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DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES

LAYOUT & LOADS EXAMPLES

BY
Eng. Ahmed Ewais 

Civil Engineer,
Department of Construction,
Misr University for Science and Technology, Egypt.

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SMILE

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DESIGN PROCEDURES

 Choose Proper statically system ( Layout )

 Determination of service Load.

 Determination of internal forces in the Structural 
components.

 Design of sections.

 Drawing and Detailing

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LAYOUT

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LAYOUT

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LAYOUT NOTES

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LAYOUT NOTES

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LAYOUT NOTES

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EXAMPLE ( 1 )
ORDINARY SYSTEM
• A factory building is to be constructed over a
rectangular area ( 21m X 42m ), the main system is
made up of steel trusses. Steel columns are provided
along perimeter only, clear height = 7m, the covering
material used is galvanized steel sheets.
• It is required to draw a complete general layout.

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CHOICE OF SYSTEM 
( CALCULATIONS )

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CHOICE OF SYSTEM 
( CALCULATIONS )

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DRAW LAYOUT ( PLAN )

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DRAW LAYOUT ( MAIN SYSTEM )

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DRAW LAYOUT ( END GABLE )

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DRAW LAYOUT
( VERTICAL BRACING )

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DRAW LAYOUT
( LONGITUDINAL BRACING )

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EXAMPLE ( 2 )
CANTILEVER SYSTEM
• There are 3 cases :
1. Case (A)  for B < 12 m.
2. Case (B)  for B > 12 m.
3. Case (C)  for soil special case.

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Case (A)  B < 12 m

• Main system is cantilever truss of span (B) with 
steel column.

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Case (A)  B < 12 m

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Case (A)  B < 12 m

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Case (A)  B < 12 m

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Case (A)  B < 12 m

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

• Main system is truss of span (B) and supported on  
steel column and a heavy truss of span (L) .

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

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Case (B)   B > 12 m

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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Case (C) soil special case

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HEAVY TRUSS

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HEAVY TRUSS

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HEAVY TRUSS

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HEAVY TRUSS

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HEAVY TRUSS

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EXAMPLE (3)

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EXAMPLE (3)

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EXAMPLE (3)

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EXAMPLE (3)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (4)

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EXAMPLE (5)

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EXAMPLE (5)

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EXAMPLE (5)

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EXAMPLE (6)

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EXAMPLE (6)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (7)

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EXAMPLE (8)

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EXAMPLE (8)

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EXAMPLE (8)

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Classification of loads according 
to ECP 205 
1‐ Primary Loads
Dead loads + Live loads +
Dynamic effects + Centrifugal forces.

2‐ Additional Loads
Wind Pressure + Braking forces +
Lateral shock effect +
Change of temperature + Frictional resistance
of bearings +Settlement of supports +
the effect of shrinkage and creep of concrete.

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Design Cases according 
to ECP 205 

‐ To ensure that your design is Economic & Safe

• Case I 
Dead loads + Live loads 
• Case II
Case I + Additional loads

‐ The effective ratio for Additional loads to be considered in    
design is 20 %.

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Design Cases according 
to ECP 205 

‐ IF  F case II / F case I    > 1.2


 Design on Case II 

‐ IF  F case II / F case I  < 1.2


 Design on Case I 

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LOADS 

1‐ Gravity Loads   Dead loads    Own Weight 


 Covering Material 
 Utilities 
 Live Loads 

2‐ Lateral Loads    Wind Loads 

3‐ Crane Loads      Vertical Reaction  (V)
 Lateral shock  (H)
 Braking forces ( . )  
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DEAD LOADS ( FRAME )

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DEAD LOADS ( FRAME )

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DEAD LOADS ( TRUSS )

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DEAD LOADS ( TRUSS )

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LIVE LOADS 

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WIND LOADS IN ECP 201

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Top Running Cranes 
( Over head Cranes )

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CRANE LOADS

Crane Loads    Vertical Reaction  (V)
 Lateral shock  (H)
 Braking forces ( . )  

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DESIGN LOAD (TRUSS)

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DESIGN LOAD (TRUSS)

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DESIGN LOAD (TRUSS)

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DESIGN LOAD (FRAME)

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DESIGN LOAD (FRAME)

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DESIGN LOAD (FRAME)

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REFERENCES

• ECP 201 (2012). “EGYPTIAN CODE FOR LOADS”, Housing 
and Building Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

• ECP 205 (2001). ‘‘EGYPTIAN CODE OF PRACTICE FOR 
STEEL CONSTRUCTION AND BRIDGES ’’, Housing and 
Building Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

• DR. AHMED Al‐MOHAMMADY (2012)“ LECTURES OF 
STEEL DESIGN COURSE ( CE 403 )”, MUST, Egypt.

• ENG. RAMY ABD EL‐RAHEM (2012)“ SECTIONS OF 
STEEL DESIGN COURSE ( CE 403 )”, MUST, Egypt.

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REFERENCES

• DR. EL‐SAYED BAHAA MACHALY (2001). “BEHAVIOR, 
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL STEEL 
ELEMENTS VOLUME (1)”, Cairo University, Egypt.

• PROF. Dr. ABD‐ELRAHIM KHALIL DESSOUKI (2009)“ STEEL 
STRUCTURES DESIGN ” Ain Shams University, Egypt.

• ABI AGHAYERE, JASON VIGIL (2009)“ STRUCTURAL STEEL 
DESIGN ” Ohio , USA.

• ENG. AKRAM MOUSTAFA “ PAPERS ” Ain Shams 
University, Egypt. 

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WORK 

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