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# CRISTY M.

SOLIS
MAED-FILIPINO

## Measure of association, in statistics, any of various factors or coefficients used to quantify a

relationship between two or more variables. Measures of association are used in various fields of
research but are especially common in the areas of epidemiology and psychology, where they
frequently are used to quantify relationships between exposures and diseases or behaviours.
A measure of association may be determined by any of several different analyses, including
correlation analysis and regression analysis. (Although the terms correlation and association are
often used interchangeably, correlation in a stricter sense refers to linear correlation, and
association refers to any relationship between variables.) The method used to determine the
strength of an association depends on the characteristics of the data for each variable. Data may be
measured on an interval/ratio scale, an ordinal/rank scale, or a nominal/categorical scale. These
three characteristics can be thought of as continuous, integer, and qualitative categories,
respectively.

The measures of association refer to a wide variety of coefficients (including bivariate correlation
and regression coefficients) that measure the strength and direction of the relationship between
variables; these measures of strength, or association, can be described in several ways, depending
on the analysis.

## Direction of Association in Statistics

In Statistics, association tells you whether two variables are related. The direction of the
association is always symbolized by a sign either positive (+) or negative (-).
There are two directions of association: positive association and negative association. Positive
association is also the same as a positive correlation coefficient and negative association is the
same as a negative correlation coefficient. The difference between association and correlation is
that correlation is always associated with some kind of correlation coefficient.
Graphs showing an association (correlation) of -1, 0 and +1

## Positive Direction of Association

Two variables have a positive association / correlation when the values of one variable tend to
increase as the values of the other variable increase. A perfect positive association means that a
relationship appears to exist between two variables, and that relationship is positive 100% of the
time. In statistics, a perfect positive association is represented by the value +1.00, while a 0.00
indicates no association. An example of positive association is, the more time you study the
higher the chances that you will get a good grade (although it’s not necessarily a perfect
correlation!).
Negative Direction of Association
Two variables have negative association when the values of one variable tend to decrease as
the values of the other variable increase. In statistics, a perfect negative association is represented
by the value -1.00, while a 0.00 indicates no association. A perfect negative association means
that the relationship that appears to exist between two variables is negative 100% of the time. It
is also possible that two variables may be negatively associated in some, but not all, cases. An
example of negative association: the more time you spend chatting with friends means the less
time you have for studying.
The direction of association would always depend on the variables that you have whether both
variables are moving in one direction or either of the variables are going in opposite directions.