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“Disciplinary Construction: Identifying the Factors among the Disobedience of Senior High School

Students in School Rules and Regulations”

Paula C. Sevilla
Miguel Benedict S. Tan
Edel John L. Pecio



This study aims to identify and determine the factors among the disobedience of Senior High

School students in rules and regulations. The researchers believe that that it can sought to answer the

following questions: (1) what are the factors that causes the SHS students in their stubbornness in

following the rules and regulations of the school. (2) How does it affect their studies and how do their

attitudes reflect their grades. (3) Does the parents of the students who have this kind of attitude aware in

their behavior. (4) Why does the number of students who don't follow the rules and regulations of the

school is increasing as the year pass by.

We, the researchers also believe that this study is important and will help the the following: (1)

students. This research will help them to be aware in the things that they do n terms of violating the rules

and regulations of their school. (2) Teachers. This research will help them to guide the students and be

aware of the factors that cause stubbornness behavior of their students towards the school's rules and

regulations. (3) Administrators. \

This will help them establish programs and create plans and methods that can help the students in

terms of their attitude toward the school's rules and regulations. (4) Parents. This research will help them

to guide her children to motivate in obeying and following the rules and regulations. It also can help them

to enhance the personality development of their children.

Background of the Study

"The capacity to learn is a gift; the ability to learn is a skill; the willingness to obey is a choice."

The author of the quotation above states that being able to learn is important because it is not just a gift

but also a skill. In order to possess this ability, one has to choose education. All of us were not given the

opportunity to go to school but we still have the chance to do everything in order to learn.

Education is very powerful; it is a key that can open many doors of opportunity. It can lead you to

a better job, productive life, and secured future. Therefore, one must study through dedication and hard

work to attain this power. Although this commitment can be difficult, the result of the hardships is all

worth it at the end.

Thus, parents send their kids to school to study and possess the power of education but as we

observed, there are changes that can be seen on the students. Their level of disciplinary and being active

on class was slowly decreases. Unfortunately, some students seemed to have misbehavior in terms of their

discipline in obeying their rules and regulations especially when they are inside the class. Others have
been influenced by their peers and the rest lost their discipline because of the school or classroom

environment they belong and the school's lack of provisions needed. Hence, the student's loss of

disciplinary could be a result of these matters.

These variables are inside and outside school that affect student's quality of academic

achievement. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors, and peer

factors. (Crosnoe, Johnson and Elder, 2004)

Conceptual Framework

The researchers will come up with a paradigm which utilize as guide in this study. The

framework (Figure 1) will illustrate the relationship of dependent and independent variables which

include the student's as the respondents which include profile in terms of age, strand, educational

attainment of parents, and their general average in their subject that connected into their personality

development across the factors that make the student's disobedience in following the rules and

regulations, while the framework (Figure 2) will illustrate the relationship of dependent and independent

variables which includes the parents as the respondents which includes their ages, relationship between

their children, and how their children acts or behave in their home.

Figure 1:

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Students profile in terms of:

a.) age Identifying the Factors among the

b.) strand Disobedience of Senior High
c.) educational attainments of School Students in School Rules
parents and Regulations
d.) general average in their subject
that connected to their personality
Figure 2:

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Parent’s profile in terms of:

a.) age Identifying the Factors among the

b.) relationship between their Disobedience of Senior High School
children Students in School Rules and
c.) how their children acts in their Regulations
d.) how does the attitudes of their
children inside their houses affect
their attitude in school

Statement of the Problem

This study is a disciplinary construction that will identify the factors that causes the Senior High

School students in their stubbornness in obeying and following their school's rules and regulations and

aims to answer the following;

1.) How does it affect their studies and how does it reflect their grades?

2.) Why does the number of students who don't follow the rules and regulations of the school is increasing

as the year pass by?

3.) Does the parents of students who has this kind of attitude aware on their behaviors?

Definition of Terms

Senior High School (SHS) - It includes the grades 11 and 12 which cover the last two years of the K-12

curriculum mandated by the Department of Education.

Factors - One of the things that causes something to happen.

Rules and Regulations - The laws and command that tells you what is or is not allowed to do.
Disobedience - Refusal or failure to obey rules, laws, etc.

Questionnaire - A written set of questions that are given to people in order to collect facts or opinions

about something.

Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature (RRL)

This chapter primarily presents the different researches and other literatures form both foreign

and local researchers, which have significant bearings on the variables included in the research. It focuses

on several aspects that will help in the development of this study. The study is generally concentrating on

the feasibility of creating an online student information system for Kalayaan National High School. The

literatures of this study come from books, journals, articles, electronic materials such as PDF or E-Book,

and other existing theses and dissertations, foreign and local that are believed to be useful in the

advancement of awareness concerning the study.


According to a research article entitled "Student Classroom Misbehavior: An Exploratory Study

Based on Teachers' Perceptions" made by Rachel C. F. Sun1 and Daniel T. L. Shek2,3,4,55. Volume

2012, Article ID 208907, 8 pages, student misbehaviors such as disruptive talking, chronic avoidance of

work, clowning, interfering with teaching activities, harassing classmates, verbal insults, rudeness to

teacher, defiance, and hostility, ranging from infrequent to frequent, mild to severe, is a thorny issue in

everyday classroom. Teachers usually reported that these disturbing behaviors in the classroom are
intolerable and stress-provoking, and they had to spend a great deal of time and energy to manage the


They state there that obviously, student misbehaviors retard the smoothness and effectiveness of

teaching and also impede the learning of the student and his/her classmates. Moreover, research findings

have shown that school misbehavior not only escalated with time but also lowered academic achievement

and increased delinquent behavior. To lessen these immediate and gradual adverse effects of student

misbehaviors, it is of primary importance to identify what exactly are these behaviors inside classroom.

Based on the literature that they found, different terms have been used to describe problematic behaviors

of students.

As Stewart et al. referred student misconduct to disciplinary violations in school, for instance,

tardiness, vandalism, fighting, stealing, and drinking on campus. When there are explicit rules and

regulations in school and classroom, violation of these is apparently a “misbehavior or misconduct or

discipline problem.” Nevertheless, a particular behavior is viewed as problematic may not necessarily be

rule breaking, but inappropriate or disturbing in the classroom setting. For instance, daydreaming in class,

not completing homework, talking in class, lesson disruption, bullying, and rudeness to the teacher are

named as “problem behaviors”, “behavior problems,” or “disruptive behaviors”.

He said that these behaviors referred to “an activity that causes distress for teachers, interrupts the

learning process and that leads teachers to make continual comments to the student” [13, page 60], or “the

myriad activities which disrupt and impede the teaching-learning process” [14, page 43]. Noting that

school misconduct is one of the manifests of the problem behavior syndrome, the term “problem

behavior” was used to refer to all externalizing behaviors that violate explicit rules or implicit norms,

disturb the classroom order, and irritate the process of teaching and learning in this study.

They wrote there that several scales have been developed to measure teachers’ perceptions of

classroom problem behaviors. For instance, in the United Kingdom, Wheldall and Merrett used ten items,

including eating, nonverbal noise, disobedience, talking out of turn, idleness/slowness, unpunctuality,
hindering others, physical aggression, untidiness, and out of seat, to measure behavior problems among

primary school students.

As Houghton et al. also used these behaviors to measure secondary school students’ behavior

problems, with a replacement of eating with verbal abuse because they found that teachers did not

perceive eating as a problem behavior among secondary school students whereas verbal abuse was a more

relevant behavior problem.

However they researched that the cultural relevance of these scales to describe and measure

disruptive behavior among primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong Chinese classroom is a

concern that should be addressed. In their example where Ho and Leung and Leung and Ho modified

Wheldall and Merrett’s scale by dropping disobedience and adding six student behaviors commonly

reported by local teachers in Chinese school settings. These included verbal abuse, forgetfulness,

nonattentiveness, gambling, reading other materials, and doing other things.

As they used these descriptors of students’ disruptive behaviors were formed almost a decade

ago, their validity and applicability to Chinese classrooms nowadays may be questioned. Some student

behaviors that have not be mentioned in the previous studies, such as daydreaming, sleeping, looking out

of window, playing with personal stuff in private, bullying, disrespecting, talking back, arguing,

quarrelling or fighting with teachers, complaining, and lack of independent initiative were found by a

recent study in exploring Chinese teachers’ perceptions of students’ classroom misbehavior.

On top of this, uncooperativeness, emotional disturbance, over activity and withdrawal were also

reported as student classroom behavior problems by Chinese elementary school teachers. Although these

two studies were recent, both were conducted in mainland China. It is thus argued that the scales

developed in these studies as well as the findings may be limited to describing student problem behaviors

in mainland China classroom, which is different from the pluralistic classroom in which Confucian and

Western teaching and learning approaches are used in Hong Kong.

As the information that was said in their research, direct employment of an existing scale is

hardly sufficient to tap all the classroom problem behaviors exhibited by students. It is, therefore,

important to carry out a qualitative research study to unravel relevant and up-to-dated descriptions of the

students’ problem behaviors in Hong Kong classroom based on the views of teachers.

Apart from their explorations in different categories of student problem behaviors inside

classroom, it is also valuable to identify the common ones and the disruptive ones from the teachers’

perspectives. Existing research findings showed that, among various types of student problem behaviors,

“talking out of turn,” “hindering others,” and “idleness” were commonly reported by secondary school

teachers as the most frequent and troublesome misbehaviors in the United Kingdom and Australia.

Similar to these findings in the West, “talking out of turn” was rated by both primary and

secondary school teachers as the most frequent and troublesome misbehavior, followed by

“nonattentiveness” and “forgetfulness”—two other typical students’ disruptive behaviors in Hong Kong

classroom. In mainland China, “nonattentiveness”, “talking out of turn,” and “overactive” were reported

as the most frequent and troublesome classroom behavior problems by the elementary school teachers in

three provinces.

On the other hand, “daydreaming,” “talking out of turn,” and “playing with personal stuff” were

rated as the most frequent classroom misbehaviors by a group of elementary, middle and high school

teachers in another two provinces, while “daydreaming,” “slowness” and “talking out of turn” were the

most troublesome classroom misbehaviors.

They also said that “talking out of turn” is usually ranked as highly popular and disturbing student

misbehavior across time and cultures and in different grade levels of students. With a specific focus on

studying the problem behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong classroom, this study

attempted to replicate the previous studies in examining the problem behaviors perceived by teachers as

the most common and disruptive.

In addition in their study, this study further attempted to investigate the most unacceptable

problem behaviors in the eyes of teachers and the underlying reasons behind. The primary goal of their

study was to examine classroom problem behaviors among junior secondary school students in Hong

Kong based on the views of teachers. The aims of this study were to generate a list of categories of

students’ problem behaviors perceived by teachers in Hong Kong junior secondary school classroom,

identify problem behaviors that were perceived as the most common, the most disruptive to teaching and

learning in classroom, and the most unacceptable problem behavior and the reasons.

As they note that the most frequent misbehavior can be somehow objectively observed, a

particular behavior is regarded as the most disruptive or unacceptable depending on the teachers’

subjective judgment and values, professional training, and years of teaching experiences. Therefore, this

study recruited teachers with different years of teaching experiences and training background, in order to

get a comprehensive view of the issue. It is a descriptive and exploratory qualitative research study.

Academically, the present findings would add to the local literature, as recent research studies on this

topic are scanty in Hong Kong. Even though there were some studies, they were conducted a decade ago

and limited to focusing on the mainland China educational settings. Practically, it was expected that the

findings would have profound importance to counseling and guidance work in the school context.

Another basis for this study, as The Lovely Professional University (2011) promotes a culture of

paperless University. The day to day administration and most of the University procedures are carried out

online. The University Management System (UMS), an online portal of University, is one such innovative

step of the University to provide vital information regarding academics and other University logistics for

assisting the University students, their parents and the staff.


As UP students, we are expected to perform well with excellence in everything that we do, most

especially in the academic aspect. One factor that dictates the quality of performance of a student is

his/her punctuality that is, getting to school on time or being tardy.

As cited by Nakpodia and Dafiaghor (2011), “lateness” can be defined as the “situation where an

individual arrives after the proper, scheduled or usual time (Oxford Advance Learners’ Dictionary, 5th ed.,

1995), Lauby (2009) puts it as a term used to describe “people not showing up on time” and Breeze et al.

(2010) contributed by saying that, lateness is synonymous with “tardiness”, which implies being slow to

act or slow to respond, thus not meeting up with proper or usual timing. Lastly, Weade (2004) defined

tardiness as “being late for any measurable length of time past the stated or scheduled start time for work

or school.” In most schools, a student is considered tardy when he/she is not present when the school bells

rings or when the first teacher starts to give instructional materials for the first subject in the morning


One of the most recurring and the most “frustrating problem” that the schools are having with

their students nowadays is tardiness (Sprick and Daniels, 2007). It creates problems, not just to the

students but also to the teachers (Cowan Avenue Elementary School Community, 2007, para 1). Cowan

Crier, the official School Publication of CAESC, also states that while having “occasional tardy” isn’t a

big deal, unfailing tardiness is and it gives students problems including being ill-prepared for the job

market. According to the results of the study of the U.S. Department of Education on “truancy”, which is

related to tardiness, being present and on time in going to school are big factors on the “success and

behavior” of the students (Zeiger, 2010, para 1). Thus, it is a lot important to value time and practice

being on time while being a student.

According to CAESC (2007) and Zeiger (2010), the most essential learning time of the day for the

students lies in the morning, specifically between 8:00 to 9:30 AM. It is because the students are most

mindful and observant at this time of the day. It is also the reason why the most important lessons and
subject matters are discussed during this time. So when students are late or are not present during this

time of the day, they, in effect, miss out most of the important lessons to be noted and learned.

In the book cited by Santillano, “Never be late again: 7 cures for the punctually challenged”, the

author Diana DeLonzor suggested that some personality traits could most likely lead to a person being

often late. Some of the traits included were “struggling with self control”, “feeling nervous or

uncomfortable with social situations” and “getting distracted easily” (para 4). Santillano also discussed

about the study conducted by DeLonzor at San Francisco State University in 1997 in which she surveyed

225 respondents about their habits that makes them late from their appointments. It was also a test on the

personalities of the respondents that affect their habits. According to the results of DeLonzor’s study,

those respondents that were often tardy apt to be anxious and gets distracted easily.

Nakpodia and Dafiaghor attribute lateness or tardiness to a lot of factors or causes. Going late to

bed and waking up late next morning are the most common. The authors added film-watching late at night

as a cause for tardiness. The student may forget that he/she needs to be in school the next day. The

distance between the student’s home and school or solely the school’s location is also considered by

Nakpodia and Dafiaghor as a possible cause for tardiness. Not just because it takes more time to get to

school, but according to the authors, the student is susceptible to more distractions and hindrances along

the way. Parent’s untimely tasks and commands are also reasons that students come late to school.

Habitual tardiness can also be learned from other members of the family, especially from the older ones.

Lack of a firm and consistent policy on punctuality also encourages students to come late at school since

there are no consequences attached to lateness or tardiness. These causes of tardiness will lead to serious


Another study was the one conducted by Enamiroro Oghuvbu in Nigeria. The objective of the

study was to determine the causes of the absenteeism and lateness among the secondary students in

Nigeria and to seek for solutions to the growing problem. According to Oghuvbu (2008), female students
are more likely to be late than male students because of “their involvement in domestic activities by their

parents” (para 7). Also, as cited by Oghuvbu, “distance to school, school discipline, family background

and school location” (Emore, 2005) are some of the common causes for the tardiness of the secondary


Oghuvbu collected the data from a sample size of 17, 417 Nigerian respondents from 2005-2006.

The sample was made up of 20 principals and 50 each from a set of teachers, parents and students. The

means of collecting data was through a thirty-item questionnaire answerable by either strongly agree

(SA), agreed (A), disagree (D), and strongly disagreed (SD). The questionnaire had four questions, one of

which was about the causes of lateness among the secondary students of Nigeria.

The study revealed that the causes of lateness among the secondary students in Nigeria were “going

late to bed because of watching films and home movies, resulting into wake up late in the morning,

distance to school and keeping friends who are not students” (Oghuvbu, 2008). These results went

consistent with the results of Oghuvbu’s reference studies which proves that tardiness among students

have been a growing problem and that it is caused, not just because of the students but also because of the

lack of imposing discipline from the parents.

Another research partly studied about tardiness but tackled a specific reason or factor. A study by

Pimentel and Quijada (2011) focused on the frequency of use by the UP Cebu freshmen students of

Facebook and a part of the study tackled about the effect of the famous social networking site to UP Cebu

students’ punctuality and academic performance.

For their study, Pimentel and Quijada collected 60 respondents and provided them with

questionnaires. The questionnaires contained questions that ask the respondents about their use of

Facebook and its effects. A certain question asked the respondents if late-night use of Facebook has an

effect on their punctuality. According to the results of the study, three out of 60 respondents are always
late, eight said they are sometimes late, 12 said they are seldom late and 37 said that they never get late

due to late-night use of Facebook. Generally, the results showed that the respondents are seldom late in

class because of late-night use of the social networking site. Ledoux, as cited by Pimentel and Quijada,

said that lack of sleep causes neural malfunctions and further affects a person’s behavior. In the study’s

case, it is a student’s punctuality that is affected.

Sometimes, it is not solely the students’ fault why they keep on being late in coming to class.

Another factor that could affect the punctuality of a student is the response of the teachers to tardy

students. Sprick and Daniels (2007) stated that the range of the teachers’ response was “from ignoring

them to sending them to office” (p. 21). This variation could lead the students to confusion as to how

important it is to be on time in going to class. Another reason is the lack of motivation. Students who

come to school on time are not given incentives or rewards. Also, responses to tardiness are lenient, that

is nothing is done until the tenth strike or more. Another reason is “giving the student the impression that

they won’t be missing anything if they are late” since in some classes, no important activities or

instructions and no lessons are being done for first few minutes. Lastly, crowded hallways could create

traffic, thus blocking the way of other students and making it hard for them to pass through.



The descriptive method of research will be used in this study. This method is useful in gathering

factual information and in determining the level of performance in identifying the factors that make the

grade 11 students in their stubbornness and disobedience in obeying the rules and regulations of the

According to Manuel and Medel, descriptive research describes what is. It involves the

description, recording analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition, or process of



A survey/questionnaire will be used as data gathering instrument in this study. Part 1 of the

questionnaire will gather all respondent’s profile in terms of age, section, educational attainment of

parents and general average in their subject that connected on their personality development, while the

Part 2 of the questionnaire will provide some few questions that will identify the factors that causes their

misbehaviors in terms of obeying rules and regulations of their school.

The questionnaire for the students will separate from the survey for their parents. For their

parents, the Part 1 of the survey questions will consist of their ages, state of their life(how they live) while

the Part 2 will consist of few questions about the relationship that occurs between their children and how

their children acts inside their houses.

The data that will be collected in this study will use to gain an understanding of underlying

reasons, opinions, and motivations for the students that has an improper attitude in terms of obeying the

rules and regulations of their school. It will also provide insights into the problem to help or develop ideas

or hypothesis for potential answers.


The data gathering technique that will be used in this study is the indirect or questionnaire

method. The researchers will make use of a written questionnaire. The researcher will give or distribute

the questionnaires to the respondents personally.