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Defining Globalization
Globalization may be defined as the integration of the world's people, firms and
government. In the modern context, globalization is usually the result of closer ties
in international trade, known as bilateral trade agreements. The WTO and NAFTA are
two examples of such bilateral trade agreements. With such agreements, cross-
country investment increases. This increase in investment is aided by the increase in
information technology and communications, which has undergone a significant
advancement over the last two decades with the rise of the Internet and mobile

Expanded Markets
From the business perspective, one effect of globalization is that of expanded
markets. This means that a business that had previously only sold its goods
domestically can start selling products to other countries.
One example of expanded markets includes the auto industry. Before the fall of the
Berlin Wall, those living in countries under the influence of communism only had
access to cars that were produced domestically or in other communist markets. This
was due to trade barriers with the West. This in turn increased their profit business has grown rapidly in current environment as Markets have
become global for majority of products and services and especially for financial tools.
The technical advancement also made possible companies to trade in different
parts of the world. global business denotes the buying and selling of the goods
and services around the world. World product trade has expanded by more than 6
percent a year since 1950, which is more than 50 percent faster than growth of output
the most dramatic increase in globalization, has occurred in financial markets. In the
global forex markets, billions of dollars are transacted each day, of which more
than 90 percent represent financial transactions unrelated to trade or
investment. These business activities may be of government or private enterprises.
global business is associated with all business movement that are performed beyond
national borders. Management theorists have formulated numerous theories to
explain Global Business Environment. Some theorists avowed that global business is
defined as an organization that buys and/or sells goods and services across two or
more national boundaries, even if management is located in a single country. Many
scholars stated that global business is equated only with those big enterprises, which
have operating units outside their own country. Other theorists defined that Global
Business Environment is the commercial activities crossed national borders. It
includes the global movement of good, capital, services, employees and technology;
importing and exporting; cross-border transactions in intellectual property such as
patents, trademarks, know-how, copyright materials through licensing franchising and
management contracts. Group of researchers stated that Global Business
Environment is the deal done by individual or organisation at global level in order to
accomplish the objective through export, import and foreign direct investment. global
business, whether in its conventional form of international trade and finance and
contemporary types of multinational business operations, it is operated at huge scale
and has great impact on political, economic and social field. It is observed that many
foreign operations and the comparative business are used as equal for global business.
Overseas business denotes to domestic operations within an overseas nation.
Comparative business focuses on similarities and differences among countries and
business systems for focuses on similarities and differences among countries. The
fundamental objective of global business to gain profit. When firms do not get profit
in domestic market, they look for foreign market for lucrative business.
Scope of global business:
global business has wide scope as it focuses on the particular issue and opportunities
that appear in business environment as organization operates at global scale. global
business is the generalized field of business, adapted to quite exceptional features in
global environment. The characteristic feature of global business is that international
organizations operate in uncertain business atmosphere and subject to rapid change as
compared to the domestic environment. Numerous factors and environmental
variables that are important in global business such as foreign legal systems, foreign
exchange markets, cultural differences, and different rates of inflation are either
largely irrelevant to domestic business or are so reduced in range and complexity as
to be of greatly diminished significance. Domestic business is a limited case of global
business. The characteristic feature of global business is that international firms
operate in environments that are highly uncertain and where the rules of the game are
often ambiguous, contradictory, and subject to rapid change, as compared to the
domestic environment.
Problems or major issues in global business:
Many investigators have found that when firms operated at international scale, they
face numerous challenges and issues. global businesses have to conform to the
local rules and regulation in which they operate. Organizations when expand
their business in other countries, they have foreign languages and difficulty to
gather information about foreign countries. They have to deal in foreign currency.
The exchange rate may be varied. When working in other countries, their culture and
social value must be taken in account. The risk factor is high in overseas business
operations that include political, commercial, and financial. Communication and
control of global business is complicated. It is very difficult to understand the
demand of the international market. One of the major issue global businesses is
trade restrictions. A trade restriction, particularly import controls, is a very important
problem, which an international dealer faces. It is observed that Trade practices
and customs may differ between two countries. Some of the issues in Global
Business Environment include social, ethical, environmental and legal issues.
Benefits of global business:
Though firms have to undergo numerous problems when expanding their business in
other countries, but the global business brings countries together. It creates an
atmosphere of unity and makes the world as global village. It exchanges the ideas,
information, service, and capital across the country's borders. This has positive
outcomes in terms of best use of human capital that increases employee
opportunity. There is equal growth of wealth, price stability, availabilities of goods
and services to each and every one. It also brings new environment of alliance,
development, stability, affluence, modernization and technology in the world.
Foreign markets create a larger share of the total business of many firms that have
wisely cultivated markets aboard.
The benefits of export are clearly acknowledged. Imports can also be highly useful to
a country because they constitute reserve capacity for the local economy. Without
imports, there is no incentive for domestic firms to moderate their prices. The lack of
imported product alternatives forces consumers to pay more, resulting in inflation and
excessive profits for local firms. This development usually acts as prelude to
workforces demand for higher wages, further exacerbating the problem of inflation.
The prospects of a business depend not only on its resources but also on the
environment. To adapt to the Global Business Environment, the multinational
corporations need to engage in systematic collection of information on all
environmental dimensions and the economic agents in the local markets,
processing this information to enhance environment knowledge, identification of
the more vulnerable internal areas and external opportunities towards a better
environmental fit; and implementation of the "best practices" more adjusted to
the identified environment. In the following sections we will argue that firms'
ability to adapt to the environment is a resource, or a capability, whose foundations
lye in the human resources' stock of knowledge and experiences that seek a better fit
to promote better performance. Hence we argue that it is also a crucial source of
competitive advantage in a competitive game that does not attain a neoclassical long-
term equilibrium
To summarize, the globalisation of businesses and markets results in the global
business environment, this is concerned about the context of the international trade
transaction. In global business, there are many issues like language barrier, economic
policies of particular nation, cultural differences and higher complexity, of risk and
uncertainty because organizations is not operating in recognizable environment but
rather with an international environment. In spite of various issues, Global Business
Environment has many positive aspects such as it contributes new technology,
managerial skills, infrastructure development, creating jobs and bringing in
investment capital from other countries by exporting products and providing
better services. Global business demands that companies manage their worldwide
operations efficiently and on the basis of honesty, corporate integrity, following
ethical standards and understanding the sense of responsibility.
The International Environment
International managers face intense and constant challenges that require training and
understanding of the foreign environment. Managing a business in a foreign country
requires managers to deal with a large variety of cultural and environmental
differences. As a result, international managers must continually monitor the political,
legal, sociocultural, economic,

The political environment

The political environment can foster or hinder economic developments and direct
investments. This environment is ever‐changing. As examples, the political and
economic philosophies of a nation's leader may change overnight. The stability of
a nation's government, which frequently rests on the support of the people, can be
very volatile. Various citizen groups with vested interests can undermine investment
operations and opportunities. And local governments may view foreign firms
Political considerations are seldom written down and often change rapidly. For
example, to protest Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, many world governments
levied economic sanctions against the import of Iraqi oil. Political considerations
affect global business daily as governments enact tariffs (taxes), quotas(annual
limits), embargoes (blockages), and other types of restriction in response to political
Businesses engaged in international trade must consider the relative instability of
countries such as Iraq, South Africa, and Honduras. Political unrest in countries such
as Peru, Haiti, Somalia, and the countries of the former Soviet Union may create
hostile or even dangerous environments for foreign businesses. In Russia, for
example, foreign managers often need to hire bodyguards; sixteen foreign
businesspeople were murdered there in 1993. Civil war, as in Chechnya and Bosnia,
may disrupt business activities and place lives in danger. And a sudden change in
power can result in a regime that is hostile to foreign investment; some businesses
may be forced out of a country altogether. Whether they like it or not, companies are
often involved directly or indirectly in international politics.

The legal enviroment

The American federal government has put forth a number of laws that regulate the
activities of U.S. firms engaged in international trade. However, once outside U.S.
borders, American organizations are likely to find that the laws of the other nations
differ from those of the U.S. Many legal rights that Americans take for granted do not
exist in other countries; a U.S. firm doing business abroad must understand and
obey the laws of the host country.

In the U.S., the acceptance of bribes or payoffs is illegal; in other countries, the
acceptance of bribes or payoffs may not be illegal—they may be considered a
common business practice. In addition, some countries have copyright and patent
laws that are less strict than those in the U.S., and some countries fail to honor these
laws. China, for example, has recently been threatened with severe trade sanctions
because of a history of allowing American goods to be copied or counterfeited there.
As a result, businesses engaging in international trade may need to take extra steps to
protect their products because local laws may be insufficient to protect them.

The economic environment

Managers must monitor currency, infrastructure, inflation, interest rates, wages, and
taxation. In assessing the economic environment in foreign countries, a business must
pay particular attention to the following four areas:
 Average income levels of the population. If the average income for the
population is very low, no matter how desperately this population needs a
product or service, there simply is not a market for it.

 Tax structures. In some countries, foreign firms pay much higher tax rates
than domestic competitors. These tax differences may be very obvious or subtle,
as in hidden registration fees.

 Inflation rates. In the U.S., for example, inflation rates have been quite low
and relatively stable for several years. In some countries, however, inflation
rates of 30, 40, or even 100 percent per year are not uncommon. Inflation results
in a general rise in the level of prices, and impacts business in many ways. For
example, in the mid‐1970s, a shortage of crude oil led to numerous problems
because petroleum products supply most of the energy required to produce
goods and services and to transport goods around the world. As the cost of
petroleum products increased, a corresponding increase took place in the cost of
goods and services. As a result, interest rates increased dramatically, causing
both businesses and consumers to reduce their borrowing. Business profits fell
as consumers' purchasing power was eroded by inflation. High interest rates and
unemployment reached alarmingly high levels.

 Fluctuating exchange rates. The exchange rate, or the value of one country's
currency in terms of another country's currency, is determined primarily by
supply and demand for each country's goods and services. The government of a
country can, however, cause this exchange rate to change dramatically by
causing high inflation—by printing too much currency or by changing the value
of the currency through devaluation. A foreign investor may sustain large losses
if the value of the currency drops substantially.
When doing business abroad, businesspeople need to recognize that they cannot take
for granted that other countries offer the same things as are found in industrialized
nations. A country's level of development is often determined in part by its
infrastructure. The infrastructure is the physical facilities that support a country's
economic activities, such as railroads, highways, ports, utilities and power plants,
schools, hospitals, communication systems, and commercial distribution systems.
When doing business in less developed countries, a business may need to compensate
for rudimentary distribution and communication systems.
The sociocultural environment

Cultural differences, which can be very subtle, are extremely important. An

organization that enters the international marketplace on virtually any level must
make learning the foreign country's cultural taboos and proper cultural practices a
high priority. If a business fails to understand the cultural methods of doing business,
grave misunderstandings and a complete lack of trust may occur.

Management differences also exist. In China, a harmonious environment is more

important than day‐to‐day productivity. In Morocco, women can assume leadership
roles, but they are usually more self‐conscious than American women. In Pakistan,
women are not often found in management positions, if they're in the workplace at

In addition, the importance of work in employees' lives varies from country to

country. For example, the Japanese feel that work is an important part of their lives.
This belief in work, coupled with a strong group orientation, may explain the
Japanese willingness to put up with things that workers in other countries would find

Likewise, culture may impact what employees find motivating, as well as how they
respond to rewards and punishments. For example, Americans tend to emphasize
personal growth, accomplishment, and “getting what you deserve” for performance
as the most important motivators. However, in Asian cultures, maintaining group
solidarity and promoting group needs may be more important than rewarding
individual achievements.

Finally, language differences are particularly important, and international managers

must remember that not all words translate clearly into other languages. Many global
companies have had difficulty crossing the language barrier, with results ranging
from mild embarrassment to outright failure. For example, in regards to marketing,
seemingly innocuous brand names and advertising phrases can take on unintended or
hidden meanings when translated into other languages. Advertising themes often lose
or gain something in translations. The English Coors beer slogan “get loose with
Coors” came out as “get the runs with Coors” in Spanish. Coca‐Cola's English “Coke
adds life” theme translated into “Coke brings your ancestors back from the dead” in
Japanese. In Chinese, the English Kentucky Fried Chicken slogan “finger‐lickin'
good” came out as “eat your fingers off.”

Such classic boo‐boos are soon discovered and corrected; they may result in little
more than embarrassments for companies. Managers should keep in mind that
countless other, more subtle blunders may go undetected and damage product
performance in less obvious ways.

The technological environment

The technological environment contains the innovations, from robotics to cellular

phones, that are rapidly occurring in all types of technology. Before a company can
expect to sell its product in another country, the technology of the two countries must
be compatible.

Companies that join forces with others will be able to quicken the pace of research
and development while cutting the costs connected with utilizing the latest
technology. Regardless of the kind of business a company is in, it must choose
partners and locations that possess an available work force to deal with the applicable
technology. Many companies have chosen Mexico and Mexican partners because
they provide a willing and capable work force. GM's plant in Arizpe, Mexico, rivals
its North American plants in quality.
Consumer safety in a global marketplace

The United States leads the world in spending on research and development. As
products and technology become more complex, the public needs to know that they
are safe. Thus, government agencies investigate and ban potentially unsafe products.
In the United States, the Federal Food and Drug Administration has set up complex
regulations for testing new drugs. The Consumer Product Safety Commission sets
safety standards for consumer products and penalizes companies that fail to meet
them. Such regulations have resulted in much higher research costs and in longer
times between new product ideas and their introduction. This is not always true in
other countries.

Indian economy had experienced major policy changes in early 1990s. The new
economic reform, popularly known as, Liberalization, Privatization and
Globalization (LPG model) aimed at making the Indian economy as fastest growing
economy and globally competitive. The series of reforms undertaken with respect to
industrial sector, trade as well as financial sector aimed at making the economy more

With the onset of reforms to liberalize the Indian economy in July of 1991, a new
chapter has dawned for India and her billion plus population. This period of economic
transition has had a tremendous impact on the overall economic development of
almost all major sectors of the economy, and its effects over the last decade can
hardly be overlooked. Besides, it also marks the advent of the real integration of the
Indian economy into the global economy.

This era of reforms has also ushered in a remarkable change in the Indian mindset, as
it deviates from the traditional values held since Independence in 1947, such as self
reliance and socialistic policies of economic development, which mainly due to the
inward looking restrictive form of governance, resulted in the isolation, overall
backwardness and inefficiency of the economy, amongst a host of other problems.
This, despite the fact that India has always had the potential to be on the fast track to

Now that India is in the process of restructuring her economy, with aspirations of
elevating herself from her present desolate position in the world, the need to speed up
her economic development is even more imperative. And having witnessed the
positive role that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has played in the rapid economic
growth of most of the Southeast Asian countries and most notably China, India has
embarked on an ambitious plan to emulate the successes of her neighbors to the east
and is trying to sell herself as a safe and profitable destination for FDI.

Globalization has many meanings depending on the context and on the person who is
talking about. Though the precise definition of globalization is still unavailable a few
definitions are worth viewing, Guy Brainbant: says that the process of globalization
not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of
communication, internationalization of financial markets, growing importance of
MNCs, population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons,
goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution. The term
globalization refers to the integration of economies of the world through uninhibited
trade and financial flows, as also through mutual exchange of technology and
knowledge. Ideally, it also contains free inter-country movement of labor. In context
to India, this implies opening up the economy to foreign direct investment by
providing facilities to foreign companies to invest in different fields of economic
activity in India, removing constraints and obstacles to the entry of MNCs in India,
allowing Indian companies to enter into foreign collaborations and also encouraging
them to set up joint ventures abroad; carrying out massive import liberalization
programs by switching over from quantitative restrictions to tariffs and import duties,
therefore globalization has been identified with the policy reforms of 1991 in India.

The Important Reform Measures (Step Towards liberalization privatization and


Indian economy was in deep crisis in July 1991, when foreign currency reserves had
plummeted to almost $1 billion; Inflation had roared to an annual rate of 17 percent;
fiscal deficit was very high and had become unsustainable; foreign investors and
NRIs had lost confidence in Indian Economy. Capital was flying out of the country
and we were close to defaulting on loans. Along with these bottlenecks at home,
many unforeseeable changes swept the economies of nations in Western and Eastern
Europe, South East Asia, Latin America and elsewhere, around the same time. These
were the economic compulsions at home and abroad that called for a complete
overhauling of our economic policies and programs. Major measures initiated as a
part of the liberalization and globalization strategy in the early nineties included the

Devaluation: The first step towards globalization was taken with the announcement
of the devaluation of Indian currency by 18-19 percent against major currencies in the
international foreign exchange market. In fact, this measure was taken in order to
resolve the BOP crisis

Disinvestment-In order to make the process of globalization smooth, privatization

and liberalization policies are moving along as well. Under the privatization scheme,
most of the public sector undertakings have been/ are being sold to private sector

Advent of New Economic Policy -

After suffering a huge financial and economic crisis Dr. Man Mohan Singh brought a
new policy which is known as Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization Policy
(LPG Policy) also known as New Economic Policy,1991 as it was a measure to come
out of the crisis that was going on at that time. The following measures were taken to
liberalize and globalize the economy:

1. Devaluation: To solve the balance of payment problem Indian currency were

devaluated by 18 to 19%.
2. Disinvestment: To make the LPG model smooth many of the public sectors were
sold to the private sector.
3. Allowing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): FDI was allowed in a wide range of
sectors such as Insurance (26%), defense industries (26%) etc.
4. NRI Scheme: The facilities which were available to foreign investors were also
given to NRI's.
The New Economic Policy (NEP-1991) introduced changes in the areas of trade
policies, monetary & financial policies, fiscal & budgetary policies, and pricing &
institutional reforms. The salient features of NEP-1991 are (i) liberalization (internal
and external), (ii) extending privatization, (iii) redirecting scarce Public Sector
Resources to Areas where the private sector is unlikely to enter, (iv) globalization of
economy, and (v) market friendly state.
Globalization and its impact on Indian Economy: Developments and Challenges

Globalization (or globalization) describes a process by which regional economies,

societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of
communication, transportation, and trade. The term is sometimes used to refer
specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the
international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows,
migration, and the spread of technology. Globalization as a spatial integration in the
sphere of social relations when he said “Globalization can be defined as the
intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant locations in such a
way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice
– versa.” Globalization generally means integrating economy of our nation with the
world economy. The economic changes initiated have had a dramatic effect on the
overall growth of the economy. It also heralded the integration of the Indian economy
into the global economy. The Indian economy was in major crisis in 1991 when
foreign currency reserves went down to $1 billion. Globalization had its impact on
various sectors including Agricultural, Industrial, Financial, Health sector and many
others. It was only after the LPG policy i.e. Liberalization, Privatization and
Globalization launched by the then Finance Minister Man Mohan Singh that India
saw its development in various sectors.
Consequences of Globalization:
The implications of globalisation for a national economy are many. Globalisation has
intensified interdependence and competition between economies in the world market.
This is reflected in Interdependence in regard to trading in goods and services and in
movement of capital. As a result domestic economic developments are not
determined entirely by domestic policies and market conditions. Rather, they are
influenced by both domestic and international policies and economic conditions. It is
thus clear that a globalising economy, while formulating and evaluating its domestic
policy cannot afford to ignore the possible actions and reactions of policies and
developments in the rest of the world. This constrained the policy option available to
the government which implies loss of policy autonomy to some extent, in decision-
making at the national level.

Now for Further analysis we take up Impact of Globalization on various sector of

Indian Economy.

Impact of Globalization on Agricultural Sector:

Agricultural Sector is the mainstay of the rural Indian economy around which socio-
economic privileges and deprivations revolve and any change in its structure is likely
to have a corresponding impact on the existing pattern of Social equity. The
liberalization of India’s economy was adopted by India in 1991. Facing a severe
economic crisis, India approached the IMF for a loan, and the IMF granted what is
called a ‘structural adjustment’ loan, which is a loan with certain conditions attached
which relate to a structural change in the economy. Essentially, the reforms sought to
gradually phase out government control of the market (liberalization), privatize
public sector organizations (privatization), and reduce export subsidies and import
barriers to enable free trade (globalization). Globalization has helped in:

• Raising living standards,

• Alleviating poverty,
• Assuring food security,
• Generating buoyant market for expansion of industry and services, and
• Making substantial contribution to the national economic growth.

Impact of Globalization on Industrial Sector:

Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry started when the government opened the
country's markets to foreign investments in the early 1990s. Globalization of the
Indian Industry took place in its various sectors such as steel, pharmaceutical,
petroleum, chemical, textile, cement, retail, and BPO.
Globalization means the dismantling of trade barriers between nations and the
integration of the nations economies through financial flow, trade in goods and
services, and corporate investments between nations. Globalization has increased
across the world in recent years due to the fast progress that has been made in the
field of technology especially in communications and transport. The government of
India made changes in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign
investments in the country. The benefits of the effects of globalization in the Indian
Industry are that many foreign companies set up industries in India, especially in the
pharmaceutical, BPO, petroleum, manufacturing, and chemical sectors and this
helped to provide employment to many people in the country. This helped reduce the
level of unemployment and poverty in the country. Also the benefit of the Effects of
Globalization on Indian Industry are that the foreign companies brought in highly
advanced technology with them and this helped to make the Indian Industry more
technologically advanced.

The negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that with the coming of
technology the number of labor required decreased and this resulted in many people
being removed from their jobs. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical,
chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries.

Impact on Financial Sector:

Reforms of the financial sector constitute the most important component of India’s
programme towards economic liberalization. The recent economic liberalization
measures have opened the door to foreign competitors to enter into our domestic
market. Innovation has become a must for survival. Financial intermediaries have
come out of their traditional approach and they are ready to assume more credit risks.
As a consequence, many innovations have taken place in the global financial sectors
which have its own impact on the domestic sector also. The emergences of various
financial institutions and regulatory bodies have transformed the financial services
sector from being a conservative industry to a very dynamic one. In this process this
sector is facing a number of challenges. In this changed context, the financial services
industry in India has to play a very positive and dynamic role in the years to come by
offering many innovative products to suit the varied requirements of the millions of
prospective investors spread throughout the country. Reforms of the financial sector
constitute the most important component of India’s programme towards economic

Growth in financial services (comprising banking, insurance, real estate and business
services), after dipping to 5.6% in 2003-04 bounced back to 8.7% in 2004-05 and
10.9% in 2005-06. The momentum has been maintained with a growth of 11.1% in
2006-07. Because of Globalization, the financial services industry is in a period of
transition. Market shifts, competition, and technological developments are ushering
in unprecedented changes in the global financial services industry.

Impact on Export and Import:

India's Export and Import in the year 2001-02 was to the extent of 32,572 and 38,362
million respectively. Many Indian companies have started becoming respectable
players in the International scene. Agriculture exports account for about 13 to 18% of
total annual of annual export of the country. In 2000-01 Agricultural products valued
at more than US $ 6million were exported from the country 23% of which was
contributed by the marine products alone. Marine products in recent years have
emerged as the single largest contributor to the total agricultural export from the
country accounting for over one fifth of the total agricultural exports. Cereals (mostly
basmati rice and non-basmati rice), oil seeds, tea and coffee are the other prominent
products each of which accounts fro nearly 5 to 10% of the countries total
agricultural exports.
Advantages of Globalization:
• There is an International market for companies and for consumers there is a wider
range of products to choose from.
• Increase in flow of investments from developed countries to developing countries,
which can be used for economic reconstruction.
• Greater and faster flow of information between countries and greater cultural
interaction has helped to overcome cultural barriers.
• Technological development has resulted in reverse brain drain in developing

Demerits of Globalization (Challenges):

• The outsourcing of jobs to developing countries has resulted in loss of jobs in
developed countries.

• There is a greater threat of spread of communicable diseases.

• There is an underlying threat of multinational corporations with immense power

ruling the globe.

• For smaller developing nations at the receiving end, it could indirectly lead to a
subtle form of colonization.

· The number of rural landless families increased from 35 %in 1987 to 45 % in 1999,
further to 55% in 2005. The farmers are destined to die of starvation or suicide.

A Comparison with Other Developing Countries:

Consider global trade – India’s share of world merchandise exports increased
from .05% to .07% over the past 20 years. Over the same period China’s share has
tripled to almost 4%.
India’s share of global trade is similar to that of the Philippines an economy 6
times smaller according to IMF estimates.

Over the past decade FDI flows into India have averaged around 0.5% of GDP
against 5% for China and 5.5% for Brazil. FDI inflows to China now exceed US $ 50
billion annually. It is only US $ 4billion in the case of India.

India gained highly from the LPG model as its GDP increased to 9.7% in 2007-2008.
In respect of market capitalization, India ranks fourth in the world. But even after
globalization, condition of agriculture has not improved. The share of agriculture in
the GDP is only 17%. The number of landless families has increased and farmers are
still committing suicide. But seeing the positive effects of globalization, it can be said
that very soon India will overcome these hurdles too and march strongly on its path
of development. The lesson of recent experience is that a country must carefully
choose a combination of policies that best enables it to take the opportunity - while
avoiding the pitfalls. For over a century the United States has been the largest
economy in the world but major developments have taken place in the world
Economy since then, leading to the shift of focus from the US and the rich countries
of Europe to the two Asian giants- India and China. Economics experts and various
studies conducted across the globe envisage India and China to rule the world in the
21st century. India, which is now the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing
power parity, may overtake Japan and become third major economic power within 10
years. To conclude we can say that the modernization that we see around us in our
daily life is a contribution of Globalization. Globalization has both positive and as
well as negative impacts on various sectors of Indian Economy. So Globalization has
taken us a long way from 1991 which has resultant in the advancement our country.
An economic system is a network of organisations used by a society to resolve the
basic problem of what, how much, how and for whom to produce.
 Free market economy: Where markets allocate resources through the price
mechanism. An increase in demand raises price and encourages businesses to
bring more resources into the production of that good or service. The amount
of products consumed by people depends on their income and income depends
on the market value of an individual’s work. In a free market economy there is
a limited role for the government. In a pure free market system, the
government limits itself to protecting property rights of people and businesses
using the legal system and protecting the value of money or the value of a
 Planned or command economy: In a planned or command system associated
with a socialist or communist system, scarce resources are owned by the
government. The state allocates resources, and sets production targets and
growth rates according to its own view of people's wants. Market prices play
little or no part in informing resource allocation decisions and queuing rations
scarce goods.
 Mixed economy: In a mixed economy, some resources are owned by the
public sector (government) and some resources are owned by the private sector.
The public (or state) sector typically supplies public, quasi-public and merit
goods and intervenes in markets to correct perceived market failure. Nearly all
economies in the world are mixed.
Just as the life and success an individual depend on his innate capability,
including physiological factors, traits and skills, to cope with the environment,
the survival and success of a business firm depend on its innate strength – the
resources as its command, including physical resources, financial resources, skill
and organization – and its adaptability to the environment. Every business
enterprise, thus, consists of a set of internal factors and is confronted with a set of
external factors.
The internal factors are generally regarded as controllable factors because the
company has control over these factors; it can alter or modify such factors as its
l Business Environment personnel, physical facilities, organization and functional
means, such as the marketing mix, to suit the environment.
The external factors, on the other hand, are by and large, beyond the control of a
company. The external or environmental factors such as the economic factors,
socio-cultural factors, government and legal factors, demographic factors, geo-
physical factors etc. are, therefore, generally regarded as uncontrollable factors.
As the environmental factors are beyond the control of a firm, its success will
depend to a very large extent on its adaptability to the environment, i.e. its
ability to properly design and adjust the internal (the controllable) variables to
take advantage of the opportunities and to combat the threats in the environment. The
business environment comprises a microenvironment and a macro environment.

“The micro environment consists of the actors in the company’s immediate
environment” that effect the performance of the company. These include the
suppliers, marketing intermediaries, competitors, customers, and publics. “The
macro environment consists of the larger societal forces that affect all the actors
in the company’s micro environment namely, the demographic, economic,
natural, technological, political and cultural forces”.
It is quite obvious that the micro environmental factors are more intimately
linked with the company than the macro factors. The micro forces need not
necessarily affect all the firms in a particular industry in the same way. Some of
the micro factors may be particular to a firm. For example, a firm, which
depends on a supplier, may have a supplier environment, which is entirely
different from that of a firm whose supply source is different. When competing
firms in an industry have the same microelements, the relative success of the
firms depends on their relative effectiveness in dealing with these elements.

An important force in the microenvironment of a company is the supplier, i.e.,
those who supply the inputs like raw materials and components to the company.
The importance of reliable source/sources of supply to the smooth functioning
of the business is obvious. Uncertainty regarding the supply or other supply
constraints often compels companies to maintain high inventories causing cost
increases. It has been pointed out that factories in India maintain indigenous
stocks of 3-4 months and imported stocks of 9 months as against an average of a
few hours to two weeks in Japan.
Because of the sensitivity of the supply, many companies give high importance
to vendor development. Vertical integration, where feasible, helps solve the
supply problem.
It is very risky to depend on a single because a strike, lock out or any other
production problem with that supplier may seriously affect the company.
Similarly, a change in the attitude or behavior of the supplier may also affect the
company. Hence, multiple sources of supply often help reduce such risks.
The supply management assumes more importance in a scarcity environment.
“Company purchasing agents are learning how to “wine and dine” suppliers to
obtain favorable treatment during periods of shortages. In other words, the
purchasing department might have to “market” itself to suppliers”.
As it is often, exhorted, the major task of a business is to create and sustain
customers. A business exists only because of its customers. Monitoring the
customer sensitivity is, therefore, a prerequisite for the business success.
A company may have different categories of consumers like individuals,
households, industries and other commercial establishments, and government
and other institutions. For example, the customers of a tyre company may
include individual automobile owners, automobile manufacturers, public sector
transport undertakings and other transport operators.
Depending on a single customer is often too risky because it may place the
company in a poor bargaining position, apart from the risks of losing business
consequent to the winding up of business by the customer or due to the
customer’s switching over the competitors of the company.
The choice of the customer segments should be made by considering a number
of factors including the relative profitability, dependability, stability of demand,
growth prospects and the extent of competition.
A firm’s competitors include not only the other firms, which market the same or
similar products, but also all those who compete for the discretionary income of
the consumers. For example, the competition for a company’s televisions may
come not only from other T.V. manufacturers but also from two-wheelers,
refrigerators, cooking ranges, stereo sets and so on and from firms offering
savings and investment schemes like banks, Unit Trust of India, companies
accepting public deposits or issuing shares or debentures etc. This competition
among these products may be described as desire competition as the primary
task here is to influence the basic desire of the consumer.
Such desire competition is generally very high in countries characterized by limited
disposable incomes and many unsatisfied desires (and, of course, with many
alternatives for spending/investing the disposable income).
If the consumer decides to spend his discretionary income on recreation (or
recreation cum education) he will still confronted with a number of alternatives
choose from like T.V., stereo, two-in-one, three –in-one etc. The competition
among such alternatives, which satisfy a particular category of desire, is called
generic competition.

Global Business Environment

If the consumer decides to go in for a T.V. the next question is which form of
the T.V. – black and white or colour, with remote-control or without it etc. In
other words, there is a product form competition.
Finally the consumer encounters the brand competition i.e., the competition between
the different brands of the same product form.
An implication of these different demands is that a marketer should strive to
create primary and selective demand for his products.
The immediate environment of a company may consist of a number of
marketing intermediaries which are “firms that aid the company in promoting,
selling and distributing its goods to final buyers”.
The marketing intermediaries include middlemen such as agents and merchants
who “help the company find customers or close sales with them”, physical
distribution firms which “assist the company in stocking and moving goods
form their origin to their destination” such as warehouses and transportation
firms; marketing service agencies which “assist the company in targeting and
promoting its products to the right markets” such as advertising agencies,
marketing research firms, media firms and consulting firms; and financial
intermediaries which finance marketing activities and insure business risks.
Marketing intermediaries are vital links between the company and the final
consumers. A dislocation or disturbance of this link, or a wrong choice of the
link, may cost the company very heavily. Retail chemists and druggists in India
once decided to boycott the products of a leading company on some issue such
as poor retail margin. This move for collective boycott was, however, objected
to by the MRTP commission; but for this company would, perhaps, have been in

A company may encounter certain publics in its environment. “A public is any
group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organisation’s
ability to achieve its interests. Media publics, citizens action publics and local
publics are some examples.
For example, one of the leading companies in India was frequently under attack
by the media public, particularly by a leading daily, which was allegedly bent on
bringing down the share prices of the company by tarnishing its image. Such
exposures or campaigns by the media might even influence the government
decisions affecting the company. The local public also affects many companies.
Environmental pollution is an issue often taken up by a number of local publics.
Actions by local publics on the issue have caused some companies to suspend
operations and/or take pollution abatement measures.
It is wrong to think that all publics are threats to business. Some of the actions
of the publics may cause problems for companies. However, some publics are
an opportunity for the business. Some businessmen, for example, regard
consumerism as an opportunity for the business. The media public may be used
to disseminate useful information. Similarly, fruitful cooperation between a
company and the local publics may be established for the mutual benefit of the
company and the local community.
As stated earlier, a company and the forces in its microenvironment operate in a
larger macro environment of forces that shape opportunities and pose threats to
the company. The macro forces are, generally, more uncontrollable than the
micro forces. A sketch picture of the important macro-environmental forces is
given below.

Economic conditions, economic policies and the economic system are the
important external factors that constitute the economic environment of a
The economic conditions of a country-for example, the nature of the economy,
the stage of development of the economy, economic resources, the level of
income, the distribution of income and assets, etc- are among the very important
determinants of business strategies.
In a developing country, the low income may be the reason for the very low
demand for a product. The sale of a product for which the demand is income-
elastic naturally increases with an increase in income. But a firm is unable to
increase the purchasing power of the people to generate a higher demand for its
product. Hence, it may have to reduce the price of the product to increase the
sales. The reduction in the cost of production may have to be effected to
facilitate price reduction. It may even be necessary to invent or develop a new
low-cost product to suit the low-income market.
Thus Colgate designed a simple, hand-driven, inexpensive ($10) washing machine
for low-income buyers in less developed countries. Similarly, the National Cash
Register Company took an innovative step backward by developing a crank-operated
cash register that would sell at half the cost of a modern cash register and this was
well received in a number of developing countries.
In countries where investment and income are steadily and rapidly rising,
business prospects are generally bright, and further investments are encouraged.
There are a number of economists and businessmen who feel that the developed
countries are no longer worthwhile propositions for investment because these
economies have reached more or less saturation levels in certain respects.

In developed economies, replacement demand accounts for a considerable part

of the total demand for many consumer durables whereas the replacement
demand is negligible in the developing economies.
The economic policy of the government, needless to say, has a very great impact
on business. Some types or categories of business are favorably affected by
government policy, some adversely affected, while it is neutral in respect of
others. For example, a restrictive import policy, or a policy of protecting the
home industries, may greatly help the import-competing industries.
Similarly, an industry that falls within the priority sector in terms of the
government policy may get a number of incentives and other positive support
from the government, whereas those industries which are regarded as inessential
may have the odds against them.
In India, the government’s concern about the concentration of economic power
restricted the role of the large industrial houses and foreign concerns to the core
sector, the heavy investment sector, the export sector and backward regions.
The monetary and fiscal policies, by the incentives and disincentives they offer
and by their neutrality, also affect the business in different ways.
An industrial undertaking may be able to take advantage of external economies
by locating itself in a large city; but the Government of India’s policy was to
discourage industrial location in such places and constrain or persuade industries
undertaking, a backward area location may have many disadvantages. However,
the incentives available for units located in these backward areas many
compensate them for these disadvantages, at least to some extent.
According to the industrial policy of the Government of India until July 1991,
the development of 17 of the most important industries were reserved for the
state. In the development of another 12 major industries, the state was to play a
dominant role. In the remaining industries, co-operative enterprises, joint sector
enterprises and small scale units were to get preferential treatment over large

entrepreneurs in the private sector. The government policy, thus limited the
scope of private business. However, the new policy ushered in since July 1991
has wide opened many of the industries for the private sector.
The scope of global business depends, to a large extent, on the economic
At one end, there are the free market economies or capitalist
economies, and at the other end are the centrally planned economies or
communist countries. In between these two are the mixed economies. Within
the mixed economic system itself, there are wide variations.
The freedom of private enterprise is the greatest in the free market economy,
which is characterized by the following assumptions:
(i) The factors of production (labor, land, capital) are privately owned,
and production occurs at the initiative of the private enterprise.
(ii) Income is received in monetary form by the sale of services of the
factors of production and from the profits of the private enterprise.
(iii) Members of the free market economy have freedom of choice in so
far as consumption, occupation, savings and investment are
(iv) The free market economy is not planned controlled or regulated by
the government. The government satisfies community or collective
wants, but does not compete with private firms, nor does it tell the
people where to work or what to produce.
The completely free market economy, however, is an abstract system rather than
a real one. Today, even the so-called market economies are subject to a number
of government regulations. Countries like the United States, Japan, Australia,
Canada and member countries of the EEC are regarded as market economies.
The communist countries have, by and large, a centrally planned economic
system. Under the rule of a communist or authoritarian socialist government,
the state owns all the means of production, determines the goals of production
and controls the economy according to a central master plan. There is hardly
any consumer sovereignty in a centrally planned economy, unlike in the free
market economy. The consumption pattern in a centrally planned economy is
dictated by the state.
China, East Germany Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland etc., had
centrally planned economies. However, recently several of these countries have
discarded communist system and have moved towards the market economy.
In between the capitalist system and the centrally planned system falls the
system of the mixed economy, under which both the public and private sectors
co-exist, as in India. The extent of state participation varies widely between the
mixed economies. However, in many mixed economies, the strategic and other
nationally very important industries are fully owned or dominated by the state.
The economic system, thus, is a very important determinant of the scope of
private business. The economic system and policy are, therefore, very important
external constraints on business.
Political and government environment has close relationship with the economic
system and economic policy. For example, the communist countries had a
centrally planned economic system. In most countries, apart from those laws
that control investment and related matters, there are a number of laws that
regulate the conduct of the business. These laws cover such matters as standards
of products, packaging, promotion etc.
In many countries, with a view to protecting consumer interests, regulations
have become stronger. Regulations to protect the purity of the environment and
preserve the ecological balance have assumed great importance in many
Some governments specify certain standards for the products (including
packaging) to be marketed in the country; some even prohibit the marketing of
certain products. In most nations, promotional activities are subject to various
types of controls. Media advertising is not permitted in Libya.
Several European countries restrain the use of children in commercial advertisements.
In a number of countries, including India, the advertisement of alcoholic liquor
is prohibited. Advertisements, including packaging, of cigarettes must carry the
statutory warning that “cigarette smoking is injurious to health”. Similarly,
advertisements of baby food must necessarily inform the potential buyer that
breast-feeding in the best.
In countries like Germany, product comparison advertisements and the use of
superlatives like ‘best’ or ‘excellent’ in advertisements is not allowed In the United
States, the Federal Trade Commission is empowered to require a company to provide
the quality, performance or comparative prices of its products.
“What is being asked of the drug industry and of American business in general
is a fuller disclosure of the relevant facts about products. For drugs, food
additives, some cosmetic preparations, and so forth, a full disclosure requires
more knowledge of the long-range side effects of materials ingested into the
complex human body. For American industry as a whole, greater candour has
been called for under such legislation as Truth in Lending and Fair Packaging
Act, under administrative decrees such as the warning requirement on cigarette
packages and advertising, under the threats of private damage suits using the
common-law concepts of warranty, and under voluntary programmes such as
unit pricing and listing nutritional content of foods. The increasing complexity
of products and the variety of product choices suggest further moves away from
‘caveat emptor’ or ‘let the buyer beware’ doctrines, moves which on the whole
should prove a welcome although sometimes inconvenient challenge for
There are a host of statutory controls on business in India. If the MRTP companies
wanted to expand their business substantially, they had to convince
the government that such expansion was in the public interest. Indeed, the
“Government in India has an all-pervasive and predominantly restrictive
influence over various aspects of business, e.g, industrial licensing which
decides location, capacity and process; import licensing for machinery and
materials; size and price of capital issue; loan finance; pricing; managerial
remuneration; expansion plans; distribution restrictions and a host of other
enactments. Therefore, a considerable part of attention of a Chief Executive and
his senior colleagues has to be devoted to a continuous dialogue with various
government agencies to ensure growth and profitability within the framework of
controls and restraints”.
Many countries today have laws to regulate competition in the public interest.
Elimination of unfair competition and dilution of monopoly power are the
important objectives of these regulations.
In India, the monopolistic undertakings, dominants undertakings and large industrial
houses are subject to a number of regulations which prevent the concentration of
economic power to the common detriment. The MRTP Act also controls
monopolistic, restrictive and unfair trade practices which are prejudicial to public
interest. Such regulations brighten the prospects of small and new firms. They also
increase the scope of some of the existing firms to venture into new areas of business.
The special privileges available to the small scale sector have also contributed to
the phenomenal success of the Nirma.
Certain changes in government policies such as the industrial policy, fiscal
policy, tariff policy etc. may have profound impact on business. Some policy
developments create opportunities as well as threats.
In other words, a development which brightens the prospects of some enterprises may
pose a threat to some others. For example, the industrial policy liberalizations in
India, particularly around the mid-eighties have opened up new opportunities and
Unit I
They have provided a lot of opportunities to a large number of enterprises to diversify
and to make their product mix better. But they have also given rise to serious threat to
many existing products by way of increased competitions; many seller’s markets
have given way to buyer’s markets. Even products which were seldom advertised
have come to be promoted very heavily.
This battle for the market has provided a splendid opportunity for the advertising
industry. Advertising billing has been increasing substantially.
That an estimated cost savings of about Rs. 200 crores per year have accrued to
the Reliance Industries as a result of the changes in duties on some of the
material inputs used by them is just an indication of the tremendous impact the
fiscal and tariff policies can have on the business.
The socio-cultural fabric is an important environmental factor that should be
analysed while formulating business strategies.
The cost of ignoring the customs, traditions, taboos, tastes and preferences, etc., of
people could be very high.
The buying and consumption habits of the people, their language, beliefs and
values, customs and traditions, tastes and preferences, education are all factors
that affect business.
For a business to be successful, its strategy should be the one that is appropriate
in the socio-cultural environment. The marketing mix will have to be so
designed as best to suit the environmental characteristics of the market. In
Thailand, Helene Curtis switched to black shampoo because Thai women felt
that it made their hair look glossier. Nestle, a Swiss multinational company,
today brews more than forty varieties of instant coffee to satisfy different
national tastes.
Even when people of different cultures use the same basic product, the mode of
consumption, conditions of use, purpose of use or the perceptions of the product
attributes may vary so much so that the product attributes method of
presentation, positioning, or method of promoting the product may have to be
varied to suit the characteristics of different markets. For example, the two most
important foreign markets for Indian shrimp are the U.S and Japan. The product
attributes for the success of the product in these two markets differ. In the U.S.
market, correct weight and bacteriological factors are more important rather than
eye appeal, colour, uniformity of size and arrangement of the shrimp which are
very important in Japan. Similarly, the mode of consumption of tuna, another
seafood export from India, differs between the U.S. and European countries.
Tuna fish sandwiches, an American favourite which accounts for about 80 per
cent of American tuna consumption, have little appeal in high tuna consumption
European countries where people eat it right from the can. A very interesting
example is that of the Vicks Vaporub, the popular pain balm, which is used as a
mosquito repellant in some of the tropical areas.
The differences in languages sometimes pose a serious problem, even
necessitating a change in the brand name. Preett was, perhaps, a good brand
name in India, but it did not suit in the overseas market; and hence it was
appropriate to adopt ‘Prestige’ for the overseas markets. Chevrolet’s brand
name ‘Nova’ in Spanish means “it doesn’t go”. In Japanese, General Motors’
“Body by Fisher” translates as corpse by Fisher”. In Japanese, again, 3M’s
slogan “sticks like crazy “translates as “sticks foolishly”. In some languages,
Pepsi-Cola’s slogan “come alive” translates as “come out of the grave”.
The values and beliefs associated with colour vary significantly between
different cultures. Blue, considered feminine and warm in Holland, is regarded
as masculine and cold in Sweden. Green is a favourite colour in the Muslim
world; but in Malaysia, it is associated with illness. White indicates death and
mourning in China and Korea; but in some countries, it expresses happiness and
is the colour of the wedding dress of the bride. Red is a popular colour in the
communist countries; but many African countries have a national distaste for red
Social inertia and associated factors come in the way of the promotion of certain
products, services or ideas. We come across such social stigmas in the
marketing of family planning ideas, use of bio-gas for cooking, etc. In such
circumstances, the success of marketing depends, to a very large extent, on the
success in changing social attitudes or value systems.
There are also a number of demographic factors, such as the age, and sex
composition of population, family size, habitat, religion, etc., which influence
the business.
While dealing with the social environment, we must also consider the social
environment of the business which encompasses its social responsibility and the
alertness or vigilance of the consumers and of society at large.
The societal environment has assumed great importance in recent years. As
Barker observes, business “traditionally has been held responsible for quantities-
for the supply of goods and jobs, for costs, prices, wages, hours of works, and
for standards of living. Today, however, business is being asked to take a
responsibility for the quality of life in our society. The expectation is that
business- in addition to its traditional accountability for economic performance
and results – will concern itself with the health of the society, that it will come
up with the cures for the ills that currently beset us and, indeed, will find ways
of anticipating and preventing future problems in these areas”.
As Stern succinctly points out, the “more educated the society becomes, the
more interdependent it becomes, and the more discretionary the use of its
resources, the more marketing will become enmeshed in social issues.
Marketing personnel are at interface between company and society. In this
position, they have the responsibility not merely for designing a competitive
marketing strategy, but for sensitizing business to the social, as well as the
product demand of society”.
Demographic factors like the size, growth rate, age composition, sex
composition, etc. of the population, family size, economic stratification of the
population, educational levels, languages, caste, religion etc. Are all factors that
are relevant to business?
Demographic factors such as size of the population, population growth rate, age
composition, life expectancy, family size, spatial dispersal, occupational status,
employment pattern etc, affect the demand for goods and services. Markets with
growing population and income are growth markets. But the decline in the birth
rates in countries like the United States have affected the demand for baby
products. Johnson and Johnson have overcome this problem by repositioning
their products like baby shampoo and baby soap, promoting them also to the
adult segment, particularly to the females.
A rapidly increasing population indicates a growing demand for many products.
High population growth rate also indicates an enormous increase in labour
supply. When the Western countries experienced the industrial revolution, they
had the problem of labour supply, for the population growth rate was
comparatively low. Labour shortage and rising wages encouraged the growth of
labour-saving technologies and automation. But most developing countries of
today are experiencing a population explosion and a situation of labour surplus.
The governments of developing countries, therefore, encourage labour intensive
methods of production.
Capital intensive methods, automation and even rationalization are apposed by labour
and many sociologists, politicians and
economists in these countries. The population growth rate, thus, is an important
environmental factor which affects business. market have encouraged many
multinational corporations to invest in developing countries.
The occupational and spatial mobilities of population have implications for
business. If labour is easily mobile between different occupations and regions,
its supply will be relatively smooth, and this will affect the wage rate.
If labour is highly heterogeneous in respect of language, caste and religion,
ethnicity, etc., personnel management is likely to become a more complex task.
The heterogeneous population with its varied tastes, preferences, beliefs,
temperaments, etc. gives rise to differing demand patterns and calls for different
marketing strategies.
References to a number of demographic factors that have business implications
have already been made under “socio-cultural environment”.
Geographical and ecological factors, such as natural resource endowments,
weather and climatic conditions, topographical factors, locational aspects in the
global context, port facilities, etc., are all relevant to business.
Differences in geographical conditions between markets may sometimes call for
changes in the marketing mix.
Geographical and ecological factors also influence the location of certain industries.
For example, industries with high material index tend to be located near the raw
material sources. Climatic and weather conditions affect the location of certain
industries like the cotton textile industry. Topographical factors may, affect the
demand pattern. For example, in hilly areas with a difficult terrain, jeeps may be in
greater demand than cars.
Ecological factors have recently assumed great importance. The depletion of
natural resources, environmental pollution and the disturbance of the ecological
balance has caused great concern.
Government policies aimed at the preservation of environmental purity and
ecological balance, conservation of non-replenishale resources, etc., have resulted in
additional responsibilities and problems for business, and some of these have the
effect of increasing the cost of production and marketing. Externalities have become
an important problem the business has to confront with.
Physical Factors, such as geographical factors, weather and climatic conditions
may call for modifications in the product, etc., to suit the environment because
these environmental factors are uncontrollable. For example, Esso adapted its
gasoline formulations to suit the weather conditions prevailing in different
Business prospects depend also on the availability of certain physical facilities.
Some products, like many consumer durables, have certain use facility
characteristics. The sale of television sets, for example, is limited by the extent
of the coverage of the telecasting. Similarly, the demand for refrigerators and
other electrical appliances is affected by the extent of electrification and the
reliability of power supply. The demand for LPG gas stoves is affected by the
rate of growth of gas connections.
Technological factors sometimes pose problems. A firm, which is unable to
cope with the technological changes, may not survive. Further, the differing
technological environment of different markets or countires may call for product
modifications. For example, many appliances and instruments in the U.S.A. are
designed for 110 volts but this needs to be converted into 240 volts in countries
which have that power system. Technological developments may increase the
demand for some existing products.
For example, voltage stabilisers help increase the sale of electrical appliances in
markets characterised by frequent voltage fluctuations I power supply. However, the
introduction of TV’s, Fridges etc, with in built voltage stabilizer adversely affects the
demand for voltage stabilizers.

Advances in the technologies of food processing and preservation, packaging

etc., have facilitated product improvements and introduction of new products
and have considerably improved the marketability of products.
The television has added a new dimension to product promotion. The advent of
TV and VCP/VCR has, however, adversely affected the cinema theatres.
The fast changes in technologies also create problems for enterprises as they
render plants and products obsolete quickly. Product-market-technology matrix
generally has a much shorter life today than in the past. It is particularly so in
the international marketing context. It may be interesting to note that almost
half of Hindustan Lever’s 1980 export business did not exist in 1987. In fact, as
much as a third of the company’s 1987 turnover was from products and markets,
which were under three years of age.
The international environment is very important from the point of view of
certain categories of business. It is particularly important for industries directly
depending on imports or exports and import-competing industries. For example,
a recession in foreign markets, or the adoption of protectionist policies by
foreign nations, may create difficulties for industries depending on exports. On
the other hand, a boom in the export market or a relaxation of the protectionist
policies may help the export-oriented industries. A liberalization of imports
may help some industries which use imported items, but may adversely affect
import-competing industries.
It has been observed that major international developments have their spread
effects on domestic business. The Great Depression in the United States sent its
shock waves to a number of other countries. Oil price hikes have seriously
affected a number of economies.
These hikes have increased the cost of production and the prices of certain products,
such as fertilizers, synthetic fibres, etc. The high oil price has led to an increase in the
demand for automobile models that economise energy consumption. The demand for
natural fibres increased because of the oil crisis.
The oil crisis also prompted some companies to resort to demarketing.
“Demarketing refers to the process of cutting consumer demand for a product
back to level that can be supplied by the firm”. Some oil companies-the Indian
Oil Corporation, for example-have publicized tips o how to cut oil consumption.
When the fertilizer price shot up following the oil crisis, some fertilizer
companies appealed to the farmers to use fertilizers only for important and
remunerative crops.
The importance of natural manure like compost as a substitute for chemical fertilizers
was also emphasized. The oil crisis led to a reorientation of the Government of
India’s energy policy. Such developments affect the demand, consumption and
investment pattern.
A good export market enables a firm to develop a more profitable product mix
and to consolidate its position in the domestic market. Many companies now
plan production capacities and investment taking into account also the foreign
Export marketing facilitates the attainment of optimum capacity
utilization; a company may be able to mitigate the effects of domestic recession
by exporting. However, a company which depends on the export market to a
considerable extent has also to face the impact of adverse developments in
foreign markets.
global business is a necessity in today’s world. The gains for greater
awareness and knowledge of global business fare immense for nations,
multi-national enterprises, trading companies, exporters and even individuals.
To go global, the first step would be to understand the global business
global business in nothing but extending the areas of activities of business across the
boundaries. We have discussed about the importance of understanding Global
Business Environment in detail.
Differences Between Domestic and global business

Exporting and global business can be interesting, exciting and in some cases
challenging. In all cases it should be profitable and help a business grow.

Doing business internationally is not the same as doing business at home. There are
new skills to learn and new knowledge to acquire about the country you will be going
into. You will need to learn about the different laws and regulations, the different
customer buying habits, and change your marketing strategies and materials to appeal
to the new country you are entering. It is important to remember that the way you
operate your business will be determined by culture of the market you are entering,
not yours.

It is important to understand the differences between domestic and global business

but they should not inhibit your interest or drive for success internationally. Rather
they should whet your appetite for success.


No two cultures are the same and understanding both the social and business culture
in another country is the first key to success. Culture defines everything a society
does, from its business practices, to its response to advertising and marketing, to
negotiating sales. It is important to include research on the culture of the country(s)
that you intend to sell to prior to entering their market. Understanding these, often
sensitive, areas will mean that you are better prepared when first entering the market.
Although the people that you will deal with will not expect you to be completely in
tune with the culture, respect and politeness will go a long way.

Level of Competition

The level of competition you will experience in foreign markets is likely to be more
dynamic and complex than you experience in domestic markets.

A good strategic tool to use to determine if you are able to compete in a particular
international market is the Porters 5 Forces analysis. This tool will assess your supplier
power, buyer power, threat of competitor products and the threat of new entrants to
the market.

Market Intelligence

The key points to determine when gathering market intelligence on the market you
intend to enter are:

 Understanding how the market works

 Who your direct competition is, and
 The best market entry strategy.

It may be difficult to find reliable information and data for some markets, particularly
less-developed economies as their statistical agencies may not be as sophisticated as
developed market economies. However it is important to gather as much information
as you can to successful enter the market.

Politics/Government/Legal Systems

No two countries have the same political and legal systems. Each government has its
own policies relating to foreign firms and products. The key is to understand that
once you are in a foreign market you must abide by the rules and laws of that country,
not the ones in your own market. These laws and regulations can severely impact the
potential long term success of your business and it is wise to consult with legal
counsel, based in that country, to ensure you reduce the risk of these laws and
regulations effect on your firm.

International Law

Countries determine their laws based on the needs of their citizens not the concerns
of foreign companies. By and large, international law is a gentlemen's agreement
which is honoured, but not always. For example in areas such as intellectual property,
although there are many agreements in place, protecting intellectual property can be
time consuming and costly.


The degree of technology can vary substantially in foreign markets. If your product
or service requires a high degree of technology sophistication to use or implement,
then markets with low levels of technology will not be suitable for your busines.


Like technology, business infrastructure in foreign markets will be at different levels

of development. This may well have an impact on your ability to get your products to
that market. It is important to research your new target market and understand how
goods are moved within the country before you commit to that market.


Advertising your product and service will of course be an important component of

your marketing strategy. It is important to be aware of the types of media available
and the kind of media your target market uses to gain information about products and
services they wish to buy. Not everyone is connected to the internet nor is every
customer able to read and write. This does not mean those markets should be ignored.
It does mean that how you advertise and market your products will require an
examination of the most appropriate media for your target market.