trump has been imposing these knew tariffs with the
intention to show the power of United stated and to preserve their autarky position, but
are these laws good for the people of the country? These trade wars are causing an
increase in the cost of many items we buy daily in the supermarket or anywhere else,
we may think it is not important to pay $100 extra Chilean pesos for a ketchup coming
from USA but when the prices increase in every item we buy we will certainly notice the
different once we have a look at our bill.

Trade wars can cause the loss of many jobs like what happened in 1930 with the
Hawley-Smoot law. What is more, these kind of careless behavior tears apart the
relations with allied countries. In January 2018, Trump increased the tariffs on solar
panels and washing machines of 30 to 50 percent. In March 2018 he imposed tariffs on
steel (25%) and aluminum (10%) from most countries and the list of tariffs goes on.
These movements of the president Trump obviously angered the trading partners like
China, Mexico, Canada or India who started implementing retaliatory tariffs on United
States goods.
Nuclear weapons are explosive devices that can devastate entire cities by fire and
radiation. Until now, nuclear weapons have been used two times in war, both times by
the United States against Japan near the end of World War II one on August 6, 1945
and then three days later, on August 9. Although these are mass destruction devices,
some countries like; United States, United Kingdom. France and China are known to be
nuclear-weapon states (NWS) under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons (NPT).

What is important about nuclear weapons is the immense destructive power it has, only
a small amount of uranium can destroy thousands of lives in a blink. What is more,
these types of weapons have been for sale in the black market and there is few that can
do about that. It seems that a real nuclear holocaust is coming due the recent
disagreements among world leaders regarding economy and other issues. In order to
stop this issue, it is necessary to achieve international disarmament of nuclear weapons
and make them illegal so world leader will not be able to flaunt their weapons.

There are many different types of essays like descriptive, argumentative, analytical,
evaluative and so on. But in order to write a decent piece of writing we need to know
how to edit and proofread our texts. In the proofreading stage there is no rewriting of
sentences, it is just a grammar and punctuation checking. On the other hand, in the
edition stage we do rewrite sentences and rearrange words trying to achieve coherence
and use the words more efficiently also taking care of the structure of the text. Some
other tips to write better pieces are avoiding redundancy and not to edit while drafting.

Through the years different economic systems have been set in different countries,
whether the government should be involved in economic issues and the well-being of
citizens or not, is not as simple as choosing one of the sides. Capitalism is based on
private ownership of the means of production or also called individual economic
freedom, on the other hand, the most important principle of communism is that no
private ownership of property should be allowed, and goods will be provided according
to people needs. Although these systems are completely opposite, most countries have
implemented capital and social views both at the same time.

The socialist model, like communism, calls for putting the major means of production in
favor of the people. Moreover, this model does not imply that all private property should
be eliminated. Their goal is to make the gap between the rich and the poor more
narrowed but not eliminated completely so people can achieve the deletion of social
classes. Furthermore, the responsibility to redistribute wealth to everyone in order to
make these changes possible is given to the government, which generally impose
higher taxes than in capitalist countries to give health-care and education to all the
citizens.

Capitalism is an economic system that is mainly based on three parts. First, we have
wage labor, meaning that we are forced to work in order to constantly earn money.
Secondly there is private ownership of the means of production and lastly there is
production for exchange and profit. As a result, some people own the capital and the
other survive selling our skills in return for a wage. Capitalists are opposed to the
intervention of the government in economics and they prefer a free market system. It
advocates the liberation of economic production from all regulations to benefit some
people.

Karl Marx was a German economist, philosopher and revolutionist who produced much
of the theory of modern socialism and communism. This idea was created as an attempt
to minimize the huge difference between social classes. In his publication the
“Communist Manifesto (1848)” he claimed that “The history of all hitherto existing
society is the history of class struggles". He stated that the issues between the working
class and the business class would end in a new society where socialism rules. His
publication also outlines a set of demands like; progressive income tax, abolition of
inheritances, private property and child labour, the implementation of free public
education among other ideas.

The use of instagram as a tool to develop writing skills is a subject that has been underrated
and there is clearly not enough research about this topic in Chile. My thesis project is aimed to
identify the perceptions and attitudes of students towards learning using instagram. For that
goal to be achieved, a set of surveys and tests have been created intending to identify whether
students have improved their writing skills or not. The questionnaires are prepared with open
and closed questions in order to also examine to what extent have students discussed their
assignments with their study groups.

The cold war is the name that we use to label the developing rivalry that took place after world
war II. This struggle between the two superpowers was waged on political and economic fronts.
Each of these two monstrous super-states was in possession of a weapons that can kill millions
of people in a few seconds. Furthermore, as the soviets had installed left-wing governments in
western Europe, the Americans and British started fearing the communist parties coming to
power in the democracies of western Europe. On the other hand, soviets were determined
expand in order safeguard against any possible renewed threat from Germany.

A moment of tension in the cold war took place specifically in 1958 when the United states and
the soviets started developing intercontinental ballistic missiles. Then, in 1962 the soviets had
secretly installed missiles in Cuba with the intention to launch nuclear attacks upon USA. That
event provoked a confrontation called the Cuban missile crisis and an agreement was signed to
dismantle and withdraw the missiles. That situation somehow showed that the soviets and the
Americans were afraid of using their nuclear weapons fearing a mutual atomic annihilation. As a
result, in 1963 both sides signed a treaty banning nuclear weapon testing.

After world war II when peace was restored and armies were disbanded, millions of people were
living in abject poverty and European countries asked for development grants like the Marshall
plan to bring stability and repair the collateral damage caused by war. Therefore, as these
debtor countries were forced to repay the debt, that situation caused that these war-torn
economies were not able to emerge from recession for several years. As a result, fiscal
measures that mainly consist in increasing taxes were introduced boost economy in order to
recover from its decline. Besides, many European countries entered the monetary union in
order to have a single currency.

The cold war was not “cold” at all, an enormous amount of people were killed in the wars betwixt
the soviet union and united states. These “hot” parts include the Korean war between North
Korea that was supported by China and the Soviet Union and South Korea with the support
principally from the United States. Moreover, the unsuccessful Bay of pig’s invasion into Cuba
leaded by a revolutionary military group mostly conformed by Cuban exiles but also some US
military personnel trained by the CIA. The last “hot” part was the Vietnam war that was a divisive
battle that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam supported
by the United States.

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre occurred on April 13,1919. A big crowd of unarmed Indians
were hunted and killed by British troops, hundreds of Indians civilians were shoot to death and
the rest were wounded. Also, the troops that were commanded by Reginald Edward Harry Dyer
Were sent to arrest Indian leaders and to loot and burn the building of the zone. At that time,
India was trying to achieve its political autonomy and independence from Britain.
Gandhi began organizing the first non-violent protest on large-scale called the satyagraha
campaign thrusting him to prominence among Indians. Later in 1920, the hunter commission
censured Dyer for his actions, and he was forced to resign the military.

There are many different types of government. When we try to compare all the governments in
the world there is always a thing in common, there is always someone in charge. First, the
autocracy, it means that one person possesses all the power, here we have 2 types; a
monarchy and a dictatorship. A monarchy is generally commanded by a King or Queen that
come to power through inheritance. On the other hand, a dictatorship would be part of autocracy
too due the fact that only one leader has absolute control over citizens and the voice of the
people is ignored.

There is a type of government called democracy in which people hold the political power, there
are 2 types of democracy, representative and direct. The representative democracy states that
citizens are able to elect a leader to represent their rights and interests. Citizens hold the power
in this case because there will be elections after a few years and people can vote in new
representatives. There is also direct democracy, here citizens are directly involved in the
everyday work of governing like in the ancient Athens. The problem with this type of governing
is that most countries are too big for this system to work properly.
In an oligarchy a few people oversee the decisions to be made, only a certain group holds the
political power and controls the country. A good example of oligarchy a junta, this is a small
group of military officers who rules a country by taking it over by force just like a dictatorship
with the exceptions is that there are some more people in charge not just one. We can also find
theocracies that recognizes God or another entity as the unquestionable authority, this type of
government can coexist with other types of government as well. For example, Iran accepts
Islamic laws, but they are also able to vote in order to elect their leaders.

The Yalta conference took place in February 1945, the heads of the governments of United
states, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union met to deliberate the reorganization and division
of Germany after the world war II. The president Roosevelt, the prime minister Winston Churchill
and the premier Joseph Stalin agreed to shape a post-war peace and to discuss the re-
establishment of the war-torn Europe nations. Yalta conference was the second of three war
time conferences preceded by Tehran conference in 1943 and later in July 1945 a third
conference in Potsdam was held between the Grand alliance also known as the Big three.

The Tehran conference was held after the Anglo-soviet invasion of Iran from November 28 to 1
December 1943. Although the three leaders of Soviet Union, United states and United Kingdom
attended the conference with different objectives their main goal was the commitment of the
western allies to open a new front against Germany. As Iran was going to war with Germany,
the three powers agreed to render aid and maintain the independence of Iran which was
expected to stablish peace once the war is over. For that reason, the Yugoslav Partisans were
given full Allied support. On the other hand, the support to the Yugoslav Chetniks was halted
because they were suspected to be cooperating with the occupied Germany rather than fighting
them.

The Potsdam conference was held in the occupied Germany in 1945. Stalin, Truman and
Churchill determined how to administer Germany after they surrender in the Victory in Europe
day the 8 of May 1945. The conference was aimed to stablish post-war order and countering the
collateral damage provoked by war signing peace treaties. They agreed to demilitarize Germany
and the immediate denazification of it. Germany and Austria were divided into four occupation
zones that had been already agreed at Yalta conference. Also, it was agreed that Nazi war
criminals would be prosecuted, and all their civilian shipyards and aircraft factories were to be
dismantled.