Sunteți pe pagina 1din 13

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2

2.0 Generation ............................................................................................................................ 3

2.1 Hydroelectric generation .................................................................................................. 4

2.2 Gas fired plants generation ............................................................................................... 6

3.0 Transmission line ................................................................................................................. 8

3.1 Overhead Transmission line ............................................................................................. 9

3.2 Underground Transmission line ..................................................................................... 10

4.0 Step up transformer ............................................................................................................ 11

5.0 Reference ........................................................................................................................... 12

1
1.0 Introduction

The electrical power system is a network of electrical components used for the supply, transfer
and use of electrical power. An example of an electrical power system is a grid that supplies power
to an extended area. The electrical power infrastructure can be widely categorized into the
generators that supply power, the transmission network that transfers power from the generation
stations to the loading sites, and the distribution system that supplies power to nearby homes and
factories. There are six components of the power system which is the power plant, transformer,
transmission line, substations, distribution line, and distribution transformer. The power plant
generates the power which is step up or step down through the transformer for transmission.

Most of these systems rely on three-phase AC technology, the standard for transmission and
distribution of large-scale electricity throughout the modern world. It uses the form of energy like
coal and diesel and convert it into electrical energy. The power system includes the devices
connected to the system like the synchronous generator, motor, transformer, circuit breaker and
conductor. Figure 1 show the structure of power system:

Figure 1 : Structure of power system

2
2.0 Generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electricity from primary energy sources.
For utilities in the electrical power industry, it is the stage before it is delivered to end-users for
transmission and distribution. Modern conventional generators generate electricity at a frequency
that is multiple of the machine's rotation speed. Typically, the voltage does not exceed 6 to 40 kV.
The amount of steam driving the turbine, which depends primarily on the boiler, determines the
power output. The voltage of this power is determined by the current in the synchronous
generator's rotating winding. The output from the fixed winding is taken. A transformer raises the
voltage, typically at a much higher voltage. The generator connects to the grid in a substation at
that high voltage. Traditional power plants generate power from synchronous generators delivering
three-phase electrical power, so that the source of voltage is a mixture of three ac voltage sources
originating from the generator with their respective voltage phasors separated by 120 ° phase
angles.

The generator and the transformer are the station's main components. The engine converts
mechanical energy into electrical energy. The mechanical energy comes from the burning of coal,
fossil and nuclear fuel, gas turbines or sometimes the internal combustion engine. The transformer
moves power from one stage to another with very high efficiency. The secondary power
conversion is about equal to the primary except for transformer losses. The step-up transformer
eliminates losses in the line resulting in power transmission over long distances.

The generating plants produce low voltage electrical energy. We keep the voltage
generation low because it has some specific advantages, which is that low voltage generation
produces less tension on the alternator's armature. Low voltage transmission allows the
transmission system to lose more copper, bad voltage controls and more installation costs. thus, it
needs to increase the voltage to a specific high voltage level to avoid these three difficulties. This
assignment will focus on two generation that have in Malaysia which is hydroelectric generation
and gas-fired plants generation.

3
2.1 Hydroelectric generation

Generally, hydroelectric power system is a form of renewable energy that generates


electricity from the flow of water. Hydropower plants consist of turbine generator sets to produce
electrical energy from the water flow potential and kinetic energy. Basic mechanism of
hydroelectric power system is where water is drawn from rivers and supplied instantly to turbine
generator sets or the water is first deposited in a dam and then its flow is controlled by turbine
generator sets to generate electricity. [1] The moving particles with electrical charge are called
electrons, and electrons movement is called electrical current and measured in Amperes (A). An
electric field's capacity to work on an electrical charge is referred to as electrical potential or
voltage and measured in volts (V). An electrical circuit connects a source of electrical energy with
an electrical charge. The rate at which an electrical circuit transfers electrical energy is called
electrical power and is expressed in watts (W). [2]

AC voltage is generated in the power plants like hydroelectric power stations. In a


hydroelectric power plant, the tidal flow of water transforms the potential water energy stored in
a water reservoir into kinetic energy. Then the water's kinetic energy is applied to a mechanical
part called turbine operating an electromechanical generator and the generator produces the
electrical energy. [1] In power systems, electrical energy is generated at stations located in different
regions of the country and multiple transmission networks are used to transmit power to demand
centres spread around the world far from the generation stations. To form an interconnected power
system or grid, multiple hydroelectric power plants are connected. An integrated power system is
characterized as a complex network that assembles all electrical power generation, transmission,
transformation and distribution equipment and circuits. Unbalanced generation and demand result
in a change in grid frequency that could cause damage to power system equipment and even brown
or blackouts

4
Advantage of Hydroelectric generation:

 The generation of hydropower is sustainable as it does not reduce the water


resources it uses and needs no fuel.
 The generation of hydropower is based on a reliable and tested technology that has
been around for over a century and hydropower plants can be easily rehabilitated
or modified using recent advances in hydro technology.

Disadvantage of Hydroelectric generation:

 Reservoirs can adversely affect the flooded area, harm the flora and fauna of the
river, or interfere with uses of the river such as navigation
 High up-front investment costs compared to other technologies, such as thermal
power (but low operational costs since no fuel is required).

Here the mechanism of hydroelectric generation:

Figure 2 : Mechanism for hydroelectric generation

5
The generator contains two main parts which is the rotor and stator. The rotor is the part which
rotates and the wire has a huge magnet inside of it. The stator part is the part which is covered in
copper. The electrical current is created when the rotor spin around the copper wire on the stator.
This is the charge which is then used as electricity. [3]

2.2 Gas fired plants generation

A gas-fired power plant or gas-fired power plant or natural gas power plant is a thermal
power plant that generates electricity using natural gas. A gas-fired power plant is a type of fossil-
fuel power plant where chemical energy stored in natural gas, primarily methane, is successively
converted into: thermal energy, mechanical energy and, finally, electrical energy.

Natural gas power plants are cheap and quick to build. They also have very high
thermodynamic efficiency compared to other power plants. Natural gas burns produce less
pollutants such as NOx, SOx and particulate matter than coal and oil. On the other hand, the
emission of natural gas plants is significantly higher than that of a nuclear power plant. There are
two types of natural gas power plants: single-cycle gas plants and combined-cycle gas plants.[4]

The single cycle is simpler but less effective than the combined cycle. Simple cycle plants,
however, can be dispatched faster than coal-fired or nuclear power stations. This means that they
can be switched on or off faster to meet the needs of electricity companies. Here the single cycle
mechanism. Simple cycle gas plants are a type of natural gas power plant which operate by
propelling hot gas through a turbine, to generate electricity. These differ from combined cycle gas
plants because their waste heat is not supplied to another external heat generator, so they are used
on the electrical grid only to meet peak power needs. Such turbines have a high specific power,
meaning the power they provide is relatively high for how huge they are.[5]

6
Figure 3: Single cycle mechanism

Combined cycle gas plants are a type of natural gas power plant for electricity generation,
consisting of a simple cycle gas plant coupled with a second steam engine using the Rankine cycle.
Rankine cycle is is the process widely used by power plants such as coal-fired power plants or
nuclear reactors. In this mechanism, a fuel is used to produce heat within a boiler, converting water
into steam which then expands through a turbine producing useful work. The initial gas turbine's
hot exhaust gasses are sent to the steam engine and the heat from them is used to produce steam.
The steam can then expand through another turbine, producing even more power and improving
the overall efficiency of the plant. The output of these plants can be as high as 55%.

The combined cycle plant takes advantage of the single cycle capabilities in that due to its
quick dispatch time, it can provide peak power. Therefore, the steam engine can provide
intermediate power.[6] Here the mechanism of combine cycle plant.

7
Figure 4 : Overview of combined power plants

3.0 Transmission line

Transmission of electrical power is the bulk transfer of electrical energy from a generating site to
an electrical substation, such as a power plant. It may carry alternating current or direct current or
a combination of both may be a system. Often, either overhead or underground lines may carry
electrical current. The main characteristics that differentiate transmission lines from distribution
lines are that they run at relatively high voltages, transmit large amounts of power, and transmit
power over large distances. The main wire for transmission line is Coaxial cable and twisted pair
cable. The two conductors have inductance per unit length that can be determined based on their
size and shape. We have power per unit length, which can be determined from the insulation
dielectric constant. There are three types of transmission line which is overhead transmission line,
underground transmission line and sub transmission line.

8
3.1 Overhead Transmission line

Overhead transmission line carry 3 phase currents and the voltages vary according to the grid
system. Transmission voltage vary from 69 Kv up to 765 Kv. As in AC voltage tubes, the DC
voltage transmission tower has wires in pairs instead of in threes (for 3-phase current). One line is
the current positive line, and the other line is the current negative line.

There are 3 categories of overhead transmission line which is short transmission line which is a
length less than 80KM and voltage level less than 69Kv. The capacitance effect is negligible and
only resistance and inductance are taken in calculation capacitance is neglected.

Second categories are medium transmission line where as a length more than 80KM but less than
2650KM. Operational voltage level is from 69Kv to approximately 133Kv. The capacitance effect
is present and the distributed capacitance form is used for calculation purpose. Last categories is
long transmission line which is a length more than 250KM and the voltage level is above 133Kv.
The line constants are considered as distributed over the length of the line. Here the example of
overhead transmission line.

Figure 5 : Transmission line

9
3.2 Underground Transmission line

Underground transmission line is the replacement of overhead cables providing electrical power
with underground cables. This is typically performed for aesthetic purposes, but also serves the
additional significant purpose of making the power lines less susceptible to outages during high
wind thunderstorms or heavy snow or ice storms. Underground transmission line can increase the
initial costs of electric power transmission and distribution but may decrease operational costs over
the lifetime of the cables. Underground transmission lines in populated areas are more common.
We may be concealed in ducts, trenches or tunnels without protection. Here is the example of
underground transmission line.

Figure 6: Underground transmission line

10
4.0 Step up transformer

Step-up transformers of generators (GSU) are the vital link between the power station and the
transmission network, mostly worked at full load day and night. After power has been generated,
it needs to be transmitted from the plants to consumers. There are two steps from the plant to the
consumers which is power plant to electrical substation (power transmission) and high-voltage
substations to consumers (power distribution).

The role of transformer is to modify the voltage of current coming into it, either by increasing it
(step up) or decreasing it (step down). This is done using the law of electromagnetic induction.
Voltage is usually stepped up from the power plant output voltage to the transmission line
transmission voltage and is stepped down from the transmission voltage to a lower more
manageable voltage at electrical substations and stepped down further before reaching the
consumer.

Power plant output has to be transmitted to the consumers and one plant can be responsible for
supplying hundreds of homes and businesses, hundreds of miles away with electricity. Energy is
lost when transmitting electricity over long distances. However, at higher voltages which is greater
than 120 Kv, less energy is lost than at lower voltages. This is because the plant output voltage is
stepped up before being transmitted.

Figure 7: Step up transformer

11
5.0 Step down transformer

6.0 ESAH 2.3.2

7.0 Distribution

ESAH 1.1.2

ESAH 1.1.3

ESAH 1.1.4

ESAH 3.4.0

8.0 Consumer

ESAH 1.1.5

ESAH 2.1.2

ESAH 2.3.0

ESAH 2.3.2

ESAH 3.1.0

ESAH 3.2.0

ESAH 3.3.0

9.0 Reference

[1] G. R. Joshi, “Hydroelectric power generation and distribution planning under supply
uncertainty,” 2016.

12
[2] C. A. Gross, T. A. Roppel, and T. A. Roppel, Electrical Engineering Electrical Engineering.
2012.

[3] H. Power, “Mechanism of Hydroelectric Power,” 2012.

[4] F. F. Reading, “Natural gas power plant World Electricity Generation : Natural Gas,” no.
April 2000, 2019.

[5] J. D. Betel Afework, Jordan Hanania, Kailyn stenhouse, “Simple cycle gas plant,” p. 8100,
2018.

[6] J. D. Bethel Afework, Jordan Hanania, Kailyn Stenhouse, “Combined cycle gas plant,” p.
7976, 2018.

13