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Child Abuse

Introduction:
“The stakes are high. It is not just the health and well-being of children as they grow up into
adults but more than this, the future of the society which the children will construct out of their
childhood experiences.” (Hobbs, Hanks & Wynne, 1993).

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment


or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver. Child abuse may include any
act or failure to act by a parent or other caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, and
can occur in child's home, or in the organizations, schools or community the child interacts with.
As a society, we like to believe that almost all families are wholesome, healthy, and caring. Television
and newspaper stories about children who have been abused and even murdered must be isolated acts, we
think, done by deranged or mentally defective people. Most of us want to believe that our family unit will
provide each of its members with love, security, and comfort. Unfortunately, too often the family is a
place of pain, injury, and instability. Any family member is liable to be or become a victim of abuse, but
children are perhaps the least able to protect themselves or understand why the abuse is taking place.

Background knowledge and history:


Child abuse occurs when a parent or caretaker physically, emotionally, or sexually abuses,
neglects, or abandons a child. Laws regarding child abuse seek to protect children, while at the same time
allowing parents the right to raise and discipline their children as they see fit. Controversies over child
abuse laws can arise when parents or guardians feel that the government is interfering in their private
family lives or believe that a child was removed from the home unnecessarily.

TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE

Psychological abuse
In 1995, It was defined as: spurning, terrorizing, isolating, exploiting, corrupting, denying emotional
responsiveness, or neglect" or "A repeated pattern of caregiver behavior or extreme incident(s) that
convey to children that they are worthless, flawed, unloved, unwanted, endangered, or only of value in
meeting another's need

"Nearly 3 million U.S. children experience some form of [psychological] maltreatment annually."

Physical abuse
This includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning, poisoning and
suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing.
Sexual abuse
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual
stimulation.
Sexual abuse refers to the participation of a child in a sexual act aimed toward the physical gratification or
the financial profit of the person committing the act

IN EVERY 15 MINUTES ONE CHILD IS RAPED IN PAKISTAN AND 90% OF THE TIMES
CHILDREN ARE AWARE OF THE PERSON WHO IS ABUSING THEM

Neglect
Child neglect is the failure of a parent or other person with responsibility for the child, to provide needed
food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision to the degree that the child's health, safety or well-
being may be threatened with harm. Neglect is also a lack of attention from the people surrounding a
child, and the non-provision of the relevant and adequate necessities for the child's survival, which would
be a lacking in attention, love, and nurture.

Supervisory neglect: characterized by the absence of a parent or guardian this can lead to physical
harm, sexual abuse or criminal behaviour.

Physical neglect: characterized by the failure to provide the basic physical necessities, such as a safe
and clean home.

Medical neglect: characterized by the lack of providing medical care.

Emotional neglect: characterized by a lack of nurturance, encouragement and support.

Educational neglect: characterized by the caregivers lack to provide an education and additional
resources to actively participate in the school system

Abandonment: when the parent or guardian leaves a child alone for a long period of time without a
babysitter.

Problem, causes and effects


Factors contributing to child maltreatment include cultural norms encouraging harsh physical punishment
of children, economic inequality, and the lack of social safety nets

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and
Neglect (ISPCAN) identify multiple factors at the level of the individual, their relationships, their local
community, and their society at large, that combine to influence the occurrence of child maltreatment

( EFFECTS CAN BE PHYSICAL EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL . MAY BE A CHILD


WILL LOSE HIS DIGNITY AND THINKS ABOUT HIM SELF AS A USELESS PERSON TO THIS
SOCIETY
THESE KINDS OF THINGS ARE ONE OF THE MAIN REASONS THAT A LOT OF CHILDREN
JOIN DRUG AND CRIMINAL COMPANIES FOR ACHIEVING DIFFERENT PURPOSES)

Research questions
- Which factors (across multiple levels of the social ecology) put children at risk for one or more types of
abuse or neglect?
- Which factors (across multiple levels of the social ecology) protect children from experiencing one or
more types of abuse and neglect in families at risk?
- How children can be treated and how this can be prevented?

Research objective
- How child abuse is affecting mental health
- What are the later impacts on life?

Explanation of Risk Factors for Victimization


Individual Risk Factors

 Children younger than 4 years of age


 Special needs that may increase caregiver burden (e.g., disabilities, mental health issues, and
chronic physical illnesses)

Risk Factors for Perpetration


Individual Risk Factors

 Parents’ lack of understanding of children’s needs, child development and parenting skills
 Parental history of child abuse and or neglect
 Substance abuse and/or mental health issues including depression in the family
 Parental characteristics such as young age, low education, single parenthood, large number of
dependent children, and low income
 Parental thoughts and emotions that tend to support or justify maltreatment behaviors

Family Risk Factors

 Social isolation
 Family disorganization, dissolution, and violence, including intimate partner violence
 Parenting stress, poor parent-child relationships, and negative interactions

Community Risk Factors

 Community violence
 Concentrated neighborhood disadvantage (e.g., high poverty and residential instability, high
unemployment rates, and high density of alcohol outlets), and poor social connections.

Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect


Protective factors may lessen the likelihood of children being abused or neglected. Protective factors have
not been studied as extensively or rigorously as risk factors. Identifying and understanding protective
factors are equally as important as researching risk factors.

Family Protective Factors

 Supportive family environment and social networks


 Concrete support for basic needs
 Nurturing parenting skills
 Stable family relationships
 Household rules and child monitoring
 Parental employment
 Parental education
 Adequate housing
 Access to health care and social services
 Caring adults outside the family who can serve as role models or mentors

Conclusion:
“Children never stop needing their mommies; children never stop needing their daddies”.
The child is father of an adult. The child is an abridged adult with rights which cannot be abridged.
The Child is a person for all practical purposes. Today’s children are the future of tomorrow. Since
they create the world of tomorrow, they are at the heart of social development. The future depends on
how children prepare themselves to enter into the world of work. But every day, millions of children
throughout the world are subjected to abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence in different settings,
including in their homes, schools, communities and work environments. The continue of ruthless
killings, torture and abuse of children are turning into a daily life phenomenon that are hampering the
life of children. There are many social issues that affect children in our society, but our issue is about
child abuse. Much more can and should be done about the problem. In many countries, there is little
recognition of child abuse among the public or health professionals. Recognition and awareness,
although essential elements for effective prevention, are only part of the solution. Prevention efforts
and policies must directly address children, their caregivers and the environments in which they live
in order to prevent potential abuse from occurring and to deal effectively with cases of abuse and
neglect that have taken place.

Recommendation: Protective factors that reduce the Impact of Child


Neglect and Abuse
Protective factors also exist at individual, familial, relational, community and societal levels.
Critical to the use of protective factors is the importance of assessing and using protective
factors as strengths in the prevention and treatment of child abuse and neglect. Following are
associated with a reduction in child neglect and abuse:
 Communities that support parents and take responsibility for preventing abuse.
 Patience the children negative attitude. Increase your knowledge about this issue.
 Attentive heard talk the children, Stop aggressive attitude / behavior with children.
 Discuss this issue with your family and friends and provide them correct information.
 Aware children about child sexual abuse, which person identify reliable and dependable.
 Never see pornography to the child, Write to newspapers and magazines about the issues.

Other recommendations:
Support prevention programs. Too often, intervention occurs only after abuse is reported. Greater
investments are needed in programs that have been proven to stop the abuse before it occurs - such as
family counselling and home visits by nurses who provide assistance for new-borns and their parents.
Know what child abuse is Physical and sexual abuse clearly constitute maltreatment, but so does
neglect, or the failure of parents or other caregivers to provide a child with needed food, clothing,
and care. Children can also be emotionally abused when they are rejected, berated, or continuously
isolated.
Know the signs. Unexplained injuries aren't the only signs of abuse. Depression, fear of a certain
adult, difficulty trusting others or making friends, sudden changes in eating or sleeping patterns,
inappropriate sexual behaviour, poor hygiene, secrecy, and hostility are often signs of family
problems and may indicate a child is being neglected or physically, sexually, or emotionally abused.
Report abuse. If you witness a child being harmed or see evidence of abuse, make a report to your
state's child protective services department or local police. When talking to a child about abuse, listen
carefully, assure the child that he or she did the right thing by telling an adult, and affirm that he or
she is not responsible for what happened.
Invest in kids. Encourage leaders in the community to be supportive of children and families. Ask
employers to provide family-friendly work environments. Ask your local and national lawmakers to
support legislation to better protect our children and to improve their lives.

References: (Books, Journals, Articles, Reports, and Documents etc.)


 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_abuse
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Society_for_the_Prevention_of_Child_Abuse_and_
Neglect
 https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/riskprotectivefactors.html
 family.findlaw.com/child-abuse/child-abuse-background-and-history.html
 sweethaven02.com/PDF_Health/584les4.pdf
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_abuse#Types
 www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/riskprotectivefactors.html#Protective%
20Factors
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_abuse#Effects
Abstract:
There are many social issues that affect children in our society, but our issue is about child abuse.
Prevention efforts and policies must directly address children, their caregivers and the environments in
which they live in order to prevent potential abuse from occurring and to deal effectively with cases of
abuse and neglect that have taken place. Know what child abuse is Physical and sexual abuse clearly
constitute maltreatment, but so does neglect, or the failure of parents or other caregivers to provide a child
with needed food, clothing, and care. Depression, fear of a certain adult, difficulty trusting others or
making friends, sudden changes in eating or sleeping patterns, inappropriate sexual behaviour, poor
hygiene, secrecy, and hostility are often signs of family problems and may indicate a child is being
neglected or physically, sexually, or emotionally abused. If you witness a child being harmed or see
evidence of abuse, make a report to your states child protective services department or local police.

Keywords:
WHO (world health organization)
Abuse
Maltreatment (cruel or violent treatment)
Behaviour
Caregiver
Physical
Counsel
Family- Friendly
Protective
Depression
Neglect
Inappropriate
Supportive
law maker
Isolate
Trust
life
Assistance