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Chapter 1

The 3 Waves of Change by Alvin Teffler

1. Agriculture – manual
2. Industrial – manual
3. Information – Automatic

Types of Knowledge

According to Peter Drucker (1959), knowledge has two categories:

1. Knowledge Worker: Those who create, modify and synthesize knowledge as a

fundamental part of job / those with education and skills required
for a job
2. Knowledge Society: Those with access to IT knowledge (new economy)

Characteristics of Digital World

1. Globalization
2. Visibility of Changes
- Harmonized Commodity Description (HS Code)

How Information Systems are transforming business?

1. Increase of wireless technology

2. Website shift in media advertising
3. New government security and accounting laws
4. Heavy investment in IT

1. Increase of wireless technology has few aspects:

1. Global wireless:
Key trend Market driver Mdriver
Growing demand of smart Increase in power pricing Low energy wireless
phones technology
2. Alternative trend of marketing
3. Anti-social propaganda:
- New policy of governments affecting business and mindset of business people
- Controlling information on social media
- Controlling internet business
Globalization opportunity

1. Internet has dramatically reduced costs of operating on global scale.

2. Presents both challenges and opportunities
3. Interdependence of countries on each other for exports and imports

Six Strategic Business Objectives:

1. Operation Excellence: Determined by:

- Higher profitability
- Better efficiency Efficiency =
2. Customer and supplier intimacy
3. New products, services and business models
4. Improved decision making
- Usage of facebook insights
5. Competitive advantage
- Digital divide: Those with more IT access have more competitive advantage
6. Survival
Data Processing System

Input (Data)  Process / Data Analysis / Data Interpretation  Output (Information)  Feedback

Three activities produce information that organization needs:

- Input
- Processing
- Output

Information System is a combination of 5 key elements:

- People
- Hardware
- Software
- Data
- Telecommunication networks

Information vs. data

Data is stream of raw facts

Information is data shaped into meaningful / organized form


Knowledge is the ability to understand information from opinions and make decisions or


The concept of right vs wrong which is shaped by moral values, culture and society.

Computer Ethics

Key ethical concerns are:

- Information privacy
- Information Accuracy
- Information Property
- Information Accessibility

1. Information Privacy:
- Social security number
- Medical history
- Family history

Identity Theft:

- Fastest growing identification crime

- Biometrics for better protection

How to maintain your privacy online?

By reviewing the privacy policy of the company with which you are transacting.

The privacy policy should indicate”

- What info is being gathered about you?

- How the seller will use this information?
- Whether and how you can ‘opt out’ of these practices?
Data Accuracy

Data Privacy Statements

Information Accessibility