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SAT Biology E/M Course

Prepared by Mr.Moutasim Al-Ahmad

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
What is Biology E/M exam?

100 questions divided as follows


60 core questions

Then you pick either 20 ecology questions or 20


molecular biology questions

-basically the exam is 80 questions in one hour

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Course outline
• Biochemistry
• The cell
• Movement in and out of the cell
• Cell division
• Classical genetics
• Molecular genetics
• cell respiration
• Photosynthesis
• Evolution
• Ecology
• Weight for 60% in the SAT exam

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Introduction

What is Biology?

Bio means life


Logy means studying
Biology means the studying of living things

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Introduction

What are living things characteristics?


It can be abbreviated by (RINGER)
R: reproduction: the processes that make more of the
same kind of organism
I: irritability: (sensitivity) the ability to detect or sense
stimuli in the internal or external
environment and to make appropriate response
N: nutrition: taking in of materials for energy for growth
and development
G: growth: a permanent increase in size and dry mass by
an increase in cell number or cell size or both.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Introduction

E: excretion: removal from organisms of the waste


products of metabolism (chemical reactions in
cells including respiration), toxic materials, and
substances in excess of requirements.
R: Respiration: the chemical reactions in the cell to
break down biological molecules to get energy.
M: movement: an action by an organism or part of
an organism causing a change of position or place.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Some definitions
element:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Some definitions
Atom:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Some definitions
compound:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 1:Biochemistry

Why do atoms interact ?


To reach stability

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 1:Biochemistry

How do atoms interact?


By chemical bonds
- Ionic bond
- Covalent bond
- Hydrogen bond

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Atom structure:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Ionic bond:
Due to losing or gaining of electrons
Ex:NaCl

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Covalent bond:
Due to sharing of electrons
Ex:H2O

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Hydrogen bond:
Weak electrostatic attraction between hydrogen
atom and one of (O,N,F) on other molecule
Ex. H2O

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Water properties

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Water properties
- Polarity
- High specific heat
- Cohesion
- Adhesion
- High heat of evaporation
- Less dense when it is solid

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 1:Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Water has a high specific heat:


means that water absorbs high energy to change
its temperature 1◦c
ex: sea water and the beach sand

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Water cohesion:
Water molecules tend to stick to each other

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Water cohesion result in surface tension

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

water adhesion:
Water tend to stick to the surface

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

water adhesion :

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

High heat of evaporation


Large amount of energy is needed to convert
water to vapor
(this is due to hydrogen bonds, more energy is
needed to free the molecules)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Less dense when it is solid


This is very important for marine life. the water
temp below an ice mountain is 4 °C which make
suitable to live.
The ice mountain make an insulation layer.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

PH Scale

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

PH scale:
it is a scale that measures how acidic or basic a
solution is.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what affects the PH level ?


-The concentration of both H⁺ and OH¯
-The more the H⁺ the more acidity or the less
the PH value

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Biological
Molecules

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what are the different types of biological molecules?

1-Carbohydrates
2-lipids
3-proteins
4-nucleic acids

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

What are the chemical elements for biological molecules ?

Carbohydrates H,C,O

Lipids H,C,O

Proteins H,C,O,N,S

Nucleic acid H,C,O,N

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what do we mean by organic molecule, subunit, hydrolysis,


condensation?
Term Definition
Organic molecules molecules are made mainly of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

Subunits small units (group of them make a large


molecule)

Hydrolysis a process by which large molecules broken


down into small subunits by using water
molecule.

Condensation a process by which small subunits linked


together to form large molecule by losing
water.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what are the different types of carbohydrates ?

-Monosaccharides
-Disaccharides
-polysaccharides

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Monosaccharide

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Disaccharide

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Polysaccharides

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

give examples about each type of carbohydrates and where you


can find them?
Type of carbohydrates Examples Location
Monosaccharide Glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides Maltose =glucose +glucose Malt sugar


Lactose =glucose+ galactose Milk sugar
Sucrose =glucose +fructose Table sugar

Polysaccharides Starch , cellulose, glycogen Starch stored in plant cells


,cellulose made up cell wall
Glycogen found in muscles
and liver.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what are the different types of lipids?

-Fat
-phospholipids
-steroids
-wax

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Fat

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Phospholipids

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Steroids:
Four fused rings of carbon

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Steroids:
Ex:
-cholesterol
-sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen)
-cortisone

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Wax :
Water proof layer that minimizes dehydration
Ex: on leaf/human skin

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what is the basic subunit of proteins and describe its


structures?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

how many types of amino acids are there?


20 types

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

What are the different protein structures?

-Primary structure
-Secondary structure
-Tertiary structure
-Quaternary structure

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a


polypeptide (beads in a string)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Secondary structure it is when the structure resulting from


regular coiling or folding of the chain of amino acid

Secondary structure could be


1- alpha helix
2- beta pleated sheet

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Tertiary structure: when there is folding for the


already folded polypeptide

Tertiary structure has all types of bonds


-covalent
-ionic
-hydrogen
-sulfide bond
BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Quaternary structure
When there are more than one polypeptides in
the protein.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what are the different functions of proteins?


• proteins have many functions in organisms
• Structure like cell membrane proteins
• Signaling like hormones
• Catalysts like enzymes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what makes proteins differ from each other?


the shape of the protein depends on the number and the type
of amino acids that make a certain protein.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what is the subunit of nucleic acid and describe its structure?


Nucleotide

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what is DNA?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what is RNA?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Enzymes

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

What do we mean by enzyme?


Modified protein that speeds up reaction (catalysts), lowers the
activation energy ,Is not consumed
(enzyme name ends with the letters ase).

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Give some examples about enzymes?

-Protease (breaks down proteins)


-lipase (breaks down lipids)
-amylase (breaks down starch)
-catalase (breaks down H2O2 and convert it to H2O and
oxygen)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

What are the two hypotheses that explain how does the
enzyme act?

-the key lock hypothesis


-the induced fit hypothesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Describe the key-lock hypothesis of enzyme and substrates ?


each enzyme has an active site that bind only to a specific type
of substrates. (Like key and lock). (rejected)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

Describe the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme and substrates ?


each enzyme has an active site that change it self slightly to
bind to a specific type of substrates. (Accepted)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

why enzymes are important in all living things?

-enzymes speed up reactions (less time needed for the chemical


reactions to take place)such as respiration, digestion,
photosynthesis.
-lowers the activation energy (the chemical reaction needs less
energy in the presence of enzymes).

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

what factors affect enzyme activity?

-PH
-temperature
-enzyme and substrate concentrations

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

How does Temperature affects the enzyme activity?


As temperature increases the enzyme activity
increases until a certain point (optimum temp)where
the enzyme activity is on its (max),after that if
temperature increases enzyme activity decreases due
to enzyme denaturation.

NOTE: optimum temp is not the same for all enzymes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

How does PH affects the enzyme activity?


optimum PH is not the same for all enzymes, If the PH
exceeds the optimum PH the enzyme activity decreases
due to enzyme denaturation.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Biochemistry

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

put the following words in the right order from the


smallest to largest.
-atom
-organ
-organism
-molecule
-organ system
-tissue.
-organelle
-cell
BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Define cell.
The smallest structural and functional unite in all living
things

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

what is cell theory?


-all living things are composed of cells
-cells are the basic unite of all organisms
-all cells arise from preexisting cells.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

what are the two fundamental types of cells?


-prokaryotes (true nucleus)
- Eukaryotes (no true nucleus)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

what are cell organelles and what are their functions?


-nucleus
-nucleolus
-ribosome
-endoplasmic reticulum
-mitochondria
-golgi body
-lysosome
-centrioles and centrosomes
-cell membrane
-cytoskeleton
-cytoplasm and cytosol
-cell wall
-vacuole
-plastids

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

nucleus (the brain of the cell)

-Controls the cell


-contains the genetic material

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

nucleolus
-produces ribosomes

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Ribosome
Produces protein

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Endoplasmic reticulum
It has two types
-rough ER (has ribosomes on its surface)
-smooth ER (has no ribosomes on its surface)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Rough ER
-protein production
-ships the produced protein to golgi body as a
vesicle pinches out of it

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

smooth ER

-detoxification of the cell


-synthesizes steroids
Ex: testosterone the in teste's cells

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

mitochondria
-the power house of the cell
-releases energy by respiration

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Golgi apparatus (body)


-protein modification

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Lysosome
-it contains digestive enzymes
-digest pathogens
-responsible for Apoptosis: programmed cell death

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

centrioles and centrosomes


-two centrioles makes up a centrosome
-produces spindle fibers to pull chromosomes during
cell division.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Cell membrane
-protect the cell
-controls what substances go in and out of the cell
-give the cell its shape
-made of two layers of phospholipids (phospholipids bi-
layer)
-polar heads (hydrophilic) and non-polar tails
(hydrophobic).
-has peripheral proteins and integral proteins.
-some proteins on the surface act as receptors or antigens.
-some integral proteins act as protein channels.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

-cholesterol in the phospholipids bi-layer stabilizes the cell


membrane.
-Cell membrane described as fluid mosaic :which means that the
proteins scattered and move like boats in a sea of lipids.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

cytoskeleton.
It is a network of protein fibers that are responsible
for the following:
-anchoring organelles in position
-movement
-contraction of muscles
There two types of those protein fibers:
1-microtubules (made of protein called tubulin)
2-microfillament (made of two proteins actin and
myosin)
BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

anchoring organelles in position

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

movement
ex: Microtubules in sperm

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

contraction of muscles

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

cytoplasm and cytosol


The cytoplasm is a jelly like substance that contains the
organelles, and where the chemical reactions take
place.

Cytoplasm –organelles= cytosol

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

cell wall
-protect the cell.
-give the cell regular shape.
-made of cellulose (plant cell).
-does not control the movement of substances (fully
permeable)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

vacuole
-it is a sac that stores water, food , wastes, pigments.
-maintains the turgor pressure in plant cell when it is
full with water.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

plastids.
Has different types:
Chloroplast: contains chlorophyll pigment and does
photosynthesis.
Leucoplast: color less and stores starch
Chromoplast: contains carotenoid pigment

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

Vesicle
-a sac that ships substances in the cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 2:The Cell

plant cell vs. animal cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

what are the different pathways by which materials go in and


out of the cell?
Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
osmosis
active transport
phagocytosis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

what do we mean by selective permeable membrane?

That membrane that allows some material to go through it and


prevent others.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

How dose cell membrane looks like?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

what is diffusion? Give examples?

The net movement of particles from a region of their higher


concentration to a region of their lower concentration downs a
concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement.
Ex: perfume in a room, ink in water, sugar in tea.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

what factors affect the rate of diffusion?


Factor Effect
If temperature increases Diffusion increases
If surface area increases Diffusion increases
If pressure increases Diffusion increases
If the size of container Diffusion decreases
increases
If the distance increases Diffusion decreases
If the concentration gradient Diffusion increases
increases BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

Experiment about diffusion

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

Experiment about diffusion

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

what do we mean by osmosis?


The net movement of water molecules from a region of higher
water potential (dilute solution) to a region of lower water
potential (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable
membrane.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

how do different water potential affect cells?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

What do we mean by active transport?

Active transport is the movement of particles from the low


concentration region to the high concentration region, against
concentration gradient by using energy from respiration.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

How does active transport take place?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

• Describe the process of phagocytosis ( endo and exocytosis) ?

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 3:movement in and out of the cell

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

Describe the cell cycle.

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

How does DNA looks like during both the interphase and cell
division phase?

Interphase cell division phase

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

Describe the processes of both meiosis and mitosis?

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

Define meiosis and mitosis, where do they take place and what
is the importance of each type?
Meiosis Mitosis
Definition Reduction division in which Nuclear division giving rise to genetically
the chromosome number is identical cells in which the chromosomes
halved from diploid to number is maintained by the exact
haploid. duplication of chromosomes.

Location Sex cells Body cells


Importance - Producing gametes. - Growth and repair of damaged
- result in genetic tissues.
variation due to - replacement of worn out cells and
maternal and paternal asexual reproduction
chromosomes
recombination

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

More differences between mitosis and meiosis:

Meiosis Mitosis
In metaphase one homologous In metaphase homologous chromosomes line
chromosomes line up in pairs up in a single line

In anaphase one full In anaphase sister chromatids split


chromosomes get split from
each other

Results in four haploid cells Results in two diploid cells

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 4:cell division

What do we mean by the homologous chromosomes?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Define inheritance, chromosomes, gene, allele, haploid nucleus,


diploid nucleus, genotype, phenotype, homozygous,
heterozygous, dominant allele, recessive allele?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Inheritance Transmission of genetic information from generation to


generation
Chromosome thread-like structure of DNA, carrying genetic
information in the form of genes.
Gene length of DNA that codes for a protein.
Allele version of a gene.
Haploid nucleus A nucleus containing a single set of unpaired
chromosomes (e.g. sperm, egg)
diploid nucleus Nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. body
cells).
Note: in a diploid cell, there is a pair of each type of
chromosome and in a human diploid cell there are 23
pairs.
Genotype Genetic makeup of a an organism in terms of the alleles
present (e.g Tt or GG)
Phenotype The observable features of an organism.
Homozygous Having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. tt
or TT or GG)
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for particular gene (e,g. Tt
or Gg)
Dominant allele Allele that will be expressed if it is present

Recessive allele BIOLOGY E/MAllele that that


PREPARED BY is only expressed when there is no
MR.MOUTASEM
dominant allele in the gene present.
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Monohybrid cross means that we are studying one trait


(e.g. height being short or tall) (color being yellow or green)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

EX. If B:brown / b:blue


A man who is brown heterozygous for eye color was married to
a woman who is brown heterozygous for eye color. find out the
possible phenotypes for the babies.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

EX. If B:brown / b:blue


A man who is brown heterozygous for eye color was married to
a woman who is blue homozygous for eye color. find out the
possible phenotypes for the babies.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

If A:clear / a: have a disease


A man who is clear of the disease was married to a woman who
is carrier. what are the possible phenotypes for the babies?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Dihybrid cross means that we are studying two traits


(e.g. the height of the plant and the color of the seeds)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Ex: if Y :yellow ,y :green

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

The sex of the baby determined by sex chromosomes (pair


number 23 of homologous chromosomes). The male has
genotype of (XY) while the female has the genotype (XX).
NOTE:-the male who is the one who determine the sex of the
baby.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Autosomal chromosomes and sex linked chromosomes:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:
male x female
2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Co-dominance inheritance: when two alleles express


themselves equally. An example about this type is blood groups
in human.

Note: the alleles are written by capital latter to tell you that
they are codominant.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Ex. If B:black / W: white


A black dog was crossed to a white dog, find out the possible
phenotypes for the babies.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Note: ABO blood groups in human show the co-dominant


pattern of inheritance.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

If a man who has the blood type (AB) was married to a woman
with the blood type (O),find out the possible phenotypes for
the babies?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Sex-linked characteristic are characteristic in which the gene


responsible is located on a sex chromosome and that this makes
it more common in one sex than in the other.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Note : the Y chromosome cant hold traits.

Male Female

X¯Y X¯X¯ Infected

XY XX Clear

Cannot be carrier. X¯X Carrier

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

If a man with color blindness was married to a clear woman,


find out the possible phenotypes for the babies.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

1-parents’ phenotypes:

2-parents’ genotypes:

3-parents’ possible gametes:

4-F1 possible Genotypes:

5-F1 possible phenotypes.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

Explain how to use a test cross to identify an unknown


genotype?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Topic 5:Genetics

simply we cross the suspected genotype with pure homozygous


recessive and then we can judge by looking to babies'
phenotypes:
If 100% show the dominant trait then the suspected individual is
pure dominant.
If 50% show the dominant trait then the suspected individual is
heterozygous.
Note: when two identical homozygous individuals that breed
together will be pure-breeding.
Note: when heterozygous individual reed it will not be pure-
breeding.
BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

What is the importance of the genetic molecule?

1-the ability to carry the genetic instructions.


2-the ability to be copied.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

What is the building block for nucleic acids?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

describe the structure of DNA.


-it is made of two polynucleotide strands lying side by side and
form the double helix.
-the two strands are in opposite directions (antiparallel).
-hydrogen bonds between the bases held the two strands
together.
-A binds with T by double Hydrogen bonds.
-G binds with C by triple Hydrogen bonds.
-the hydrogen bonds can be broken relatively easy and this is
important to allow replication and transcription.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

-the covalent bond that bind carbon 5 from ribose to carbon 3


on the other ribose is called (phosphodiester bond) .

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

describe the structure of RNA.


-single strand.
-has no T but U.
-it is ribonucleic acid (carbon 2 on ribose has oxygen atom)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

Describe the process of DNA replication.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNKWgcFPHqw
(animation).

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

Describe the process of DNA replication.


1-hydrogen bonds between the bases break.
2-the double helix unwind (unzips).
3-in the nucleus the nucleotides get activated by adding extra phosphate
group.
4-the activated nucleotides bind to the complementary bases on the old
strand.
5-an enzyme called DNA polymerase join the phosphate group on one
nucleotide ribose sugar to the next nucleotide.
6-very few mistakes are made by DNA polymerase as it links an incoming
nucleotide to the growing chain if it is complementary to the base on the old
strand.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

Note: semi conservative means in the DNA made ,half of the


original molecule is kept .
Note :the process of DNA replication take place in the nucleus.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

solve this problem.


If a DNA strand is ‘5 AAATTTGCAC 3’ then what is the
complementary strand for it.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

the experimental evidence for the semi conservative


replication of DNA was done by Meselson and stahl.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcUQ_TZCG0w

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JeoegQaF8ig

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

The central dogma of biology:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

First :transcription.
It is to make the RNA by using the DNA as a template.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLz2A1cjPH8

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-
expression-central-dogma/transcription-of-dna-into-
rna/v/transcription-and-mrna-processing

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

Describe the process of transcription.


1- the hydrogen bonds between the base pair get broken down.
2-the DNA strands unwind.
3-RNA nucleotides bind to the complementary DNA nucleotide.
4-RNA polymerase joins the phosphate group from one RNA
nucleotide to sugar of other RNA nucleotide.
5-mRNA is detached and go through the nuclear pores to the
cytoplasm of the cell.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

second :translation
It is the process of making protein using mRNA as a template.
Background:
types of RNA :
1-mRNA
2-tRNA
3-rRNA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
codon :set of three nucleotides that code for an amino acid.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

second :translation
It is the process of making protein using mRNA as a template.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bLEDd-PSTQ

See p.121 for the steps. Fig 6.13

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

notes about translation:


-the first codon has to be AUG and it is called the start codon.
-the last codon (stop codon) has to be one of
(UGA,UAA,UAG),and those code for no amino acids.
-the resulting polypeptide is in the primary structure.
-some times more than one codon code for the same amino
acid.
-some times more than one ribosome participate in the
translation for one mRNA (polyribosome)this makes more of
the protein needed.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

The Genetic code

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

Problem solving.

If a strand of DNA is : TACAAATTTCCCACT


Find mRNA sequence:
tRNA sequence :
Polypeptide:

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

what is mutation?
It is the change of DNA.
GENE MUTATION CHROMOSOMAL MUTATION
At the gene level, in which the At the chromosomal level.
sequence of nucleotides
changed. e.g.change in the number of
chromosomes.
1-point mutation (substitution
mutation).

2-frame shift mutation.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

-point mutation is to substitute one nucleotide with another


and that result in different amino acid in the resulting protein.
-An example about a disease that is caused by point mutation is
sickle cell anemia.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

remember.
The hemoglobin has two alpha and two beta polypeptides.a
mutation in the gene that code for beta protein leads cuases
sickle cell anemia .

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
Nucleic acid and protein synthesis

the normal gene (Val-His-Lue-Thr-Pro-Glu-Glu-Lys)


the mutated gene (Val-His-Lue-Thr-Pro-Val-Glu-Lys).

a point mutation in the codon that code for Glu changed the
amino acid to Val.
Instead of CTT it became CAT.
NOTE:
different amino acid means different chemical interactions
(bonding)between the amino acids in the polypeptide,leads to
different shape of the protein, and may change its normal
function.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

What is the deference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?


Autotrophs converts the light energy(photoautotrohps) or
chemical energy (chemoautotrophs) to potential chemical
energy and biological molecules.

Heterotrophs uses the biological molecules that are made by


autotrophs and use the potential chemical energy stored in
biological molecules.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

What is the energy released by respiration uses?

See pullet points 267.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

what is ATP.
Adenosine triphosphate

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

Hydrolysis of ATP

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

What are the hydrogen carrier molecules?


NADH and FADH.

NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)


FADH (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

Mitochondrial structure

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

Respiration steps .
(note we are dealing with breaking down of glucose)

1.glycolysis.
2.Link reaction.
3.Krebs cycle.
4.Elecrton transport chain.(oxidative phosphorylation)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

1.Glycolysis .
-takes place in the cytoplasm
-dose not require oxygen.
-splitting of glucose into two pyruvate.
-this process requires two ATP for phosphorylation of glucose
-four ATP made
-two reduced NADH are made

See fig.12.8 p.272.


BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

2.The link reaction


-convert pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A.
-pyruvate get decarboxylated (releasing of carbon dioxide) and
dehydrogenated (removing of hydrogen)

Out comes:
-a reduced NAD.
-carbon dioxide molecule.
-acetyl co enzyme A
Note:
Coenzyme A made of nucleoside (adenine and ribose) with vitamin
(pantothenic acid).

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

3.The Krebs cycle.


-takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria
-See bullet points p.273

The outcomes:
-two carbon dioxide molecules.
-three reduced NAD
-one reduced FAD

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

4.Elecron transport chain(oxidative phosphorylation).


-takes place on cristae.
-requires oxygen.
-most of the glucose energy harvested in this stage.

How does it take place?


1.Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are passed to the electron transport
chain.
2.The hydrogen are removed from the hydrogen carriers and split into
proton H⁺ electron e⁻.
3.Electron is transferred on a chain of membrane protein down energy
gradient.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

4.Some of the energy is used to move the proton H⁺ from the


matrix to the space between the inner and outer membranes.
5.This produces a difference in proton concentration gradient .
6.The protons pass back into the mitochondrial matrix through
protein channels in the inner membrane.
7.With each channel there is an associated enzyme called ATP
synthase .
8.As the protons pass through the channels their electrical
potential energy is used to synthesis ATP in the process called
chemiosmosis.(see fig.12.6) (p.271)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

9.Finally the oxygen receive the electron and two protons


reducing them to water.

Note:
-Theoretically Three ATP made out using reduced NAD (actually
2.5).
-Theoretically Two ATP made out using reduced FAD (actually
1.5).

because some energy is used to transfer ADP to mitochondria


and ATP out of mitochondria.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdF3mnyS1p0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o61dTk4J9AU

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

About anaerobic respiration.


Why it happens?
When the free oxygen is not present, hydrogen cannot be
disposed of by combination with oxygen. The electron transport
chain stops working and no further ATP is formed by oxidative
phosphorylation.
What happens?
The two ATP from glycolysis will be yielded, but to do so the
hydrogen from the reduced NAD has to be dumped some where.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

Alcoholic fermentation:
-takes place in yeast and some types of plants.
-glucose converted to pyruvate by glycolysis.
-pyruvate is decarboxylated to ethanal.
-the hydrogen from reduced NAD is passed to ethanal and
reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase.
-this releases NAD and glycolysis continues.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
energy and respiration

Lactic fermentation
- takes place in animal cells.
- glucose converted to pyruvate by glycolysis.
- Pyruvate is reduced to lactate by the hydrogen from the
reduced NAD by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.
- this releases NAD and glycolysis continues.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

Photosynthesis : converting the physical energy of light to


potential chemical energy in biological molecules.

In general if we compare between respiration and


photosynthesis we will see that the overall reaction of
respiration in the oxidation of biological molecules to release
energy and forming water when oxygen receives hydrogen. while
in photosynthesis the overall reaction is a reduction of
carbohydrates using hydrogen from water.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What is NADP?
Hydrogen carrier molecule

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

Chloroplast structure.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

Photosynthesis steps:
1.Light dependent reactions (photophosphorylation)
a. Cyclic photophosphorylation
b. non-cyclic or z scheme photophosphorylation
*photolysis
2.Light independent reaction (Calvin cycle)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

1.Light dependent reactions (photophosphorylation).


-takes place in the presence of light.
-takes place on thylakoid membrane.
-the out comes of light dependent reactions (ATP and reduced
NADP)used in light independent reactions .

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

a. Cyclic photophosphorylation
-light is absorbed by photosystem one and is passed to the primary
pigment.
-An electron in the chlorophyll molecule is excited to higher energy
level and is emitted from the chlorophyll molecule. (photoactivation).
-the excited electron is captured by an electron acceptor and passed
back to the chlorophyll molecule by chain carriers.
-during this process hydrogen ions are pushed inside the thylakoid
membrane to create gradient.
-by chemiosmosis ATP is made by ATP synthase.
-the electron is received by NADP and reduce it .

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

b. Non cyclic reactions/z scheme.


-the light is absorbed by both photosystems.
-the exited electrons from the primary pigment is absorbed by
the electron acceptor.
-the electron passes through the chain of electron carrier.
-during this process hydrogen ions are pushed inside the
thylakoid membrane to create gradient.
-by chemiosmosis ATP is made by ATP synthase
-the electron is received by NADP and reduce it .

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

*photolysis:
-it is the process of splitting water molecule to hydrogen and
oxygen by water splitting enzyme to provide photosystem two
with electrons instead of those that were passed into the chain.

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MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

2.Light independent reactions (Calvin cycle).


-rubisco enzyme fix the carbon from carbon dioxide with the five carbon
sugar ribulose bisphosphate (RuBp).
-resulting in two molecules of three carbon each called glycerate 3-phosphate
(GP) or (PGA).
-each (GP) is reduced to triose phosphate (TP) by the reduced NADPH and
ATP from the light reactions.
Note:3C+3C=6C
-one of the (TP) leave a carbon atom to be used in making (glucose, amino
acid, lipid).
-only 5 carbon remains and get converted back to (RuBp)

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfvYQgT2M-k

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What are the primary pigment and the accessory pigments and
how they are located in the photosystem?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What is the absorption spectrum?


A graph of the absorbance of different wavelength of light of
pigment.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What is the action spectrum?


A graph of the rate of photosynthesis at different wavelength of
light.is shows the effectives of each wavelength and its energy
content.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What is the difference between C3 and C4 plant?


The first compound in the light independent reactions made in
C4 plant has four carbons, while six carbons splits into two
threes in C3 plants.

Examples about C4 plants?


-Most tropical grasses.
-maize.
-sorghum.

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What is photorespiration?
It is when rubisco enzyme catalyzes the reaction between RuBp and oxygen
instead of carbon dioxide resulting in less photosynthesis.
This happens more readily at regions with high light intensity and high
oxygen.(tropical regions).

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What adaptations do C4 plants have to avoid photorespiration?


-the cells containing RuBp and rubisco enzyme are arranged
around the vascular bundles (bundle sheath cells) and they have
no direct contact to air inside the leaf(away from oxygen).
-carbon dioxide is absorbed by mesophyll cells.
-mesophyll cells contains an enzyme (PEP carboxylase),which
catalyzes the combination of carbon dioxide from air to
phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), to form oxaloacetate.
-oxaloacetate converted to malate.
-the carbon dioxide is removed from malate and delivered to
RuBp.
BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY
MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241
photosynthesis

What adaptations do C4 plants have to avoid photorespiration?

BIOLOGY E/M PREPARED BY


MR.MOUTASEM
ALAHMAD.00962795620241