Sunteți pe pagina 1din 39

Part 2 – Manufacturing systems

Chapter 4

JOBBING & BATCH


PRODUCTION SYSTEM
(HỆ THỐNG SẢN XUẤT ĐƠN CHIẾC & THEO LÔ)

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 1/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

1. introduction:

 to meet specific customers’ demand/requirements


(customization),

 Very low volume (Q = 1 unit  project), can not


apply for other manufacturing systems,

 Jobbing system is more professional


(management, workers, computer & softwares
added,…)

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 2/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

2. Characteristics of jobbing:

- Very low-volume (Q = 1),

- Non-standardised items,

- Very low-cycle for orders  long time to repeat the


same/similar orders,

- Customization  make to specific orders – MTO.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 3/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

example:

building, research, producing request components to


repair, making to customers’ orders,...

Or producing air planes, equipments for TV service


provider, air traffic stations, hydroelectrics, nuclear
reactors,...

Or specific items such as: seismograph tools, lab


equipments,...

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 4/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

Or producing spare parts for maintenance


workshops, mechanical workshops, short courses,
special studies,...

Or very expensive items, the famous jewelry


(bijou),...

Or sudden demands/changing product size, form,


materials,...

 Support for jobbing systems (although high unit


cost)
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 5/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

3. Manufacturing lead time:

 When the customers’requirements are ordered 


production & material requirement planning wil be
made  long MLT (long waitting time),

 Cycle time: the total elements time  take long


cycle time.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 6/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

3. Manufacturing lead time:

 Long MLT is the main disadvantage of jobbing


system  take a long time for waiting to receive
customers’ orders/services.

Example: check-out service in air-port  check-out


gates are opened/closed if necessary to reduce
waiting time for cumtomers.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 7/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

4. Unit cost:

 Unit cost in jobbing system is very high (including


oppotunities cost).

Example: unit cost of watch is $50 – $60 in jobbing,


but only $15 in mass production system.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 8/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

5. Equipment and worker’s skills:

 Equipment, machines, and tools are multi-function


(attachments added).

Example: in garment industry, mechanical


engineering often use professional attachments.

 Professional and skillful workers are required 


increase unit cost.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 9/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


1. Routing

Routings/work flows of W.I.P (raw materials) are


dependent on work-elements requirement.

The routing maybe interfered (by production


managers) if necessary,...

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 10/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


1. Routing
Including some documents such as: bill of materials
(BOM), job cards, process sheets, tools requisitions,
specifications,...
Determine labour, equipment and tools requirements
to finish all work elements/tasks  make sure every
things are already.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 11/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


1. Routing
Realistic machine hours, labour hours recording  report
the difference between planning and practicing.

Reminding the changings about attributes,


implementation, raw materials,... If necessary.

Using realistic data analysis, the managers make


changing decisions and send the changing to
responsibilities.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 12/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


2. Scheduling
Scheduling should be clear & specific:
Based on standard time, estimate processing time for
all work elements.
Planning & sending implementation times (started
time of all work elements) to respective work stations.
Number of planed orders recording and providing the
priority among them.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 13/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


2. Scheduling
Sheduling should be clear & specific:
Including some information as: job cards, process
sheets, bill of materials (BOM), tools requisitions,
specifications,...
Set-up the available inventory level (materials on
hand), re-orders sending to suppliers based on re-
order point.
Make sure all things are feasible in factory.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 14/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


3. Dispatching
The role of dispatching person as follows:
Receive & send job cards, process sheets to
respective work-stations.
Receive & send bill of materials, tools & equipment
requisitions.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 15/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

6. Production planning & implementation


3. Dispatching
The role of dispatching person as follows:

Send routing sheet (work flow) to warehouse & factory


 materials & WIP transportation from warehouse to
respective workstations.

Send production planning to respective


machines/workstations.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 16/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

7. Progress review method job shop

Including some information as follows:

Realistic process >< prodcution planning.

WIP status, and their positions in factory.

Bottle-neck positions.

WIP data at each machine, and tools requisitions at


each workstation.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 17/39
4.1 Jobbing/Project production system

7. Progress review method job shop

Including some information as follows:


Improvement information transfer in management.
Reduction paper work and avoiding information delay.
Providing capacity information in factory.
Providing information support make-or-buy decisions.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 18/39
4.2 Batch production system

1. Introduction:
 Meet fluctuation demands in real life.
 Focus on small market segments, (small but stable
demands).
 Compromise between jobbing and mass.
 More flexible than mass production  establish
Japanese manufacturing system called just-in-time –
JIT.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 19/39
4.2 Batch production system

2. Characteristics:

Low-volume (small lot sizes) in batch;

Standardised items for batch, if items change a litle bit


(batch to batch)  high standardization. For example:
colours of motorbikes (colour changing).

Repeat production depend upon demands and lot


sizes (high volume than jobbing).

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 20/39
4.2 Batch production system

2. Characteristics:

More flexibilities (customize)  meet for group


demands.

Maybe make to stoke – MTS  meet customers’


demand from stock.

Example: produce motorbikes, cloths, meals,


electronics, shoes, appliances, interior, fashions,...

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 21/39
4.2 Batch production system

2. Characteristics:

MLT is smaller (than jobbing).

Increasing/reducing no. of batches based on market


demands such as motorbikes, cloths, foods,…

 Reduce decreased demands risk (unsale,


inventory levels)  fit realistics production.

Produce all core components with large lot size (high


volume)  others (the rest components) can order
from outside suppliers.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 22/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


1. Routing

Based on customers’ requirements, and/or items’


attributes (as jobbing).

Main/core components produce in production lines


(reduce the operational costs).

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 23/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


2. Scheduling

Work elements are grouped & its process as follows:

All data such as: the processing times of jobs,


completion times of batches, scheduling and
sequencing are parallel prepared or before production
required day.

Job cards, process sheets are already at least one


day before production planning begining.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 24/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


2. Scheduling
Preparing all essential tables for each batch; listing all
items’ requests in batch (if necessary).
Sending production planning (including processing
times), that is supported by standard operating
procedure – SOP.
This procedure includes work flows from work-station
to others (automated).
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 25/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


3. Dispatching
The roles/responsibilities of dispatching person as
follows:
Receive implementation planning from SOP;
preparing all tools & documents from production
department at least one day before begining.
Sending bill of materials – BOM to warehouse at least
one day before begining.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 26/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation

3. Dispatching

Sending job cards/process sheets & tools requisition


to supervisor at begining workstation in the morning
of the first day; sending down to the nexts.

Sending any updated completion jobs report to


respective workstations until the order is completed.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 27/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation

3. Dispatching

Make sure daily production planing possibly;


Sometimes, at the end of working day (shift), previous
workstations must prepare some WIPs for the next
workstation for at least one working hour on next day.

Make sure enough raw materials/components to


complete all batches; may be used colour to classify
daily materials.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 28/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


3. Dispatching

It’s not important to send routing/workflow (WIP) to


workstations/workers (including in production
planning) because it transfers quickly among
workstations.

The first workstation’s supervisor must transfer job


card to next workstation (after all tasks completion).
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 29/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


3. Dispatching

SOP will help to determine next workstations  all


workstations will receive all assigned tasks
respectively.

With batch production, the control processes are


flexible, and they depend on control techniques.

bar chart or production control chart are applicable;


(block/group control).
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 30/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


4. Expediting
The responsibility of expediting person as follows:
Assistant for dispatchers to review production
progress.
Assistant for supervisor to remind their assigned jobs
(if they forgot any jobs).
Assistant for dispatchers to recognize & implement all
delayed tasks.
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 31/39
4.2 Batch production system

3. Production planning & implementation


4. Expediting

Make scheduling and sequencing all emergency taks


by using red tags.

Sending important remarks to all rest workstations


respectively.

Assigning all emergency taks to respective


workstations/supervisors carefully.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 32/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


a. block system
Block/group all job cards, items’ specifications on the
same day.
Each group is assigned one colour (7 colours for 7
days, and red colour for emergency tasks).
All sudden emergencies taks are assigned by
senior/top managers; and use red-tag for high priority.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 33/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


b. production clearance list – PCL

Listed down all tasks on the same day;

Each list is used specific colour (each colour for one


day).

At every workstation in process, the rest tasks in PCL


will be completed.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 34/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


b. production clearance list – PCL

When a task is completed, the respective worker


underlines that task in PCL.

Foreman will check PCL for a half or an hour 


delete all completed tasks in PCL and return it to
dispatchers at production department.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 35/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


b. production clearance list – PCL

Dispatcher will check for 1 – 2 hours and compare this


list with expediter’s list.

 Expediter should check the schedule at each


workstation, and help workers managing their
schedule; in emergency case, using red-tag to remind.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 36/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


c. inventory status report
Show inventory status as follows:
+ No. of raw materials were supplied (by inventory).
+ No. of semi-items were processing (in factory/lines).
+ No. of finished goods – FG.
+ No. of work-in-process – WIP.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 37/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


c. inventory status report
Example: Inventory status report:

Lines Supplied processing Finished WIP


number number number product
A 1.000 1.000 1.500 500
B 3.000 2.000 4.000 1.000
C 2.000 3.000 4.500 500
D 5.000 4.000 7.000 2.000
Total 11.000 10.000 17.000 4000
Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 38/39
4.2 Batch production system

4. Progress review methods:


d. The role of expediter

Assistant for dispatchers to manage and control all


tasks in production process.

Lecturer: Đường Võ Hùng\Manufacturing system\Chapter 4: Jobbing & Batch manufacturing system 39/39