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CHAPTER 1 – ANSWER TO END QUESTIONS

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF

RES290: RESEARCH TECHNIQUES WITH STATISTICAL

METHODS

By:

Allen Paul C. Alcantara

To:

Dr. Dante L. Silva

December 14, 2019


Research is about seeking what needs to be sought. It is a process of looking for answers
to a specific question. It is a way to validate or reject the existence of a thing. It is the evaluation
of what method works and what does not. It is a method to know what’s feasible or not. It is the
comparison of two or more alternative solutions and identifying which is the best. It is analyzing
the existing complex methods which leads to the development of simplified methods that is time-
efficient and produces a reliable result.
Continuous development has been experienced from the past civilizations up to date. From
an era that uses handmade tools to hunt for food to an era that uses computers to produce devices
that improves the quality of life of humankind, advances in technology has been the major trend
in the past few years. People before, only travel by foot and now they can travel to the outer space.
Factories before, count their products by their workers manually and nowadays everything is
counted by a machine. Long distance communication is now also possible on most parts of the
world. Applying some statistical methods of research, most of the costly experimental tests are
now reduced and some of it are already eliminated. Through research and development, the needs
of humankind are being addressed. Thus, improvement is one of the importance of research.
Through the years, the methods of research have improved a lot. From a simple linear regression
analysis to a machine learning algorithm, research itself is advancing its level as the fast-growing
technology requires.
A research process has four frameworks namely: the conceptual framework, theoretical
framework, methodological framework and the analytical framework. Conceptual framework as
the word “conceptual” implies, is the idea, the problem or the objectives that needs to be addressed
by the research. This framework includes the statement of the problem, the questions and the
hypotheses. Theoretical framework, on the other hand, is where the theories and other related ideas
are being studied carefully. This includes the review of the related literature where past studies are
reviewed and assessed if the previous researches can help in the data gathering and analysis of the
data gathered for the present research study. Methodological framework considers the possible
methods that can be applied on a research. Simplified data collection methods are part of this
framework. Analytical framework is where the results are interpreted through the analysis. The
conclusion to the statement of the problems are also under this framework. A research process
starts with a conceptual framework. It is the head of all the four frameworks. A thorough and clear
conceptual framework leads to a comprehensive and good theoretical framework. After setting the
main and specific objective, a researcher can be ready to start his literature review. The
methodological framework is always aligned to the conceptual and theoretical framework. After
identifying the objectives and reviewing literature, a researcher can be ready to think for the
methods he will use in his research which is sometimes based on the gaps of his research proposal
and the existing researches he has reviewed. On the other hand, analytical framework is linked to
the statement of the problems and the result were interpreted from the analysis of the data collected
and the applied methods of analysis.
A literature review is a must in all the research studies. It helps the researchers identify the
existing idea and the method used to draw conclusions of a specific objective. It also determines
the gaps in other researches and his research study. It is beneficial for a researcher to have a
literature review, to further improve the quality of his research. It will determine the ups and downs
of the previous research studies and he can provide solutions to that inadequacies. It may further
sharpen the ideas of the researcher to formulate a good methodology for his study. With the help
of a literature review, a researcher can narrow down ideas and be more specific about the topics
he would want to pursue. After a review of related literature, a researcher can also refine his topic
because of the assessment of the content of related studies.
A research process is a cycle. Planning is a major part of the research process. It is
mandatory to a have a plan before a research study is pursued. A concrete plan is a blueprint to the
success of your research study. Action comes after planning. All the methods you devised must be
taken into action to yield results. Results must be reflected critically and evaluated to have a good
understanding of what took place in the research study. Since the result has been evaluated, the
researcher can now make some revisions of his previous plans and the process is repeated until the
research study improves a satisfactory level.
As a researcher, one must have integrity

 What is a research?
 Discuss the importance of research
 Enumerate the four frameworks of the research process. Discuss how these frameworks are
related to each other.
 Discuss the importance of having a literature review in the conduct of research.
 Discuss how the research process starts.
 Discuss the importance of ethics in the conduct of research.
 Enumerate and elaborate at least five ethical principles in conducting a research process.
 When can a project be deemed viable?
 What are the social-science paradigm and how do they differ from each other?
 Discuss the relevance and value of research and give an example to prove your answer.