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University of Minho

School of Engineering

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems and Enterprises

Goran D. Putnik, Hélio Castro, Luís Ferreira, Rui Barbosa,


Gaspar Vieira, Cátia Alves, Vaibhav Shah, Zlata Putnik,
Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha, Leonilde Varela
Goran D. Putnik, Hélio Castro, Luís Ferreira, Rui Barbosa, Gaspar Vieira,
Cátia Alves, Vaibhav Shah, Zlata Putnik, Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha, Leonilde Varela

Advanced Manufacturing Systems


and Enterprises
Towards Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing

University of Minho – School of Engineering


Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

Any use made of the information in this document is entirely at the user's risk. No liability will
be accepted by the authors.

Title: Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Enterprises


Subtitle: Towards Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
Authors: Goran D. Putnik, Hélio Castro, Luís Ferreira, Rui Barbosa,
Gaspar Vieira, Cátia Alves, Vaibhav Shah, Zlata Putnik, Maria
Manuela Cruz-Cunha, Leonilde Varela

Copyright ©2012 by Goran Putnik


First Edition: October 2012
Publishing company: University of Minho – School of Engineering
Review: LabVE
Print by: Copissaurio Repro, Lda.
Distribution by: LabVE – University of Minho, School of Engineering,
Department of Production and Systems Engineering
iii

Acknowledgments

Creating a book is a hard, but compensating and We are also grateful to other members of the
enriching, task. It involves an array of different research group on Distributed and Virtual
activities, such as book development process Manufacturing Systems and Enterprises
management, organization and integration of (DVMSE) and the Laboratory for Virtual
contents, technical editing of book, contacts Enterprises (LabVE), of the Centre for Industrial
with printing company, distribution and other and Technology Management (CGIT), who are
activities, and finally, virtually the most not among the authors of this book, but who
important task, interaction with readers, in were helping always when it was necessary.
order to achieve the most important object of
creating a book that meets public expectations. Special thanks go to our institutions, the
All these activities are not possible without University of Minho and Centre for Industrial
resources and collaboration of many parties. and Technology Management (CGIT), in
The authors would like to acknowledge the help, Portugal, for providing the material resources
support and confidence of all those who made and all necessary logistics.
this creation possible.

The authors wish to acknowledge the support


of:

1) The Foundation for Science and Technology


– FCT, Project PTDC/EME-GIN/102143/2008,
‘Ubiquitous oriented embedded systems for
globally distributed factories of Authors,
manufacturing enterprises’,
2) EUREKA, Project E! 4177-Pro-Factory UES. Guimarães, September 2012
iv
v

Preface

About the subject

This book addresses the development of c) ubiquitous oriented embedded systems. The
advanced manufacturing systems and focus of research presented in this book is on
enterprises in response to the nowadays the following technological contributions::
requirements for “new industrialization”,
“manufacturing revitalization” (The White 1) Development of an organisational model
House – President Barack Obama, 2009), job for the UCMS, and a corresponding
crisis resolution through new manufacturing, infrastructure, based on a pilot laboratory
“manufacturing renaissance” and similar, as a workshop, which will comprise organisational
vision on manufacturing as virtually infrastructures for providing higher level
indispensable instrument for nowadays global supporting services for the UCMS object
economic crisis resolution. manufacturing and business processes. The
main purpose of this infrastructure is to
The concept of Ubiquitous and Cloud provide a higher degree of UCMS robustness
Manufacturing Systems (UCMS), the subject of in terms of interoperability, re-configurability
this book, is expected to deliver the next and agility, efficiency and effectiveness. The
generation of methods and means for enabling special focuses are on services and tools for
modern manufacturing enterprises capable to UCMS organisational network development -
respond to the above mentioned requirements. the human role and relationship in a UCMS, as
The next generation of methods and means for the most important part of an organisation:
enabling modern manufacturing enterprises roles spanning from equipment operators to
should be characterized by the synergetic high level management.
effects that come from the domains of a)
innovative management and control
architecture, b) distributed systems of ICT, and
vi

2) Testing of the organisational model of the Expectation


UCMS, and its infrastructure, based on the
pilot laboratory workshop. The book provides researchers, scholars and
professionals with some of the most advanced
The research results presented in the book are research developments, solutions and
developed within the “Ubiquitous oriented implementations. It is expected to provide a
embedded systems for globally distributed better understanding of advanced
factories of manufacturing enterprises” project, manufacturing systems and enterprises and
reference PTDC/EME-GIN/102143/2008, their implementation as ubiquitous and cloud
funded by the Portuguese Foundation for manufacturing, in order to achieve the expected
Science and Technology (FCT), and approved as and necessary transformative changes towards
EUREKA project, reference E! 4177 UES. true sustainability. We expect the book to be
read by academics (i.e., teachers, researchers
and students), technology solutions developers
Organization of the book and enterprise managers (including top-level
managers), and, specially, by entrepreneurs.
The book is consisted of two main parts. The
first part is organized through 5 chapters, of The book is also expected to help and support
which the first chapter makes an introduction in teachers of graduate and postgraduate courses
from management, industrial engineering and
the subject, the second chapter presents the
mechanical engineering to ICT.
concepts of ubiquity, clouds, services systems
and the global idea of ubiquitous and cloud
Also, the authors believe that the concepts of
manufacturing, in the third chapter an
ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing may
architecture of ubiquitous and cloud
influence the actual education practices, in both
manufacturing system is provided, the fourth
domains - university education and professional
chapter presents a pilot installation in education, influencing both the course contents
laboratorial environment, and, finally the fifth (curricula) and the education technology itself.
chapter presents the conclusions. The second
part consists of 5 annexes that provide more
details on technical and implementation aspects
of the prototype model and the pilot installation Authors,
developed. Guimarães, September 2012
vii

Contents

Acknowledgments iii Chapter IV


A Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for
Preface v
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing adoption in
Chapter I Industry and Community 4

Introduction: In search of new manufacturing UCMS laboratorial platform as a learning


system paradigms 3 factory 41
Platform’s functional architecture and its
Chapter II implementation 48
Ubiquity, Clouds, Services Systems and
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing 11 Chapter V
Ubiquitous Systems 12 Conclusions 55
Clouds 14
References 59
Manufacturing as service systems 16
Annexes 63
Ubiquitous and cloud production network
idealization 18 Annex I:
Distributed Informatics System for
Chapter III
Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing: An Hybrid architecture Client-Server + P2P 67
Architecture 23
Annex II:
Service system architecture 23
Distributed Informatics System for
ICT platform architecture 26
Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Cloud-based Architecture 83
viii

Annex III:
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing System -
Hybrid Architecture 97

Annex IV:
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing System -
Cloud-based Architecture 111

Annex V:
Pilot Laboratorial Plant for Ubiquitous and
Cloud Manufacturing Systems 129
Advanced Manufacturing Systems
and Enterprises
Towards Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
2
3

Chapter I
Introduction: In search of new manufacturing system paradigms

The traditional Manufacturing was superseded. “Manufacturing workers have paradoxically


The new dynamic and global business model often been victims of their sector’s own success,
forced traditional production processes to as rapid productivity growth has meant that
change, in the sense of integrating them in a goods can be produced with fewer workers,
global chain of resources and stakeholders. The contributing to a several decades-long trend of
agility, quick reaction to market changes and declining employment. This trend has been
proactivity are essential, and the high compounded by the shift of consumer spending
availability and capacity to effectively “answer” from manufactured goods like TVs and cars to
to requirements are some of the main services like tourism, dining out and healthcare
competitiveness and sustainability criterion. as well as increased consumption of
manufacturing goods made elsewhere. And the
Additionally, new challenges have emerged, recent downturn has been particularly painful
such as - reallocation of manufacturing jobs, for manufacturing companies, their workers and
declination of a number of manufacturing jobs, the communities that rely on them.”
emergence of new industries, environmental.
For example, in (The White House – President
Barack Obama, 2009) one of the challenges is
described in the following words:
4

The challenge of reallocation of manufacturing While areas that have “concentration of


jobs emerges because of - “overall costs drive manufacturing activity” experience benefits for
manufacturers’ location choices. In today's virtually all, including companies, workers and
increasingly competitive global marketplace, communities, the areas that lose manufacturing
manufacturing activities will be undertaken by jobs are heavily affected as well, albeit
private actors who will locate their factories negatively. For example, “Communities that
where total all-in cost is lowest.” (ibid.). It is experience substantial declines in
hard to believe that the concentration of, manufacturing activity experience losses in
virtually, all manufacturing in a couple of county population, slower growth in the number
countries, e.g., metaphorically, in a couple of of housing units and increases in the local
Asian countries now and in a couple of poverty rate. The adjustment to these losses is
European countries in the past, is beneficial to slow and remains incomplete even decades
the whole world. later” (ibid.), and similar. Equally, the
manufacturing job loss creates great negative
impacts on individual levels, on manufacturing
workers.
5

Figure 1.1 - Short term EU emission profile compared to 2ºC compatible long term target (p. 40) (European
Commission, 2010b)
6

The environmental challenges are similarly It means, further, that the previously
dramatic. established target is still insufficient to achieve
the long term objective of keeping the average
Concerning the quantitative measures, by the global temperature increase below 2°C by 2050.
Kyoto Protocol, European Community’s In order to pursue this objective, developed
commitment was to reduce 8% of the quantity countries must point their emission targets for a
of emission (p. 21, Annex B) (United Nations, reduction in the order of 80% to 95% by 2050 as
1998). Later, in 2007, “The European Council compared to in 1990. (European Commission,
emphasizes that the EU is committed to 2010a)
transforming Europe into a highly energy-
efficient and low greenhouse-gas-emitting In other words, it would be necessary to
economy and decides that, (…) the EU makes a accelerate the implementation of all
firm independent commitment to achieve at mechanisms for GHG reduction, especially after
least a 20 % reduction of greenhouse gas 2030 in order to compensate lower rate of
emissions by 2020 compared to 1990.” (p. 13) effort up to 2030. This is graphically presented
(European Council, 2007). in Figure 1.1 (European Commission, 2010a).

But “To have a reasonable chance of staying Concerning the effort needed to respond to the
below the 2°C threshold, global GHG emissions challenge, according to WWF, “The good news
must be reduced to less than 50% of 1990 levels is, we have the technology to start to fix the
by 2050” (p.3) (Commission of the European problem.” (WWF, 2010).
Communities, 2009).
The third global challenge is already well known
Additionally, EU offers to scale up the reduction global financial crisis specially accentuated in
to 30% if other developed and developing Europe.
countries agree to take a fair share of the global
reduction.
7

Figure 1.2 – Number of papers by manufacturing concepts and year


8

All these three global challenges, the social,  Virtual Enterprise


environmental and economical, are parts of the  Enterprise Integration
issue of sustainability.  Agile Manufacturing
 Real-time Enterprises
Solutions to these challenges require a great set  Concurrent Engineering
of new mechanisms spanning from legislations  Sustainable Manufacturing
and regulations (national, regional,  Life Cycle Management
international, global), social, cultural,  Remanufacturing
organizational, to technology advances.  Digital Manufacturing
 Cloud Manufacturing
Some of the instruments that are expected to  Just In Time manufacturing
contribute to answering the above mentioned
 Flexible Manufacturing
challenges are new manufacturing paradigms,
 Open Manufacturing
in which context we are presenting research
 Craft Manufacturing
intensification on recently proposed
 All-embracing manufacturing
manufacturing paradigms. In parallel, we are  Learning Factory
witnessing an intensive search for new  Extended Enterprise
manufacturing paradigms too. Both parameters
 Production Network
grow in numbers.
 Grid Manufacturing
 Micro Factory
In literature, a number of designations could be
 Social Network Manufacturing
found, such as:
 Desktop Factory
 Ubiquitous Manufacturing  Pocket Factory
 Enterprise Interoperability  Fit Manufacturing
 Networked Enterprise  Virtual Organization
 Lean Production/Manufacturing
In Figure 1.2, a number of papers in collections
 Global Manufacturing
of some of the World leading publishers
 Mass Customization
(Elsevier, Springer, Emerald, ACM, IEEE) per year
 Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
and per manufacturing concepts listed above is
 Collaborative Engineering
shown, presenting growing intensity of research
 Manufacturing Supply Chain
9

on, and on a number of newly proposed, or “Network effects occur when to an economic
emerging, manufacturing concepts. agent, e.g., a consumer of a firm, the utility of
using a product or technology becomes larger as
Equally, a great number of research projects on its network of users grows in size (Farrell &
the above referred manufacturing concepts, or Saloner, 1985; Katz & Shapiro, 1985). The
those that generated new manufacturing network effect may set in motion a positive
concepts, were financed by a number of feedback loop that will cause a product or
national and international research technology to become more prevalent in the
programmes (for example, the well-known EC market.” (Den Hartigh, 2005).
Frameworks Programmes in Europe – such as
FP7 and future Horizon 2020). Besides the network effects alone, as the
“positive feedback loop” instrument, extremely
Some of the above mentioned manufacturing interesting is their combination with other
concepts hypothesize on inter-enterprise phenomena, namely, social interaction effects,
networking as one of the most promising scale effects and learning effects, that could be
instruments to face the big sustainability considered as other “positive feedback loop”
challenges, relying on exploration of so-called instruments, which (the combination) may, and
“network effects”. is expected to, create the “increasing return”
effect.
10

Increasing returns are the opposite phenomena The paradigm of Ubiquitous and Cloud
to the well-known law of decreasing returns in Manufacturing, whose architecture and
economy. The increasing returns occur when implementation framework are presented in
the output of an economic system increases this book, is seen as an instrument for
more than proportionally with a rise of input manufacturing organizational and productive
(Den Hartigh, 2005). The importance of capacity transformation, to contribute for the
designing and investigating increasing returns above mentioned sustainability challenges.
mechanisms are multiple (ibid): 1) “there is
growing evidence that increasing returns Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing is a
actually do exist, at least in the relevant network based system conceived to enable a
business domain of firms”; 2) “it is becoming combination of network effects, social
more relevant in the increasingly information interaction effects, scale effects and learning
and knowledge based business environment of effects, in order to further enable the “positive
today” especially considering information feedback loop” in the form of increasing return
products and service sectors; and 3) “the as a virtual precondition for the needed
presence of increasing returns seems to be a economic growth, as well as, the “positive
precondition for economic growth to occur at feedback loop” in the context of other two big
all”. sustainability challenges, namely,
environmental and social.
11

Chapter II
Ubiquity, Clouds, Services Systems and Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing

“Globalization, innovation and ICT (Information Many of the existent infra-structures are
and Communication Technologies) are already ubiquitous and/or cloud based, or are
transforming many sectors to anywhere, changing towards these virtual architectures. To
anytime platforms”, towards an intelligent efficiently use those infra-structures the
business model under “design anywhere, make applications must be transformed and follow
anywhere, and sell anywhere” paradigm (Elliott, services oriented applications pattern.
2010). We would add “anytime” too. Traditional
stakeholders (suppliers and customers) are
“transformed” in services, where supplying or
using profiles are a question of needs or
context. One service (a Calculator, for instance)
can execute (supply) something using other
services (Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication
and Division operations) (Usmani, Azeem,
Samreen, 2011).
12

Ubiquitous Systems

Ubiquity is a synonym for omnipresence, the On the other hand, ubiquity has been addressed
property of being present everywhere1 “The in relation to manufacturing systems as well. In
state or quality of being, or appearing to be, (Foust, 1975) “the term ‘ubiquitous’” is
everywhere at once; actual or perceived “explicitly defined to be functional in an
omnipresence. Omnipresence: the ability to be empirical context (…) The types of
at all places at the same time; usually only manufacturing which are both market oriented
attributed to God”2. and have a frequency of occurrence greater than
a specific limit which can be empirically defined
According to Weiser (1993) Ubiquitous are ubiquitous. …”.
Computing represents: “Long-term the PC and
workstation will wither because computing Foust (1975) cites Alfred Weber’s definition of
access will be everywhere: in the walls, on ubiquitous manufacturing too: “Ubiquity
wrists, and in “scrap computers” (like scrap naturally does not mean that a commodity is
paper) lying about to be grabbed as needed.” present or producible at every mathematical
Weiser also used a powerful term: “calm point of the country or region. It means that the
technology”, as another description of commodity is so extensively available within the
Ubiquitous Systems. region that, wherever a place of consumption is
located, there are (…) opportunities for
Computing technology has evolved up to the producing it in the vicinity. Ubiquity is therefore
point when Ubiquitous Computing System not a mathematical, but a practical and
development and operation are possible, using approximate, term
present network devices, protocols and (praktischerNaherungsbegriff).”
applications.

1 2
Wikipédia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubiquity Wiktionary: https://pt.wiktionary.org/wiki/ubiquity
13

Figure 2.1 – Types of Product-Service Systems (Meier H., Roy R., Seliger G., 2010)

Figure 2.2 – Industrial Product-Service Systems scientific fields of action (redrawn from Meier H., Roy R., Seliger G., 2010)
14

Clouds

Definition of ‘cloud’ is reinforced by (Group, E., ‘Cloud’ has a number of “particular


2010) - as the reference source created within characteristics that distinguish it from classical
the EC initiative – and, therefore, it is the most resource and service provisioning environments:
relevant for an Advanced Manufacturing (1) it is (virtually) infinitely scalable; (2) it
Systems and/or Enterprise. provides one or more of an infrastructure for
platforms, a platform for applications or
“A ‘cloud’ is a platform or infrastructure that applications (via services) themselves; (3) thus
enables execution of code (services, applications clouds can be used for every purpose from
etc.), in a managed and elastic fashion, whereas disaster recovery/business continuity through to
‘managed’ means that reliability according to a fully outsourced ICT service for an
pre-defined quality parameters is automatically organisation; (4) clouds shift the costs for a
ensured and ‘elastic’ implies that the resources business opportunity from CAPEX to OPEX which
are put to use according to actual current allows finer control of expenditure maintenance
requirements observing overarching reducing the entry threshold barrier; (5)
requirement definitions – implicitly, elasticity currently the major cloud providers have already
includes both up- and downward scalability of invested in large scale infrastructure and now
resources and data, but also load-balancing of offer a cloud service to exploit it; (6) as a
data throughput.” consequence the cloud offerings are
heterogeneous and without agreed interfaces;
(7) cloud providers essentially provide
datacentres for outsourcing; (8) there are
concerns over security if a business places its
valuable knowledge, information and data on
an external service; (9) there are concerns over
availability and business continuity – with some
recent examples of failures; (10) there are
concerns over data shipping over anticipated
broadband speeds.” (Group, E., 2010).
15

Figure 2.3 – a) UMS has UCS as an


operating system – Ubiquity of
Computational resources only; b)
UMS operates as UCS – Ubiquity of all
Resources: Material processing,
Knowledge, and Computational
resources

Figure 2.4 – Ubiquitous and cloud


manufacturing network idealization using
cloud platform
16

Concerning the EU policy towards clouds, the Manufacturing as service systems


document refers two main recommendations:
Definition of the manufacturing as a service
Recommendation 1: The EC should stimulate system was conceived primarily by the
research and technological development in requirements for new business models in
the area of Cloud Computing, manufacturing and not in relation to ‘clouds’.
However, ‘cloud’ has provided a new view and
Recommendation 2: The EC together with capacity on/for manufacturing as service
Member States should set up the right systems. Manufacturing as the service system is
regulatory framework to facilitate the uptake related to the concept of Industrial and Product-
of Cloud computing. Service Systems.
Concerning the types of clouds, for an Advanced Industrial and Product-Service Systems (IPS2)
Manufacturing Systems and/or Enterprise, the represents a “paradigm shift from the separated
most important are the concepts of ‘cloud’ consideration of products and services to a new
types: product understanding consisting of integrated
products and services [that] creates innovation
1. IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service,
potential to increase the sustainable
2. PaaS - Platform as a Service,
competitiveness of mechanical engineering and
3. SaaS - Software as a Service, and plant design. The latter allows business models
4. “collectively *aaS (Everything as a Service) which do not focus on the machine sales but on
all of which imply a service-oriented
the use for the customer, e.g. in form of
architecture”, which includes, e.g., MaaS –
continuously available machines. The business
Manufacturing as a Service.
model determines the complexity of delivery
processes. Characteristics of Industrial Product-
Service Systems allow covering all market
demands” (Meier H., Roy R., Seliger G., 2010).
17

Figure 2.5 – A service architecture for the Ubiquitous and Cloud Production implementation
18

Considering the Industrial and Product-Service Ubiquitous and cloud production network
Systems approach, different sets, larger or idealization
smaller, of these services are already offered by
different manufacturers such as, Mori Seiki Co. Considering the Ubiquitous Systems and Cloud
LTD. enterprise integrating services of training, based platform concepts, an idea of distributed,
square parts, field services, hotline and remote complex, scalable, and we can say, democratic
services (Meier H., Roy R., Seliger G., 2010). network was projected, that allows enterprises
and individuals entrepreneurs to adjust their
There are three types of Product-Service market position in a sustainable and
Systems (Figure 2.1): competitive way.

1. Service Products – service engineering To the above mentioned definitions (by (Foust,
considers product and service as an 1975) and (Weber, 1928)), which consider
independent goods; ubiquity of resources – anywhere, we add the
2. Extended Products - service engineering is ubiquity in time – anytime, which (the
machine oriented, i.e., service is a product “anytime”), from its “side”, implies the dynamic,
extension; on-line, seamless, enterprises’ organizational
3. Industrial Product-Service System - and manufacturing system networking and
simultaneous and interfering product and; reconfigurability, or adaptability, that requires
4. Service engineering. new organisational architectures and meta-
enterprise organizations as creating and
Industrial Product-Service Systems’ scientific operating environments, makes the UMS a true
fields of action are presented in Figure 2.2. new paradigm.

Virtually, any product domain can be


transformed functionally into a Product-
Service System. The transformation of a
concrete product into a transformation
Product-Service System depends, in reality,
of other factors, such as social and economic
factors.
19

Figure 2.6 – Figurative presentation of VE evolution: from conservative, minimal network domain, e.g. of the traditional
“supply chain” architecture (a), towards ubiquitous network domain (d).
20

All these features are considered in Ubiquitous hardware and software, and services
and Cloud Manufacturing concepts. We suggest creation); and
an advanced manufacturing system in which  Knowledge resources (i.e. human
Ubiquitous and Cloud Computing is mapped resources, considering the humans as
with direct adoption of ubiquitous and cloud unique resources for knowledge generation
computing technologies. In this context, and new products and, at the end, the
resources are seen, essentially, as services that ultimate effectiveness of organisations).
can create a network. This manufacturing However, there are two quite different
service-oriented network can stimulate approaches to the concept of UMS.
production oriented to service-oriented
 The first concept considers ubiquity of the
manufacturing (Cheng et al., 2010).
MS based on, i.e. using, the ubiquitous
Therefore, Ubiquitous Manufacturing Systems computational systems (UCS) (see Figure
and Enterprises concept is related to the 2.3 (a));
availability of management, control and  The second one, which is originally our
operation functions of manufacturing systems approach, considers ubiquity of the MS as a
and enterprises anywhere, anytime, using homomorphism, i.e. it is a mapping, of the
direct control, notebooks or handheld devices. ubiquitous computational systems (UCS),
It is related with Ubiquitous Computing (see Figure 2.3 (b)), (Putnik et al., 2004),
Systems. (Putnik et al., 2006), (Putnik et al., 2007).

Ubiquitous Manufacturing Systems (UMS), The similar idea was referred in Murakami &
therefore, implies ubiquity of three general Fujinuma (2000), (cited by Serrano & Fischer;
types of resources in organizations: 2007). This approach is referred also as
“Ubiquitous networking” that “emphasises the
 Material processing resources (e.g. possibility of building networks of persons and
machine tools and other objects for sending and receiving information of
manufacturing/production equipment as all kinds and thus providing the users with
resources); services anytime and at any place”.
 Information processing resources (e.g.
computational resources – includes A ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing network
idealization using cloud platform in European
21

geographic space is presented in Figure 2.4. 4) These UMS “hyper”-sized manufacturing


Figure 2.5 shows a framework for services networks could be seen as manufacturing
architecture construction to support the resources Internet of Things,
Ubiquitous and Cloud Production, or 5) These UMS “hyper”-sized manufacturing
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing, networks could be seen as manufacturing
development and implementation. production social networks, enabling
advanced and emerging organizational and
business models based on crowdsourcing,
Some hypothesis on UMS open source products, open source economy,
and others,
The hypothesis is that UMS should be based on
6) These UMS “hyper”-sized manufacturing
a “hyper”-sized manufacturing network,
networks form and use clouds,
consisting of thousands, hundreds of
thousands, or millions of “nodes”, i.e. of and others.
manufacturing resources units, freely accessible
and independent, Figure 2.6.

Further implications are that

1) UMS manufacturing units should be, in the


limit, “primitive”, i.e. individuals, or
individual companies, and individually owned
hardware/software resources,
2) Management and operation of UMS should
be informed by the discipline of “chaos and
complexity management in organizations”,
e.g. Chaordic System Thinking (CST) model
(Eijnatten et al, 2007),
3) Specific instruments should be used, such
as meta-organizations (e.g. Market of
Resources model), brokering and virtuality,
22
23

Chapter III
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing: an Architecture

Service system architecture

As referred in the previous chapter, considering manufacturing system architecture. Figure 3.1,
the Ubiquitous Systems and Cloud based is a ‘cloud’ based architecture that represents
platform concepts, an idea of distributed, the manufacturing system as a service system,
complex, scalable, and we can say, a democratic integrating the services for:
network was projected, that allows enterprises
and individuals entrepreneurs to adjust and 1) Real-time Data Acquisition Services for
project (referring to reactivity and proactivity, real-time data acquisition from the
respectively) their market position in a equipment through the embedded intelligent
sustainable and competitive way. information devices – services type:
‘Equipment Intelligent Monitoring Systems’,
Thus, the services of real time data acquisition 2) Product Design Services, that integrates
(through intelligent production monitoring four environments: a) Computer Aided
services), product design and production Design, b) Product data repository with
management services, are distributed in a embedded Intelligent System for Decision
global network of resources (enterprises and Making (for accessing all relevant data, actual
individuals entrepreneurs) that provide these and historic as well as data analysis) from the
services. These services will be supported by a equipment in use, c) Mixed-reality
cloud infrastructure. Environment, and d) Co-Creation
(Collaborative) Environment for co-creative
The platform architecture is a projection of the
design – services type: ‘Product Design
supporting architecture for Ubiquitous and
Services’;
Cloud Manufacturing Systems, in which the
manufacturing system corresponds functionally
to a service system. That is, the ubiquitous
24

3) Equipment Operation Services, that a) infrastructure for the manufacturing


integrates four environments: a) Equipment system applications – of all three types of
Data Real-time with embedded Intelligent resources: material processing resources,
System for Decision Making, that provides all information processing resources (i.e.
relevant data, actual and historic as well as computational resources), and knowledge
data analysis and management suggestions, resources – in the form of IaaS -
necessary for the production management b) Infrastructure as a Service (including
Management environment, for monitoring, manufacturing resources as a service – in
scheduling and controlling management the form of MaaS),
activities, with embedded Intelligent System b) platform for the manufacturing system
for Decision Making, c) Mixed-reality applications in the form of PaaS - Platform
Environment, and d) Co-Creation as a Service, and
(Collaborative) Environment for co-creative
c) manufacturing system software
management – services types: ‘Production
‘business’ applications in the form of SaaS -
Management Services’ and ‘Production
Software as a Service.
Planning and Control Services’;
4) The ‘cloud’ infrastructure, that will provide For the architecture presented in Figure 3.1, the
the possible technological support platform
oriented to the ‘cloud,’ is presented in Figure
3.2.
25

Figure 3.1 – Overall system architecture for development, implementation and validation
26

ICT platform architecture

The logical architecture of the ICT Platform is 3) The ‘Data Layer’ represents/defines
architecture for integration of applications and support for all applications for
“Representation”, “Mixed-reality data repository and management, including
representation”, “Real-time management knowledge bases (e.g. for Intelligent System on
model”, and “Communication for collaborative the upper level).
management”.
For each layer the corresponding technology to
It is basically a 3-tier layer architecture be employed is referred. Each logic layer
consisting of (1) Presentation Layer, (2) Business interacts with the other using appropriate
Layer and (3) Data Layer: interoperability services. Its implementation is
supported by technologies capable and duly
1) The ‘Presentation Layer’ represents/defines integrated into the 'cloud'. A view of the
applications and support for all interfaces, architecture is presented on Figure 3.3.
views, presentations and communications for
users. Furthermore, some functional modules, which
belong to the Business Layer, are presented.
2) The ‘Business Layer’ represents/defines
applications and support for all ‘business’
applications such as Decision Making
applications, Intelligent System applications,
Services Workflows.
27

Figure 3.2 – Technological support platform oriented to the cloud


28

Co-Creation platform: Semiotics and


Pragmatics, Co-Design, Co-Management, and
Co-*

Semiotics and Pragmatics – In its most simple The relevance of the semiotic approach in a
definition, semiotics is the science of ‘signs’. The social context in engineering has emerged in
domain of semiotics comprises three fields: response to the failure of the traditional
syntax, semantics and pragmatics. While syntax ‘technocentric’ approach to today’s information
and semantics are well known in the systems (IS) and organisations’ requirements as
Manufacturing Systems (MS) science, well as to the ‘software development crisis.’
pragmatics is almost totally unknown as a (ibid.). In other words, the relevance of the
discipline. The universally accepted order semiotic approach could be clearer if
among the three semiotic fields, introduced by considering that the biggest problem is in fact
Carnap (1942), is based on their degree of data interpretation. Actually, the data
abstractness in relation to complete signs and interpretation depends at the end only of
semiosis: “ ‘If in an investigation explicit humans and implementing
reference is made to the speaker, or, to put it in semiotics/pragmatics directly addresses this
more general terms, to the user of language, problem and introduces the instrument for its
then we assign it to the field of pragmatics. … If treatment.
we abstract from the user of the language and
analyse only the expressions and their
designate, we are in the field of semantics. And
if, finally, we abstract from the designate also
and analyse only the relations between the
expressions, we are in (logical) syntax.’ (Carnap
1942: 9)”. This criterion could be considered of
the maximum importance as it ‘reveals’
proximity to the reality of syntactics, semantics
and pragmatics (Putnik G.D., Putnik Z., 2010).
29

Presentation Layer
 Communication
o Audio chat
o Audio conference
o Video chat
o Video conference
o Messenger
o Others…
 Resources
o Management
o Data
o Mixed-Reality
o Geo-reference
o Video
o Others…
Technology:
 JQuery, HTML5, CSS3
 XMPP
 Frameworks: OpenSimulator/SilverLight

Business Layer
 Tools
o Co-Creation (Co-Design, Co-Management,
Co-Maintenance, …)
o Audio conference
o Mixed-Reality
o Video conference
o Intelligent Systems
o Others…
o Brokering
o Selection and Reconfiguration
o Sustainability
Technology:
 Web Services / RESTful API
 Cloud API (SaaS)

Data Layer
 Tools
o Quering
o Selection
o Refinement
Technology:
 Web Services / RESTful API
 LINQ
 Cloud API (SaaS)
 DBMS

Figure 3.3 – ICT Platform Architecture


30

A vision of introduction of the e.g. a (predictive) maintenance action (– while


semiotics/pragmatics concept as an instrument the “traditional” design / management / control
is shown in the Figure 3.4. paradigm is a 1:1 relation). It means that these
activities and decision are co-constructed, or co-
The semiotics approach, and in particular created, by a group of designers and/or
pragmatics, in UCMS is additionally enhanced managers, in order to achieve increased
through introduction of the concept of Co- cognitive capacity of agents, designers or
Creation. managers, and other stakeholders, in order to
enable and ensure faster and better decisions
Co-Creation – Co-Creation is already relatively in and higher level coherence with the reality,
regular use, especially in marketing and some which is another objective (and performance
design practices and in these disciplines it refers
measure).
a joint design of product by designer and
costumer. This is relatively close to the This approach, the co-creation or co-creativity
“traditional” Concurrent Engineering concept or co-design or co-evolution, is also in
and practices. However, the semantics is quite accordance with recently promoted “semiotics
different from theory to theory, from author to based manufacturing system integration” which
author, from “user”-group to “user”-group, is, simplifying, a communicational based
from community to community. Even in the system, rather than information transaction
scientific literature there are contradictory based.
definitions.
Collaboration (in design and management
Not entering here in discussion on the “co- processes) enables and ensures better decisions
creation”, or co-creativity or co-design or co- by increasing the cognitive capacity of designers
evolution, models and definitions, the and/or managers and other stakeholders and
interpretation of “co-creation” assumed in higher level coherence with the reality through
UCMS is that co-creation process means that, in implementation of co-creative management. In
the “minimal”, or “elementary” configuration, other terms, the collaborative
there are two agents (minimum) that co- design/management paradigm is oriented
creatively construct their product, whether the towards effectiveness, rather than towards
“product” is a design of a new equipment (with efficiency, as the effectiveness is nowadays the
embedded intelligent information devices) or problem of the higher impact in organizations.
31

Figure 3.4 – Interfaces for communication in a MS Cell with Figure 3.5 – A video conferencing environment for
both ‘pragmatic’ and ‘semantic’ communication channels “traditional” 1:1 “architecture of design and/or
(Putnik G.D., Putnik Z., 2010) management process”

Figure 3.6 – A video conferencing environment for “co- Figure 3.7 – Future cyber-commons environment (Leigh &
creative” oriented n:n “architecture of design and/or Brown, 2008)
management process”
32

Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6 present the additionally, both groups will be capable to
“traditional” 1:1 “architecture of design and/or perform their processes jointly in a fully
management process”, and the “co-creative” integrated and systemic way – ‘3rd Co-Creative
oriented n:n “architecture of design and/or cycle’ (Integrated Co-Creation), Figure 3.8.
management process (in a virtual, i.e. multi-
video conferencing environment)” respectively. The supporting technology will be based on
multi-user video-conferencing with auxiliary
Figure 3.7 shows an advanced and complex functionalities. A vision is presented on the
environment denominated as “cyber-commons Figure 3.9.
environment”, as another implementation for
co-creation environment. These three cycles, and the video-conferencing
environment, will provide full
Advanced manufacturing system architecture semiotic/pragmatics effects and support in
will integrate environments, or so-called, co- order to enhance the cognitive and creative
creative platforms, for three co-creative capacities of the participants to the maximum,
environments: and a full “co-creative”, or co-design or co-
evolving, and truly systemic environment.
1) Product design processes,
2) Operation, or production, management
processes, and
Mixed-reality platform
3) Integrated design-production processes.
Mixed Reality is defined as "...anywhere
It means that the co-creative processes, in both between the extrema of the virtuality
groups of agents, will perform independently, continuum.", (Milgram P., Kishino A. F., 1994),
i.e. the designers will be capable to perform where “the Virtuality Continuum (VC) extends
their processes in their own environment from the completely real through to the
separately from the managers – ‘1st Co- completely virtual environment with
Creative cycle’ (Design Co-Creation), and the augmented reality and augmented virtuality
managers will be capable to perform their ranging between”, Figure 3.10.
processes in their own environment separately
from the designers– ‘2nd Co-Creative cycle’
(Management Co-Creation). However,
33

Figure 3.8 – Advanced manufacturing system co-creative platform, for three co-creative environments: 1) for product design
processes, 2) for operation, or production, management processes, and 3) for integrated design-production processes.
34

“The conventionally held view of a Virtual and maintainability), creating virtual reality
Reality (VR) environment is one in which the environment of the workshops and equipment
participant-observer is totally immersed in, and for enhancing design performance and quality,
able to interact with, a completely synthetic as well as for (2) production management
world. Such a world may mimic the properties (including planning and control) services, in
of some real-world environments, either which the manager will supervise the
existing or fictional; however, it can also exceed workshops and equipment over virtual reality
the bounds of physical reality by creating a models of the workshop or through the video
world in which the physical laws ordinarily monitoring enriched by e.g. virtual tags with
governing space, time, mechanics, material relevant information attached to each
properties, etc. no longer hold. What may be equipment in the workshop.
overlooked in this view, however, is that the VR
label is also frequently used in association with A vision for application of the mixed-reality
a variety of other environments, to which total technologies presented in Figure 3.11, Figure
immersion and complete synthesis do not 3.12 and Figure 3.13 shows a vision of the
necessarily pertain, but which fall somewhere manufacturing system environment, combining
along a virtuality continuum. … a particular the mixed-reality platform with co-creative
subclass of VR related technologies that involve platform, and other relevant environments.
the merging of real and virtual worlds, which we
The mixed-reality platform could be developed
refer to generically as Mixed Reality (MR)”.
following the concepts of “metaverse”
Mixed-reality technologies are used, concerning environments, i.e. the mixed-reality platform
engineering and production, in a number of could be developed over a 3D metaverse
advanced applications of design, training, platform such as OpenSimulator
validation, control, management, marketing, (opensimulator.org) or SecondLife™
etc. (secondlife.com). 3D Application Servers such as
OpenSimulator (opensimulator.org) or
Within UCMS mixed-reality technologies will be SecondLife™ (secondlife.com) provide a fast
used for both (1) new generation products and
track to developing virtual worlds. They seem to
equipment design with embedded intelligent
be a natural choice for the development of the
information devices (for advancing production
performance and other functions e.g. reliability
35

Figure 3.11 – Virtual reality

Figure 3.9 – A vision of the multi-user video-conferencing


system as the co-creative environment

Figure 3.12 – Mixed reality - with virtual tags only

Figure 3.10 – Reality-Virtuality continuum (Milgram &


Kishino, 1994)

Figure 3.13 – Mixed reality – Augmented Reality form


36

type of prototype we are aiming at. example, the position of the user in the space.
OpenSimulator, in particular, has the advantage Explicit interactions imply the availability of
of being open source. This means the backend virtual devices presented in the simulation. For
can be programmed, making it highly example, touch screens or simulated portable
configurable and extensible. devices.

An additional challenge is to render the objects


of the automatically generated environments
more realistically, both regarding their 3D look Intelligent System
and feel and the details of their behaviour, while
UCMS should implement a series of software
conforming to the high level model. Interactive
application for employment of intelligent
evolutionary computation approaches have
algorithms for diverse objectives such as
been used to speed the design process in
evaluation of behavioural curves in real-time,
application areas ranging from facial image
pattern recognition, data mining, etc. These
generation, graphics, and 3D lighting to
techniques are to be combined with other
industrial design (an extensive review can be
relevant techniques.
found in literature). The challenges in this
process include finding an adequate parametric
model of the object to be generated, an
algorithm to navigate the parameter space, and Sustainability
an assessment function which often includes
user input. For example, genetics-based There are a number of “sustainability”
algorithms have been used to prototype virtual definitions depending on the context. However,
objects and to automatically generate this is a critical issue for the society as a whole
applications. In particular, the challenge is to and for many communities in particular. Besides
find parametric models of the 3D objects and the differences, large number of communities,
their behaviour and to assess the usefulness of and especially governmental bodies, agree that
this evolutionary computation approach. the sustainability should address three
challenges, Figure 3.14 (Jovane F., 2007):
The platform should support both implicit and
explicit interactions. Implicit interactions • “economical challenges, by producing
happen through virtual sensors that capture, for wealth and new services ensuring
37

Figure 3.14 – Fundamentals of sustainable development (Jovane F., 2007)

Figure 3.15 – Sustainable value-creating modules in a global network (Seliger G, et al., 2008)
38

development and competitiveness through At the “field level”, UCM products and services
time; must be:
• environmental challenges, by promoting
 “safe and ecologically sound throughout
minimal use of natural resources (in particular
their life cycle” (environmental
non-renewable) and managing them in the
challenge);
best possible way while reducing
 appropriately designed equipment to “be
environmental impact;
durable, repairable, readily recycled,
• social challenges, by promoting social compostable, or easily biodegradable”
development and improved quality of life (economical and environmental
through renewed quality of wealth and jobs.” challenge);
(Jovane et al., 2008).  produced and used in production to
reduce the energy costs and
It means that UCMS should consciously
environmental pollution by a factor of
address all three challenges. The issues such
minimum 20% (economical and
as ‘Products –What’, ‘Organization – When,
environmental challenge);
Where’, ‘Production Facilities – By’ and
 capable of new jobs creation (social
‘HUMANS’ are mandatory to address, Figure
challenge)!
3.15 (Seliger G, et al., 2008).
39

The proposed architecture addresses the three • Social sustainability: Advanced


aspects of sustainability: economic, manufacturing system components support
environmental and social, implementing them Social sustainability goals enabling “The
in the following way: creation of new jobs” – This effect is possible
because the advanced manufacturing system
• Economic and environmental is conceived as a service system meaning a
sustainability: Economic and environmental great degree of “openness” for performing
sustainability is based on implementation of these services, the maintenance
specific software modules, with management and design services, by
corresponding analytical models, for individuals (“free-lancers”), micro and small
continuous evaluation of energy consumption companies, that would form a dynamic
and costs, environmental pollution and network of services providers. In this way a
associated costs. These models and potential for new jobs creation will be
applications will be embedded in data dramatically increased.
acquisition services.
40
41

Chapter IV
A Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
Adoption in Industry and Community

UCMS laboratorial platform as a learning


factory

Competitiveness, innovation and sustainability, Although the idea of collaboration between


internationalization and factories globally partners and enterprises, or even the
distributed, networked businesses, real time collaboration into a distributed network, and
management and information and the use of advanced ICT, may seem simple and
communication technologies, as well as new clear, and can represent an incentive for the
business models, are terms that have been industry to ensure greater competitiveness and
directly or indirectly embedded throughout the sustainability by companies, the truth is that, it
previous chapters. The concepts of Ubiquitous is unclear how this interrelation works, as well
and Cloud Manufacturing were explored, by as what is the exact role of various stakeholders
presenting a model of advanced manufacturing including customers, products and services
systems and enterprises, as well as an suppliers, 'Brokers' and Meta Organization.
architecture that is able to support it.
42

In this way, a laboratory platform, that In other words, this laboratorial platform, as
integrates physical components, was created, as learning factory, allows the entrepreneurs,
a complex computational solution, capable of manufacturing factories and enterprises to
simulating network operations, and work in network, communicate, and make
representing a pilot installation of UCMS. The decisions in real time, through new technologies
objective of this laboratorial platform is to serve and new organizational forms. Thus, with this
as a learning factory platform to ensure the new type of work and business environment,
adoption of the ubiquitous and cloud new products and businesses can emerge
manufacturing concepts in industry and among the users with the final objective to
community, through training and through achieve the desired competitiveness and
carrying out real business operations in reduced sustainability.
volume of services. Thus, the developed
platform has two general functionalities: (1) as
a learning factory - to increase competences,
skills, know-how, and to be a bridge for
competences, skills, know-how exchange, and
(2) as a new business generator - to transform
the traditional enterprises into future
enterprises.
43

Figure 4.1 – A Learning Factory Platform applicability in industry and community


44

Although the concept of “Learning Factory” is


not very recent, the innovative platform’s “The mission of the Learning Factory is to
dimension is the application of the Learning integrate design, manufacturing and business
Factory concept for Ubiquitous and Cloud realities into engineering education. This is
Manufacturing as the Advanced Manufacturing accomplished by providing a state-of-the-art,
Systems and Enterprises agents for the XXI hands-on active learning laboratory, a
Century. practice-based curriculum, and real (industry-
driven) projects.”
The laboratorial platform, as learning factory,
allows the enterprises and the community to (Lamancusa & Simpson, 2004)
learn and train the ubiquitous and cloud
concepts applicability (Figure 4.1), promoting
entrepreneurship and creation of new business
“The Learning Factory is a paradigm shift to
models.
industry-partnered, interdisciplinary, real-
world problem solving in engineering
education.”

(Lamancusa et al. 2008)


45

Figure 4.2 – A laboratorial pilot installation of a UCMS and as a UCMS learning factory environment
46

In industry, companies can use the platform Use of the platform for external and internal
internally, for training their own personnel in learning and training are also applicable in the
service-based manufacturing, product-service community through e.g. students’ curricular
systems, working over the Internet, and activities (internal) and development of their
generating competences on UCMS principles – projects within the laboratory and among
performing manufacturing services anytime, themselves only – internal learning and training,
anywhere. Companies can also use the platform or in cooperation with, and in, companies –
externally by performing learning and training external learning and training.
jointly with other companies through
exchanging services and creation of added- This type of training also promotes
value with other companies and through small entrepreneurship to solve the unemployment,
projects development with community (in the which is a critical issue for young people who
first place with academia, but also with other start their professional career.
social groups, e.g. cooperating with
employment centres for personnel
requalification, and similar).
47

Figure 4.3 – Resource Environment Figure 4.3 – UCMS Client’s control room

Figure 4.5 – Extended physical platform, as a Learning


Factory of ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing Figure 4.6 – Informal demonstrator architecture
48

Platform’s functional architecture and its


implementation

The laboratory platform was developed by the The installed platform (Figure 4.2) can be
University of Minho in the Laboratory of Virtual extended with physical facilities into different
Enterprises (LabVE) - Guimarães, Portugal. In modules: Client, Broker and Resource (Figure
Figure 4.2 the laboratorial platform’s physical 4.5), anywhere, in any institution, whether
installation is shown, as a pilot installation of academic or industrial, fixed or mobile, creating
UCMS, and as a UCMS learning factory a real true and physical ubiquitous and cloud
environment. manufacturing learning factory.

Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4 show one of the


machining resource, i.e. UCMS server’s,
environment – desktop machine-tools – and its
communicational interface, and the UCMS
control room – UCMS client’s environment –
and its large-screen communicational interface
for creation of virtual presence environments,
respectively.
49

a) b) c) d)
Figure 4.7 – Frontends: a) Meta-organization, b) Client, c) Broker e d) Resource

Figure 4.9 – Meta-Organization module: Dashboards for


Figure 4.8 – Meta-Organization module
Quality and Trust Management

Figure 4.10 – Client modules


50

Additionally, the installed platform can be Meta-Organization is an environment to


extended with virtual equipment modules that facilitate and manage the efficient dynamic
can be installed in any computer to simulate a UCMS network reconfiguration and particular
machine tool operation, and in that way, UCMS execution networks, and to ensure
possibly to create real large networks for virtuality, as one of the dynamic reconfiguration
advanced experimentation and training. tools, with low transaction costs, low
confidentiality risks, protection of knowledge,
Thus, the developed platform corresponds to trust management (Cunha & Putnik, 2008).
the logical architecture implementation of the
ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing concept The Meta-Organization manages the network
(Figure 4.6), able to simulate the concept similar environment, since the registration till the
to a very near future industrial reality, that contract termination, ensuring the information
would be based on Ubiquitous and Cloud confidentiality, trust and ethics between the
Manufacturing. customers, service and products providers, and
manages Brokers too (Figure 4.8). The meta-
Platform Computational and Functional organization manager is responsible for meta-
Modules organization trust, quality and meta-
The laboratorial platform, as a UCMS pilot organization operations management, and has
installation and learning factory, has four a set of dashboards (Figure 4.9) in order to help
computational modules for the four types of in management processes and the members of
system agents: Meta-Organization, Customer, the network, and a set of communication
Broker and Resource. Figure 4.7 presents the channels – chat, video conferencing, and others
four laboratorial platform computational – to all users.
modules frontends.
51

Figure 4.11– Single Screen Desktop Environment

Figure 4.12– Multiple Screens Large + Desktop Environment

Figure 4.13– Mobile application frontends (for smartphones)


52

Client registers and generates new production Client may use a single screen desktop
orders, and then associates them to Brokers environment (Figure 4.11) or may use a control
(that will inform on the best resources to room, in which it is possible to expand to large
accomplish a certain order). Similarly to the screens for control and communication, among
other modules, Client has a set of management other features (Figure 4.12). Additionally, the
tools and a set of communications channels Client can use applications based on mobile
(email, chat, video conference and others) smartphones exclusively (Figure 4.13).
properly embedded and integrated. At the end
of each production order the Client This ensures the essential multimodal support
communicates his evaluation of the Broker and for applications that are intended to be
Resource as the feedback within the Total ubiquitous.
Quality Management functionality, for the Broker is a middleware agent, whose principal
continuous system improvement (Figure 4.10). role is the dynamic reconfiguration
If the resource allows, the Client can see the management. Also, he is the principal agent of
production order to be/being executed by the agility and virtuality that acts/operates between
resource, and if the Client wishes (and resource Client and Resources (Cunha & Putnik, 2008).
allows), he can control the resource, anywhere,
anytime, from a control room, or a PC or via
mobile devices (smartphone, tablets, laptops,
and others).
53

Figure 4.14– Broker module

Figure 4.15– Resource module


54

The Broker receives the incoming production As referred above, if the Resource allows, the
orders from Clients, selects the best Resources Client can see the production order to be/being
candidates to propose to the Client. He has the executed by the Resource and can control the
ability to negotiate with the Resource, e.g., to Resource, anywhere (when the Resource is a
negotiate the reference price for a particular machine, computer, or software), using a
order, through chat, e-mail and video control room, PC or via mobile devices (Figure
conferencing, or other. When the order is 4.13). When the order is finished, the Resource
finished, the Broker communicates his communicates his evaluation of the Client and
evaluation of the Client and Resource as the Broker as the feedback to the system.
feedback (Figure 4.14).

Resource is any provider of any service, such as


machine-tools, human agents as service
providers (designers, managers, machine
operators, planners, schedulers, sellers, and
others), computing resources, software, etc.
The Resource receives and negotiates the
orders received through Broker by chat, video,
conferencing or e-mail. After the order
approval, a direct relation is established
between the Resource and the Client, and the
production order is executed by the Resource
(Figure 4.15).
55

Chapter V
Conclusions

It could be said that new manufacturing enable large scales applications, on all service
paradigms emerge. New approaches to levels.
products and services for and by industry are
transforming the traditional companies’ The architecture presented is of a general
organizations. nature, with structural elements and open in
various aspects, in nature and in number, that
The concept of Ubiquitous and Cloud enables development of an advanced
Manufacturing meets the requirements for new manufacturing system or enterprises on
manufacturing paradigms. It permits the different complexity levels – which is one of the
existence of total availability management, primary requirements for the capacity of
control and operational functions of achieving sustainability. Therefore, the
manufacturing systems and enterprises, architecture presented may have a number of
anywhere, anytime, using direct control, implementation forms.
notebooks or handheld devices. The necessity
for greater capacity (usually associated with It would be useful to remind that a number of
more resources) or excessive capacity "release" underlying technologies should be considered,
are behaviours associated to enterprises which which were not possible to analyse in all details
join to the ubiquitous manufacturing standard. due to the book’s limited space, e.g. embedded
intelligent information devices, real-time
In other words, ubiquitous application must management (and design), mixed reality and
ensure responsiveness in any time and space augmented reality, semiotics and pragmatics,
context. co-creation, chaos and complexity
management, the theory of sustainability, web
On other hand, the Cloud concept and 2.0 to web 4.0, and others.
technologies boost advanced manufacturing
systems and enterprises, offering platforms that
56

Concerning the implementation framework, the Also, the advanced manufacturing systems and
Laboratorial Platform was designed with enterprises based on ubiquitous and cloud
services to be interoperable in client-server, manufacturing adoption, implementation and
Peer-to-Peer distributed environments, and in exploitation, require new kind of jobs creation,
emergent Ubiquitous and Cloud Computing. in which each person is able to integrate in the
Web services availability ensures ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing system and
interoperability among different computing enterprise as a value-chain partner.
platforms and the multimodal capacity ensures
its use by multiple devices. The support With the platform development and the
database are able to integrate cloud servers implementation, the conditions and future
(Azure, Google, among others), adequately developments for an effective and efficient
ensuring its functionality and reliability. adoption of advanced manufacturing systems
and enterprises based on ubiquitous and cloud
Thus the necessary conditions for a ubiquitous manufacturing were created.
and cloud manufacturing applications are
properly supported. Thus, new organizational concepts contribute,
and are essential tools, to fight against local and
Furthermore, the Learning Factory concept global unemployment, which in the context of
implemented is an important concept for the current global crisis is also extremely
learning and training in the industry and in the important task in parallel with search for
community as a continuous development competitiveness within the sustainability
instrument, absolutely necessary to achieve challenges.
higher levels of competitiveness and
sustainability.
57

However, there are a number of open technical, individuals transport), and in that way indirectly
organizational and conceptual problems that contributes to the environmental sustainability
require hard work in the future. Two of the requirement. Additionally, as the ubiquitous
virtually most important problems to work on and cloud manufacturing represents a form of
are the interoperability, or integration, of the dynamic network of service providers, with
Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing and its virtually the greatest degree of “openness”, it
adoption in society and industry. enables creation of new jobs, through
emergence of new individual, micro and small
Finalizing the conclusions, some challenges companies, and in that way making new
mentioned in the Introduction are referred in “concentrations of manufacturing activities”
the context of ubiquitous and cloud bringing benefits for virtually all – companies,
manufacturing contribution. It could be said workers and communities.
that ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing
directly contributes to the manufacturing jobs
reallocation challenge once it ensures
responsiveness in any time and space context.
The ubiquitous and cloud manufacturing
system’s capability to provide services
“anywhere” means it’s distance independent,
meaning further that it is capable to eliminate
needs for physical mobility of manufacturing
value-chain participants (public or private
58
59

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62
63

Annexes
64
65

Annex I:
Distributed Informatics System for Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Hybrid architecture Client-Server + P2P

Annex II:
Distributed Informatics System for Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Cloud-based Architecture

Annex III:
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
System - Hybrid Architecture

Annex IV:
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
System - Cloud-based Architecture

Annex V:
Pilot Laboratorial Plant for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing Systems
66
67

Annex I
Distributed Informatics System for Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Hybrid architecture Client-Server + P2P
68
69

UMS Software Architecture Overview


70

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) VideoCall design


71

Web service: Process of communication between a client and an XML Web service
72

UMS Software Components: Client Functions


73

UMS Software Components: Resource Functions


74

UMS Software Components: Resource Functions


75

UMS Software Components: Meta-Organization Functions


76

UMS Software Database Server – Database Architecture


77

UMS Broker Software Workflow


78

UMS Client Software Workflow


79

UMS Resource Software Workflow


80

UMS Meta Organization Software Workflow


81

Using Web Service in mobile devices

Main Page of Windows Phone Application Main Page of Windows


Phone Application
82
83

Annex II
Distributed Informatics System for Manufacturing: Specification and Architecture –
Cloud-based Architecture
84
85

Effective Cloud based Semiotic Architecture


86

From Transactional to Communicational architecture

Client
Application

................................................................
Multimodal Portal Office
App

…....................................
Web server Web server

Middleware
Application Application
.............................. Server
Server
Platform

Data Other
...........................................................
Services Servers
DB Server MoR

Operating System
Windows, Mac, etc.
Vurtualized Infrastruture
Storage, CPU, Network

Transactional Multilayer Architecture


87

From Transactional to Communicational architecture

(a)
Communication Pragmatics

Renderer
Devices
Application

Client Pragmatics
......................................................................
Multimodal Portal Office
App Renderer

…....................................
Renderer
Web server Web server Server

Middleware
Application Application
.............................. Server
Server
Brokering
Platform

Data Other
................................................................
DB
MoR Services Servers
Server

Operating System
Windows, Mac, etc.
Vurtualized Infrastruture
Storage, CPU, Network

Communicational Architecture where


devices are Pragmatics Renderers
88

Multimodal interfaces for multiple Client devices classes


89

Communicational Architecture: Pragmatic Channels


90

Communicational Architecture: Technological support


91

Communicational Architecture: Technological Architecture - MVC/RIA Pattern


92

Communicational Architecture: Integrated Communications Channels


93

UMS Supporting Architecture


94

Cloud-based broker: (a) Process Plan (b) Stereotype (c) Candidate resources (d) Spatial Data in cloud

(a)
O1 O2 O3 O4 O4

(b)

r1 r2 r3 r4 (c)

(d)
95

Cloudlet Architecture (a) Dashboards (b) Cloudlet (service) (c) Enhanced cloudlet (d) Cloudlet with pragmatics
instruments

(d)

(c)

(b)

Cirrus

(a)
96
97

Annex III
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
System - Hybrid Architecture
98
99

Create Clients’ Account


100

Main form of UMS Client


101

View - Resource Cameras

Client VideoCall
102

Main form of Broker

Broker VideoCall
103

Create Resources’ Account


104

Main form of Resource


105

Create Meta-Organizations’ Account


106

Main form of Meta-Organization


107

Quality Management: Statistics


108

Quality Management: Clients’ Feedbacks


109

Quality Management: Resources’ Feedbacks


110
111

Annex IV
Laboratorial Platform as Learning Factory for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing
System - Cloud-based Architecture
112
113

Resource Administration: Resources list


114

Resource Administration: Resources channels


115

Resource Administration: Resources tasks


116

Brokers’ Filters
117

Resources Selection
118

Map representation of selected of resources


119

Map InfoWindow with resource data

Web Chat Channel


120

Reconfiguration Manager
121

Reconfiguration InfoWindows events


122

Reconfiguration Alternative Resources Management


123

Communication with Alternative Resource


124

Reconfiguration using the Map


125

Reconfiguration Map Reconfiguration with Map Reconfiguration Alternative


Resource Event Resource Details Resource Channels
126

Mobile GUI

PhoneClient Resource Registration PhoneClient Resource Channels Registration


127

Mobile GUI

PhoneClient Keyboard Emulator PhoneClient Market of Resources Management


128
129

Annex V
Pilot Laboratorial Plant for Ubiquitous and Cloud Manufacturing Systems
130
131

Descriptive Presentation
132

Logical Presentation
133

Physical Layout

Control Room 1
134

Physical Layout

Control Room 2
135

Physical Layout

UMS Workshop
136

Some photos

.
137

Some photos
138

Some photos
139

Some photos
140

NOTES
141

NOTES
142

NOTES
4