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# R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

Strain Analysis

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Summary
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 Green-Lagrange strain
 Almansi strain
 Rotation vector
 Strain transformation
 Principal strains

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 Strain decomposition
 Strain compatibility
2
Introduction
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  The effect of forces applied to a body – Newton’s

second law – Stress analysis
 Applied forces => deformations
 Concerned with study of deformations – geometric
problem – no material properties
 Strains => kinematics of material deformation
 Change in relative position of any two points in a
continuous body => deformed or strained

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 Distance remains constant – rigid body motion
 Rigid body => Translations & Rotations
 Continuum mechanics approach
3
Introduction
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Deformation – consists of relative motion

between particles and rigid body motion

A”

y A’
A

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x

Change in position
4
Introduction
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Description of motion Body undergoes

macroscopic
Particle P occupies changes within
(X1, X2, X3) the body
Final position ‘Deformation’
Initial position

## Body ‘B’ Co-ordinate system

x2 P’ refers to material
X2 P u(X1, X2, t) particles in the body

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X(X1, X2) => Material co-
x(X1, X2) ordinate system
O X1 Material point P occupies P’ in final config
x1
Deformation csys x1x2x3 => Spatial co-ordinate system5
Displacement
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

## Mapping from reference csys

 Displacement in a body to deformed csys - function

Application of force

## Final state of body

A’
X2 A u(X1, X2, t)
X(X1, X2)

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x(X1, X2)
O X1
OA = X ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) OA' = x( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ) AA' = U ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 )
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
'
= OA+ AA
OARamadas ' => x = X + U
Chennamsetti
6
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Mapping
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Material co-ordinate system – spatial co-

ordinate system
χ :P→P '

=> x = χ X
~
()
~
Substitute material co-ordinates of the particle in
mapping function => Final position of the particle
Existence of inverse mapping

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Substitute spatial co-ordinates =>
X = χ ( x)−1 Material co-ordinates – which
material occupies the spatial
~ ~
position 7
Mapping
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Variable – velocity, density etc vector /

( )
scalar
φ = φ X ,t Expressed in material csys
( )
~

Mapping : x = χ X
()
~ ~

X = χ −1 x
=> φ = φ (X , t ) = φ (χ (x ), t )
~ ~
−1

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=> φ = φ (x , t )
~ ~

## Expressed in spatial co-ordinate system 8

Displacement
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 In indices notation

x = X + U => xi = X i + ui ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 )
~ ~ ~

##  This relates the current deformed geometry with

initial undeformed geometry of a point
 Displacement field => movement of each point in
initial configuration to final configuration

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 U => rigid body motion and deformation in the
body
 Deformation – important
9
Normal strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Body subjected to loads –

AB => A’B’
AB // A’B’ & AB = A’B’
⇒Rigid body translation
AB // A’B’ & AB = A’B’
A’ B’
⇒Rigid body rotation
B
A AB // A’B’ & AB ≠ A’B’

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⇒Deformation / normal
Strain

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Shear strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Shear strain => distortion

Change in angle
between two lines
C’
=> shear strain
C No change in angle
θ B’
A’
=> shear strain = 0
θo B
A

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Change in angle –
measure of shear
strain / distortion
11
Displacement
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  General motion of a solid –

y y y

x x x
Undeformed state Horizontal extension
Rigid body rotation

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 Rigid body motion
y doesn’t effect strain
y
field – no effect on
stresses
x x
12
Vertical extension Shear deformation
Strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Strain – measure of displacement of a body

 Various measures of strain - definition of strain is
not unique – equally valid definition of strain
 Engineering normal strain – change in
length/original length
 Green-Lagrange strain

## (final length ) − (initial length )

2 2

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E=
~
~
(initial length )2

13
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Green – Lagrange strain

Q' ( x1 + dx1 , x2 + dx2 , x3 + dx3 )

## X2, x2 P' (x1 , x2 , x3 )

II
I

o
X1, x1

Q( X 1 + dX 1 , X 2 + dX 2 , X 3 + dX 3 )
P( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 )
X3, x3

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Xi – undeformed configuration, xi – deformed configuration
14
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

PQ = dS, P’Q’ = ds
PQ 2 = dS . dS = dSi ei .dS j e j = dSi dS j ei . e j
~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~

## Similarly, P ' Q'2 = dsi2 = ds 2

Green – Lagrange strain (E) is defined as,

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2. dX . E . dX = ds − dS = dx . dx − dX . dX
2 2 T T
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ dX = dX 1 e1 + dX 2 e2 + dX 3 e3
dx = dX + dU ~ ~ ~
dx = dx1 e1 + dx2 e2 + dx3 e3
~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
15
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 dU – infinitesimal displacement
function of (X1, X2, X3)

dU = dU ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 )
~ ~

## it is a vector => dU = du1 e1 + du2 e2 + du3 e3

~ ~ ~ ~

dui = dui ( X 1 , X 2 , X 3 )

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Use chain rule
∂ui ∂ui ∂ui
dui = dX 1 + dX 2 + dX 3 = ∇ui • dX
∂X 1 ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ~
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Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Writing in vector form

~ ~
(
dU = dui ei = ∇ui • dX ei
~
) ~

 ∂ui   ∂ui 
dU =  e j • dX k ek  ei =  dX k e j • ek  ei
~  ~ ∂x  ~  ∂x ~
 j ~
  j ~ ~

 ∂ui  ∂ui
=> dU =  
dX k δ jk ei = dX j ei = dui ei
 ∂X  ~ ∂X

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~
 j  j ~ ~

∂ui
=> dui = dX j
∂X j
17
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  The new position is, dxi = dX i + dui

∂ui
use dui = dX j
∂X j
∂ui
dxi = dX i + dX j
∂X j
∂ui  ∂ui 
=> dxi = δ ij dX j + 
dX j = dX j δ ij + 
∂X j  ∂X j 

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 
 
=> dx = dX •  I + ∇ U 
~ ~ ~ ~ 
 ~  18
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Green-Lagrange strain is defined as,

2. dX . E . dX = dx . dxT − dX . dX
T T
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~
T
     
2. dX . E . dX =  dX . I + ∇U  . dX . I + ∇U   − dX . dX
T T
~ ~ ~  ~ ~ ~   ~  ~ ~  ~ ~
~   ~    ~ 
     T
2. dX . E . dX = dX . I + ∇U  .  I + ∇U . dX  − dX . dX
  
T T T
~ ~ ~  ~ ~ ~   ~ ~  ~  ~ ~
~  ~   ~  

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  T
T  T T 
2. dX . E . dX = dX . I + ∇U + ∇U + ∇U .∇U . dX − dX . dX
T
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~  ~ ~ ~
~  ~ 

~
1
~
(
E = ∇U + ∇U T + ∇U .∇U T
2 ~ ~ ~
) 19
~
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

## Green-Lagrange Strain – Normal strains

∂u 1  ∂u   ∂v   ∂w  
 2 2 2

εX = +   +  +  
∂ X 2  ∂ X   ∂X   ∂ X  

∂ v 1  ∂ u   ∂ v   ∂ w  
2 2 2

εY = +   +  +  
∂Y 2  ∂Y   ∂Y   ∂Y  

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∂ w 1  ∂ u   ∂ v   ∂ w  
2 2 2

εZ = +   +  +  
∂Z 2  ∂Z   ∂Z   ∂Z  
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Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

## Green-Lagrange Strain – Shear strains

∂u ∂v  ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
γ XY = + + + + 
∂Y ∂X  ∂X ∂Y ∂X ∂Y ∂X ∂Y 

∂w ∂v  ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
γ YZ = + +  + +
∂Y ∂Z  ∂Z ∂Y ∂Z ∂Y ∂Z ∂Y 

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∂u ∂w  ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w
γ XZ = + +  + +
∂Z ∂X  ∂X ∂Z ∂X ∂Z ∂X ∂Z 
21
Green – Lagrange strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Green-Lagrange strain captures finite deflections,

strains and rotations – non-linear terms
 Infinitesimal strains, rotations => linear terms –
non-linear terms – much smaller than linear terms

∂ui
<< 1
∂x j

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 Small strains known as engineering strains
 Engineering strains – denoted by => εij
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Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

∂v ∂u
v + dy u + dx − u
∂y D’ ∂x ∂u
C’ εx = =
dx ∂x
D
∂v
C
v + dy − v
∂y ∂v
εy = =
dy dy ∂y
∂u
u+ dx
∂x
∂u
y A’(u,v) B’ u+ dx
∂x

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A dx B
x

23
Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 ∂u ∂v  C”
 u + dy, v + dy 
 ∂y ∂y 
 ∂v  D’ D” C’
 u, v + dy 
 ∂y 
D C

θ2  ∂u ∂v 
 u + dx, v + dx 
∂x ∂x 
dy B” 
θ1

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 ∂u 
y A’(u,v) B’  u + dx , v 
 ∂x 
A dx B
x
24
Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Shear strain – Change in the angle

 Initial angle => 900
 Final angle => (900 - θ1- θ2)
 Change in angle => θ = θ1+ θ2
∂v ∂u
v + dx − v u + dy − u
∂x ∂v ∂y ∂u
tan θ1 = = tan θ 2 = =
dx ∂x dy ∂y
∂v

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θ1 ≈ ∂u
θ2 ≈
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂v
γ xy = θ1 + θ 2 ≈ +
∂y ∂x 25
Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  The six strain components –

 Normal strains –
∂u ∂v ∂w
εx = εy = εz =
∂x ∂y ∂z
 Shear strains –
∂u ∂v ∂w ∂v ∂w ∂u
γ xy = + γ yz = + γ zx = +
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z
ε ij = (ui , j + u j ,i )
1
Indices notation -

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2

##  Infinitesimal strains => Green-Lagrange

strain = Engineering Strain 26
Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Rigid body rotations – OP '

= OP + U
~ ~ ~

OP = x i + y j
y
~ ~ ~

P’(y, -x)
U P(x, y) OP '
= − y i+ x j
~ ~ ~
Linear strains –
O x
εxx= εyy = -1, γxy = 0
Non-linear strains –

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εxx= εyy = 0, γxy = 0
Rotated by 900

##  Linear strains can’t capture large rotations use non-

linear strains 27
Engineering strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Assuming engineering – linear strains

Strain tensor
 1 1 
 εx γ xy γ xz 
εx ε xy ε xz   2 2
  1 
[ε ] = ε xy εy
1
ε yz  =  γ xy εy γ yz 
ε xz  2 2 
 ε yz ε y  1
ε y 
1
γ
 2 xz
γ yz
2 

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εij – Tensorial strain
1
γij – Engineering shear strain ε ij = γ ij
2 28
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Displacement gradient tensor – second order

tensor
∂ui
H ij = => H = ∇ U
∂x j ~
~
~

In matrix form
 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 
 
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 
 ∂u 2 ∂u2 ∂u2 

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H ij = ui , j =
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 
 ∂u ∂u3 ∂u3 
 3
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 
29
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Square matrix – sum of symmetric and skew

symmetric matrices
1
(
[M ] = M + M + M − M T
2
T
)1
2
( )
[ M ] = [ S ] + [ A]
1
( )
[ S ] = M + M , [ A] = M − M
2
T 1
2
( T
)

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[ S ]T = [ S ], [ A ]T = −[ A ]

##  [S] – Symmetric tensor, [A] – Skew-symmetric

tensor – Main diagonal terms => 0 30
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##  Decomposing displacement gradient

 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1   ∂u1 1  ∂u1 ∂u2 
 + 
1  ∂u1 ∂u3  
 +  
  ∂x1 2  ∂x2 ∂x1  2  ∂x3 ∂x1  
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  
∂u ∂u 2 ∂u2   1  ∂u1 ∂u2  ∂u 2 1  ∂u 2 ∂u3 
ui , j = 2 =   +   +  +
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3  2  ∂x2 ∂x1  ∂x2 2  ∂x3 ∂x2 
 ∂u 
 3 ∂u3 ∂u3   1  ∂u ∂u  1  ∂u2 ∂u3  ∂u3 
  1 + 3   +  
 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3   2 ∂x ∂x
  3 1  2  ∂x3 ∂x2  ∂x3 
 1  ∂u1 ∂u2  1  ∂u1 ∂u3  
 0  −   −  
2  ∂x2 ∂x1  2  ∂x3 ∂x1  

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 1  ∂u1 ∂u 2  1  ∂u 2 ∂u3 
Zeros in main diagonal   −  0  − 
 2  ∂x2 ∂x1  2  ∂x3 ∂x2 
 1  ∂u1 ∂u3  1  ∂u 2 ∂u3  
  −   −  0 
 2  ∂x3 ∂x1  2  ∂x3 ∂x2   31
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Displacement gradient is sum of infinitesimal

strain tensor and rotation tensor
H =ε+Ω
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~

ui , j = ε ij + Ω ij

ui , j = (ui , j + u j ,i ) + (ui , j − u j ,i )
1 1
2 2

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=> ε ij = (ui , j + u j ,i ) => Symmetric tensor
1
2
Ω ij = (ui , j − u j ,i ) => Skew - symmetric tensor
1
32
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##  If displacement gradient is symmetric

=> ui,j = uj,i
 Rotation tensor becomes zero – only strain tensor
exists
 Displacement gradient = strain tensor

u i , j = u j ,i

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= (ui , j + u j ,i )
1
ui , j
2
33
Rotation vector
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##  Rotation vector is defined as

1
ω = ∇ ×U
~ 2 ~

1 ∂ 1 ∂u j
ω = ei ×u j ej = ei × e j
~ 2 ~ ∂xi ~ 2 ∂xi ~ ~
1 ∂u j 1 ∂u j
ω= ε ijk ek => ω k = ε ijk
~ 2 ∂xi ~ 2 ∂xi
1  ∂u1 ∂u3 

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Say, k = 3, i, j = 1, 2 => ω 3 =  − 
2  ∂x3 ∂x1 

##  ω represents components of rigid body rotations

34
Rotation vector
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Relation between rotation vector and tensor

1 ∂u j
ωk = eijk
2 ∂xi
∂u j
Displacement gradient => = ε ji + Ω ji
∂xi

## ωk = (ε ji + Ω ji ) eijk = − (ε ji e jik + Ω ji e jik )

1 1
2 2

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eijk – skew symmetric matrix in ‘i’, ‘j’

1 1
ω k = − Ω ji e jik => elmkω k = − Ω ji e jik elmk
2 2 35
Rotation vector
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##  Multiplication of two permutations

1 1
ωk = − Ω jie jik => elmkωk = − Ω ji e jik elmk
2 2
e jik elmk = δ jlδ im − δ jmδ il

## elmkωk = − Ω ji (δ jlδ im − δ jmδ il ) = − (Ωlm − Ωml )

1 1

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2 2
− elmkωk = Ωlm
36
Rotation vector
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##  From shear strain

 ∂u ∂v  ∂v ∂u
γ xy =  +  = 0 => = − = constant = c
 ∂y ∂x  ∂x ∂y
∂v ∂u
=> = c, = −c
∂x ∂y
∆y
Integrating these two equations
-∂u/∂y
∂v/∂x
u = uo − cy, v = vo + cx ∆x

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For constant rotation
1  ∂v ∂u 
ω z =  −  => (c + c ) => c = ω z
1
2  ∂x ∂y  2 37
Rotation vector
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  The displacements are

u = uo − ω z y, v = vo + ω z x

##  Extending the same procedure to 3D rigid body

rotations – all shear strains => 0

∂u ∂v ∂w ∂v ∂w ∂u
γ xy = + = 0 γ yz = + = 0 γ zx = + = 0
∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z

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 Integrate these equations – integration constants
38
Rotation vector
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##  Integration constants – rigid body translations and

rotations
u = uo − ω z y + ω y z
v = vo − ω x z + ω z x
w = wo − ω y x + ω x y
 Rigid body translations and rotations don’t
contribute to strains and stresses – may be dropped

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 Basic assumption – small deformation theory
 Small deformation theory – Principle of
superposition
39
Transformation of strain
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Strain – second order tensor

 Transformation rules of any second order tensor –
applicable – ex. Stress tensor
 Transformation of stress tensor σ ij = lim l jnσ mn
'

##  Transformation of strain tensor ε ij' = liml jnε mn

 In matrix notation

[ε ] = [T ][ε ][T ]

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' T

## [T] – Transformation matrix => direction cosines

40
Principal strains
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##  Principal strains – similar to principal stresses –

maximum strains acting on three mutually
perpendicular planes, where shear stresses => 0

## ε x = lε xx + mε xy + nε xz = lε Writing in indices notation

ε y = lε xy + mε yy + nε yz = mε (ε l ij j − δ ij εl j ) = 0

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ε z = lε xz + mε yz + nε zz = nε For non-trivial solution
determinant = 0
41
Principal strains
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 Determinant (ε ij − δ ij ε ) l j = 0
=> ε ij − δ ij ε = 0 Expand this

ε − I1ε + I 2ε − I 3 = 0
3 2
Ii - Invariant
I1 = ε x + ε y + ε z
εx ε xy ε x ε xz ε y ε yz
I2 = + + First invariant I1
ε xy ε y ε xz ε z ε yz εz

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εx ε xy ε xz known as cubical
I3 = εy ε yz dilatation
symm εz
42
Strain decomposition
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Hydrostatic part represents volume deformation –

isotropic tensor – same in all direction
 Volumetric strains – accounts for change in size or
volume only
 Deviatoric strain tensor – accounts for change in
shape – distortion of material
 Physically εd => deviation of strain from 1/3rd of

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pure cubical dilatation
 Tr[εd] = 0 => Trace of deviatoric strain tensor is
zero
43
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Two dimensional stress analysis – three

strain components => εxx, εyy and γxy
 Writing in terms of displacements
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v
ε xx = ε yy = γ xy = +
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

∂ 2ε xx ∂ 3u ∂ 2  ∂u  ∂ 2ε yy ∂ 3v ∂ 2  ∂v 

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= 2 =   = 2 =  
∂y 2
∂y ∂x ∂y∂x  ∂y  ∂x 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y∂x  ∂x 
Add these two equations
∂ 2ε xx ∂ ε yy ∂ γ xy One compatibility equation
2 2

+ =
2
∂x Chennamsetti
2
∂x∂y 44
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  In 3D => six strain compatibility equations

∂ ε xx ∂ ε yy ∂ γ xy
2 2 2 ∂  ∂γ yz ∂γ xz ∂γ xy  ∂ 2ε xx
+ =  − + +  = 2
∂y 2
∂x 2
∂x∂y ∂x  ∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂z∂y
(i = j = 1, k = l = 2) (i = j = 1, k = 2, l = 3)
∂  ∂γ yz ∂γ xz ∂γ xy  ∂ ε yy
2

∂ 2 ε yy ∂ 2 ε zz ∂ γ yz
2
 − +  = 2
+ = ∂y  ∂ x ∂y ∂z  ∂ x ∂z
∂z 2
∂y 2
∂y∂z
(i = j = 2, k = 3, l = 1)
(i = j = 2 , k = l = 3 )

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∂  ∂γ yz ∂γ xz ∂γ xy  ∂ 2ε zz
∂ 2 ε xx ∂ 2 ε zz ∂ 2 γ xz  + −  = 2
+ = ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂ x∂ y
∂z 2
∂x 2
∂x∂z
(i = j = 3, k = l = 1) (i = j = 3, k = 1, l = 2 )
45
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Six strain compatibility equations – no

displacement term appears
 Displacements – integration of strain –
displacement relations
 Six equations – three displacements => over
constraining – can’t get a single valued
displacements – ill-conditioned

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 For well conditioned system => Number of
equations = number of unknowns
 Three more extra equations required
46
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  There exist relations among six strain

components => Strain compatibility
equations – six equation
 Only three of them are independent
 Equation -
Displacements => 3

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Strain-displacement relations => 6
Independent strain compatibility equations => 3
=> Number of unknowns = number of equations
47
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Satisfy strain compatibility equations =>

single valued displacement in the domain
 Conversely – all six strain compatibility
equations satisfied if displacement field is
single valued
 Arbitrary selection of strains – fails to
satisfy strain compatibility equations

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48
Strain compatibility
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Strains are calculated

from displacements
 Compatible – no gaps
and overlaps

##  Arbitrary strain field not

satisfying compatibility
eqns.

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 Integrated to get
displacements
 Gaps & overlaps -
incompatibility 49
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Some geometries – cylindrical – easy to

handle in cylindrical co-ordinates
 Evaluate stress, strains, displacements etc in
that co-ordinate system – ex. Radial and
Hoop stresses
 Two different ways –

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 Use strain-displacement relations in cartesian
co-ordinates – convert to polar co-ordinates
 Derive from polar co-ordinates
50
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  From cartesian csys – ex, ey – unit vectors in

cartesian csys - er, eθ - unit vectors in polar csys
z
ez
eθ ey
P y eθ er
er
P(x, y)
r

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y
r θ
θ eθ ex
x
x er
1
2 ~
(
Cartesian strain => ε ij = ∇ U + ∇ U
T
) 51
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Relation between unit vectors –

ex = er cos θ − eθ sin θ   e 
~ ~ ~  ~x  cosθ
e − sinθ 0 r 
e y = er sin θ + eθ cosθ     ~
ey  = sinθ cosθ 0eθ 
~ ~ ~
~   0 0 1 ~
ez = ez ez   ez 
~ ~
~  ~
   
 xyz 
e = [T ]erθz 
x = r cosθ r =x +
2 2 2  ~   ~ 

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y
y = r sin θ y
Tanθ =
z=z x
52
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  In cartesian csys - gradient

∂ ∂
∇ = ex + ey
~ ∂x ~ ∂y

∂ ∂ ∂r ∂ ∂θ ∂ sin θ ∂
= + = cos θ −
∂x ∂r ∂x ∂θ ∂x ∂r r ∂θ
∂ ∂ ∂r ∂ ∂θ ∂ cos θ ∂
= + = sin θ +
∂y ∂r ∂y ∂θ ∂y ∂r r ∂θ

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Substitute all these
∂ 1 ∂ ∂
∇ = er + eθ + ez
~ ∂r ~ r ∂θ ~ ∂z 53
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

##  Displacement vector in polar csys –

U = u r er + uθ eθ + u z ez
~ ~ ~ ~

##  Gradient of displacement vector –

 ∂ur ∂uθ ∂u z 
∇U =  er er + er eθ + er ez  +
~
 ∂r ~ ~ ∂r ~ ~ ∂r ~ ~ 
 1  ∂ur ∂uθ  1 ∂u z

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 1 
 r  ∂θ − uθ  eθ er + r  ur + ∂θ  eθ eθ + r ∂θ eθ ez  +
  ~ ~  ~ ~ ~ ~ 

 ∂ur ∂uθ ∂u z 
e e + e e + e e
 ∂z ~z ~r ∂z ~z ~θ ∂z ~z ~z 
 
54
Polar co-ordinates
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

 Strain => ε =
~
1
2
[
∇U + ∇U
~ ~
( ) ] T

##  Stain components in polar co-ordinates

Normal strains
∂ur 1 ∂u  ∂u z
ε rr = , ε θθ =  ur + θ , ε =
∂r ∂θ ∂z
zz
r 
Shear strains

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1  ∂uθ 1 ∂u z  1  ∂ur ∂u z  1  1 ∂ur ∂uθ uθ 
εθz =  + , ε zr =  + , ε rθ =  + − 
2  ∂z r ∂θ  2  ∂z ∂r  2  r ∂θ ∂r r 

55
R&DE (Engineers), DRDO

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56