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0 (de) vizualizări6 pagini[Assignment] it contains probability and statistics problem .

Dec 25, 2019

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[Assignment] it contains probability and statistics problem .

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[Assignment] it contains probability and statistics problem .

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1. A product developer is interested in reducing the drying time of primer paint. Two

formulations of the paint are tested; formulation A is the standard chemistry, and

formulation B has a new drying ingredient that should reduce the drying time. From

experience, it is known that the population standard deviation of drying time is σ = 8

minutes, and this inherent variability should be unaffected by the addition of the new

ingredient. Also, measurements of this type are known to follow a normal distribution.

Ten specimens are painted with formulation A, and another ten specimens are painted

with formulation B. The two sample average drying times are xA_bar = 121 minutes and

xB_bar = 112 minutes. What conclusions can the product developer draw about the

effectiveness of the new ingredient, using α = 0.05?

Parameters of interest:

Alternative Ha:

Test Statistic:

Reject Region:

Calculate:

Decision:

P-value:

2. An experiment was performed to compare the abrasive wear of two different high

pressure laminated materials. Twelve pieces of Formica were tested by exposing each

piece to a machine measuring wear. Ten pieces of Wilsonart were similarly tested. In

each case, the depth of wear was observed. The samples of Formica gave an average

(coded) wear of 85 units with a sample standard deviation of 4 units, while the samples

of Wilsonart gave an average of 81 and a sample standard deviation of 5. Can you

conclude at the α = 0.05 level of significance that the abrasive wear of Formica exceeds

that of Wilsonart by more than 2 units? Assume the populations were found to be

approximately normal.

Parameters of interest:

Alternative Ha:

Test Statistic:

Reject Region:

Calculate:

Decision:

P-value:

3. A mechanical engineer wishes to compare strength properties of steel beams with

similar beams made with a particular alloy. The same number of beams, n, of each type

will be tested. Each beam will be set in a horizontal position with a support on each end,

a force of 2,500 lb. will be applied at the center, and the deflection will be measured.

From past experience with such beams, the engineer is willing to assume that the true

standard deviation of deflection for both types of beam is σ = 0.05 in. Because the alloy

is more expensive, the engineer wishes to test at level α = 0.01 whether it has smaller

average deflection than the steel beam. What value of n is appropriate if the desired type

II error probability is 0.05 when the difference in true average deflection favors the

alloy by 0.04 in?

Ans:

performance, subjects were required to insert a fine-tipped probe into the eyeholes of

ten needles in rapid succession both for a low light level with black background and a

higher level with a white background. Each data value is the time (sec) required to

complete the task.

Subject

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Black 25.0 42.0 27.5 26.5 25.0 30.5 26.5 21.0 32.0

White 16.5 25.0 24.5 19.5 16.0 20.5 18.0 19.5 22.0

d= 8.5 17.0 3.0 7.0 9.0 10.0 8.5 1.5 10.0

Does the data indicate that the higher level of illumination yields a decrease of more

than 5 sec in true average task completion time? Test the appropriate hypotheses using a

level of significance level α = 0.05.

Parameter:

Null Hypothesis:

Alternative Hypothesis:

Test Statistic:

Reject Region:

Calculate:

Decision:

P-value:

5. Two types of instruments for measuring the amount of sulfur monoxide in the

atmosphere are being compared in an air-pollution experiment. (Sulfur monoxide, SO,

is only found as a dilute gas phase. When concentrated or condensed, it converts to S2O2

(sometimes called disulfur dioxide)). It is desired to determine whether the two types of

instruments yield measurements having the same variability. Listed below are the

readings recorded for the two instruments. Assuming the populations of measurements

to be normally distributed, test the hypothesis that the variance in measurements for the

two instruments are equal at a level of significance of α = 0.10.

Instrument A Instrument B

0.86 0.82 0.75 0.61 0.65 0.87 0.74 0.63 0.55 0.76

Parameters of interest:

Alternative Ha :

Test Statistic:

Reject Region:

Calculate:

Decision:

P-value:

6. In an attempt to reduce costs, a bakery has implemented a new leavening process for

preparing commercial bread loaves. (Leavening is the process of adding a substance to

bread dough that enables the dough to rise. Risen breads rely on a means of producing

carbon dioxide gas that becomes trapped in the dough causing the rising action). Loaves

of bread were randomly sampled and analyzed for calorie content both before and after

implementation of the new process. A summary of the results of the two samples is

shown in the table below. Do these samples provide sufficient evidence to conclude that

the mean number of calories per loaf has decreased since the new leavening process was

implemented? Test using α = 0.05.

n1 = 50 n2 = 42

Parameters of interest:

Alternative Ha:

Test Statistic:

Reject Region:

Calculate:

Decision:

P-value:

7. What is the probability of not detecting a difference in reduction time in Problem #1

if the mean drying time is actually reduced by 11 minutes when adding the new drying

ingredient to the primer paint?

Ans:

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