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Mechanics of Materials SI 9th Edition Hibbeler Solutions Manual

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2-1 The center portion of th e rubber balloon has a
diameter of d = 100 mm. If the air pressure
within it cau ses the balloon's diameter to
become d = 125 mm, determine the av erage
normal strain in the rubber.

Given: d0 := 100mm d := 125mm

Solution:

π d − π d0
ε :=
π d0

mm
ε = 0.2500 Ans
mm

Ans:
CE 0.00250 mm mm, BD 0.00107 mm mm
10 5
.

2–2. A thin strip of rubber has an unstretched length of


2–2.
375 mm. A thinIf it strip of rubber
is stretched has ana unstretched
around pipe having length of
an outer
15 in. If it is stretched around a pipe having an outer
diameter of 125 mm, determine the average normal strain diameter
of
in 5the
in.,strip.
determine the average normal strain in the strip.

L
L00 == 375 mm
15 in.
L = p(125 mm)
L = p(5 in.)
L – L0 125p – 375
e5 5 = 0.0472 Ans.
L - L0 5p - 15
mm/mm
= = = 0.0472 in.>in.
L0 15
L0 375

Ans:
P = 0.0472 mm>mm

10 6
.

2–3. The rigid beam is supported by a pin at A and wires


BD and CE. If the load P on the beam causes the end C to D E
be displaced 10 mm downward, determine the normal strain
developed in wires CE and BD.

4m

A B C

3m 2m 2m

¢LBD ¢ LCE
=
3 7

3 (10)
¢LBD = = 4.286 mm
7
¢ LCE 10
PCE = = = 0.00250 mm>mm Ans.
L 4000

¢ LBD 4.286
PBD = = = 0.00107 mm>mm Ans.
L 4000

Ans:
PCE = 0.00250 mm>mm, PBD = 0.00107 mm>mm
107
..

*2–4. The force applied at the handle of the rigid lever


causes the lever to rotate clockwise about the pin B through G F
an angle of 2°. Determine the average normal strain
developed in each wire. The wires are unstretched when the 200 mm 200 mm 300 mm
300 mm
lever is in the horizontal position. E
A B

C D
200 mm
H


Geometry: The lever arm rotates through an angle of u = a b p rad = 0.03491 rad.
180
Since u is small, the displacements of points A, C, and D can be approximated by

dA = 200(0.03491) = 6.9813 mm

dC = 300(0.03491) = 10.4720 mm

dD = 500(0.03491) = 17.4533 mm

Average Normal Strain: The unstretched length of wires AH, CG, and DF are
LAH = 200 mm, LCG = 300 mm, and LDF = 300 mm. We obtain
dA 6.9813
(Pavg)AH = = = 0.0349 mm>mm Ans.
LAH 200
dC 10.4720
(Pavg)CG = L = = 0.0349 mm>mm Ans.
CG 300
dD
= 17.4533 = 0.0582 mm>mm
(Pavg)DF = LDF 300 Ans.

10 8
.

2–5. The two wires are connected together at A. If the force P


causes point A to be displaced horizontally 2 mm, determine
the normal strain developed in each wire. C

30
P
30 A

œ
LAC = 23002 + 22 - 2(300)(2) cos 150° = 301.734 mm


AC - LAC 301.734 - 300
PAC = PAB = = = 0.00578 mm>mm Ans.
LAC 300

Ans:
PAC = PAB = 0.00578 mm>mm

10 9
.

2–6. The rubber band of unstretched length 2r0 is forced


down the frustum of the cone. Determine the average r0
normal strain in the band as a function of z.

2r0 h

Geometry: Using similar triangles shown in Fig. a,


h¿ h¿ +h
= ; h¿ = h
r0 2r0

Subsequently, using the result of h¿


r r r0
= 0; r = (z + h)
z+h h h

Average Normal Strain: The length of the rubber band as a function of z is


2pr0
L = 2pr = (z + h). With L0 = 2r0, we have
h
2pr0
(z + h) -
L - L0 h p
Pavg = 2r0 (z + h) - 1 Ans.
L0 h
= =
2r0

Ans:
p
Pavg = (z + h) - 1
h

11 0
.

2–7. The pin-connected rigid rods AB and BC are inclined P


at u = 30° when they are unloaded. When the force P is
applied u becomes 30.2°. Determine the average normal B
strain developed in wire AC.

u u
600 mm

A C

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a, the unstretched and stretched lengths of wire AD are

LAC = 2(600 sin 30°) = 600 mm

LAC ¿ = 2(600 sin 30.2°) = 603.6239 mm


Average Normal Strain:
LAC ¿ - LAC 603.6239 - 600 -3

(Pavg)AC = = = 6.04(10 ) mm>mm Ans.


LAC 600

Ans:
(Pavg)AC = 6.04(10 - 3) mm>mm

11 1
.

*2–8. Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a u


rigid member CBD and a flexible cable AB. If a force is D
applied to the end D of the member and causes it to rotate
P
by u = 0.3°, determine the normal strain in the cable.
Originally the cable is unstretched. 300 mm

300 mm

A C

400 mm

AB = 24002 + 3002 = 500 mm

AB¿ = 24002 + 3002 - 2(400)(300) cos 90.3°


= 501.255 mm
AB¿ -AB 501.255 - 500
PAB = =
AB 500

= 0.00251 mm>mm Ans.


112
..

2–9. Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a u


rigid member CBD and a flexible cable AB. If a force is
D P
applied to the end D of the member and causes a normal
strain in the cable of 0.0035 mm>mm, determine the
displacement of point D. Originally the cable is unstretched. 300 mm

300 mm

A C

400 mm

AB = 23002 + 4002 = 500 mm

AB¿ = AB + eABAB

= 500 + 0.0035(500) = 501.75 mm

501.752 = 3002 + 4002 - 2(300)(400) cos a

a = 90.4185°
p
u = 90.4185° - 90° = 0.4185° = (0.4185) rad
180°
p
¢ D = 600(u) = 600( )(0.4185) = 4.38 mm Ans.
180°

Ans:
¢ D = 4.38 mm

11 3
.

y
2–10. The corners of the square plate are given the
displacements indicated. Determine the shear strain along A
the edges of the plate at A and B.

16 mm
D B
x
3 mm
3 mm 16 mm

C
16 mm 16 mm

At A:
u¿ 9.7
= tan - 1 a b = 43.561°
2 10.2

u¿ = 1.52056 rad
p
(gA)nt = - 1.52056
2

= 0.0502 rad Ans.

At B:
f¿ 10.2
= tan - 1 a b = 46.439°
2 9.7

f¿ = 1.62104 rad
p
(gB)nt = - 1.62104
2

= - 0.0502 rad Ans.

Ans:
(gA)nt = 0.0502 rad, (gB)nt = - 0.0502 rad

11 4
..

2–11. The corners B and D of the square plate are given y


the displacements indicated. Determine the average normal
strains along side AB and diagonal DB. A

16 mm
D B
x
3 mm
3 mm 16 mm

C
16 mm 16 mm

Referring to Fig. a,

LAB = 2162 + 162 = 2512 mm

LAB¿ = 2162 + 132 = 2425 mm

LBD = 16 + 16 = 32 mm

LB¿D¿ = 13 + 13 = 26 mm
Thus,
LAB¿ - LAB 2425 - 2512
A eavg B AB = = = - 0.0889 mm>mm Ans.
LAB 2512
LB¿D¿ - LBD 26 - 32
A eavg B BD = = = - 0.1875 mm>mm Ans.
LBD 32

11 5
.

2–12

11 6
.

2–13 .

Ans:
PDB = PAB cos 2 u + PCB sin 2 u

11 7
..

2–14. The force P applied at joint D of the square frame 200 mm 200 mm
P D E C
causes the frame to sway and form the dashed rhombus.
Determine the average normal strain developed in wire AC.
Assume the three rods are rigid.
3

400 mm

A
B

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a, the stretched length of LAC ¿ of wire AC¿ can be
determined using the cosine law.

LAC ¿ = 24002 + 4002 - 2(400)(400) cos 93° = 580.30 mm

The unstretched length of wire AC is


LAC = 24002 + 4002 = 565.69 mm
Average Normal Strain:
LAC ¿ - LAC 580.30 - 565.69
(Pavg)AC = = = 0.0258 mm>mm Ans.
LAC 565.69

Ans:
(Pavg)AC = 0.0258 mm>mm

11 8
..

2–15. The force P applied at joint D of the square frame 200 mm 200 mm
P D E C
causes the frame to sway and form the dashed rhombus.
Determine the average normal strain developed in wire
AE. Assume the three rods are rigid.
3

400 mm

A
B

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a, the stretched length of LAE¿ of wire AE can be


determined using the cosine law.
LAE¿ = 24002 + 2002 - 2(400)(200) cos 93° = 456.48 mm

The unstretched length of wire AE is


LAE = 24002 + 2002 = 447.21 mm
Average Normal Strain:
LAE ¿ - LAE 456.48 - 447.21
(Pavg)AE = = = 0.0207 mm>mm Ans.
LAE 447.21

Ans:
(Pavg)AE = 0.0207 mm>mm

11 9
.

*2–16. The triangular plate ABC is deformed into the y


shape shown by the dashed lines. If at A, eAB = 0.0075,
PAC = 0.01 and gxy = 0.005 rad, determine the average
normal strain along edge BC. C

300 mm
gxy

x
A B
400 mm

Average Normal Strain: The stretched length of sides AB and AC are

LAC¿ = (1 + ey)LAC = (1 + 0.01)(300) = 303 mm

LAB¿ = (1 + ex)LAB = (1 + 0.0075)(400) = 403 mm

Also,
p 180°
u = - 0.005 = 1.5658 rad a b = 89.7135°
2 p rad

The unstretched length of edge BC is

LBC = 23002 + 4002 = 500 mm

and the stretched length of this edge is

LB¿C¿ = 23032 + 4032 - 2(303)(403) cos 89.7135°

= 502.9880 mm
We obtain,

LB¿C¿ - LBC 502.9880 - 500


PBC = = = 5.98(10 - 3) mm>mm Ans.
LBC 500

12 0
.

2–17. The plate is deformed uniformly into the shape y


y¿
shown by the dashed lines. If at A, gxy = 0.0075 rad., while
PAB = PAF = 0, determine the average shear strain at point
G with respect to the x¿ and y¿ axes.

F E
x¿
C
600 mm D
gxy
300 mm

x
180° A G B
Geometry: Here, gxy = 0.0075 rad a b = 0.4297°. Thus, 600 mm
p rad 300 mm

c = 90° - 0.4297° = 89.5703° b = 90° + 0.4297° = 90.4297°

Subsequently, applying the cosine law to triangles AGF¿ and GBC¿, Fig. a,

LGF¿ = 26002 + 3002 - 2(600)(300) cos 89.5703° = 668.8049 mm

LGC¿ = 26002 + 3002 - 2(600)(300) cos 90.4297° = 672.8298 mm

Then, applying the sine law to the same triangles,


sin f sin 89.5703°
= ; f = 63.7791°
600 668.8049

sin a sin 90.4297°


= ; a = 26.4787°
300 672.8298

Thus,
u = 180° - f - a = 180° - 63.7791° - 26.4787°

p rad
= 89.7422° a b = 1.5663 rad
180°
Shear Strain:
p p
(gG)x¿y¿ = - u = - 1.5663 = 4.50(10 - 3) rad Ans.
2 2

Ans:
(gG)x¿y¿ = 4.50(10 - 3) rad
121
.

2–18. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular. y


Determine the shear strain gxy at corners A and B if the 5 mm
plastic distorts as shown by the dashed lines. 2 mm
4 mm
2 mm B
C

300 mm
2 mm x
D A
400 mm

3 mm

Geometry: For small angles,

2
a = c = = 0.00662252 rad
302

2
b = u = = 0.00496278 rad
403
Shear Strain:
(gB)xy = a + b

= 0.0116 rad = 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad Ans.

(gA)xy = u + c

= 0.0116 rad = 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad Ans.

Ans:
(gB)xy = 11.6(10 - 3) rad,
(gA)xy = 11.6(10 - 3) rad

12 2
...

2–19. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular. y


Determine the shear strain gxy at corners D and C if the 5 mm
plastic distorts as shown by the dashed lines. 2 mm
4 mm
2 mm B
C

300 mm
2 mm x
D A
400 mm

3 mm

Geometry: For small angles,

2
a = c = = 0.00496278 rad
403
2
b = u = = 0.00662252 rad
302
Shear Strain:
(gC)xy = a + b

= 0.0116 rad = 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad Ans.

(gD)xy = u + c

= 0.0116 rad = 11.6 A 10 - 3 B rad Ans.

Ans:
(gC)xy = 11.6(10 - 3) rad,
(gD)xy = 11.6(10 - 3) rad

12 3
..

*2–20. The piece of plastic is originally rectangular. y


5 mm
Determine the average normal strain that occurs along the
diagonals AC and DB. 2 mm
4 mm
2 mm B
C

300 mm
2 mm x
D A
400 mm

3 mm

Geometry:

AC = DB = 24002 + 3002 = 500 mm

DB¿ = 24052 + 3042 = 506.4 mm

A¿C¿ = 24012 + 3002 = 500.8 mm

Average Normal Strain:


A¿C¿ -AC AC 500.8 - 500
PAC = =
500

= 0.00160 mm>mm = 1.60 A 10 - 3 B mm>mm Ans.

DB ¿ -DB DB 506.4 - 500


PDB = =
500

= 0.0128 mm>mm = 12.8 A 10 - 3 B mm>mm Ans.


124
.
2–21. The rectangular plate is deformed into the shape of a y
parallelogram shown by the dashed lines. Determine the
average shear strain gxy at corners A and B.
5 mm

D C

300 mm

5 mm x
A B
400 mm

Geometry: Referring to Fig. a and using small angle analysis,


5
u = = 0.01667 rad
300
5
f = = 0.0125 rad
400
Shear Strain: Referring to Fig. a,
(gA)xy = u + f = 0.01667 + 0.0125 = 0.0292 rad Ans.

(gB)xy = u + f = 0.01667 + 0.0125 = 0.0292 rad Ans.

Ans:
(gA)xy = 0.0292 rad, (gB)xy = 0.0292 rad

12 5
.
2–22. The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A is y
given a horizontal displacement of 5 mm. Determine the shear
strain, gxy, at A.
45 800 mm

45 A
x¿ A¿
45 5 mm

800 mm

L = 28002 + 52 - 2(800)(5) cos 135° = 803.54 mm


sin 135° sin u
= ; u = 44.75° = 0.7810 rad
803.54 800
p p
gxy = - 2u = - 2(0.7810)
2 2

= 0.00880 rad Ans.

Ans:
gxy = 0.00880 rad

12 6
..

2–23. The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A y
is given a horizontal displacement of 5 mm. Determine the
average normal strain Px along the x axis.
45 800 mm

45 A
x¿ A¿
45 5 mm

800 mm

L = 28002 + 52 - 2(800)(5) cos 135° = 803.54 mm


803.54 - 800
Px = = 0.00443 mm>mm Ans.
800

Ans:
Px = 0.00443 mm>mm

12 7
.
*2–24. The triangular plate is fixed at its base, and its apex A y
is given a horizontal displacement of 5 mm. Determine the
average normal strain Px¿ along the x¿ axis.
45 800 mm

45 A
x¿ A¿
45 5 mm

800 mm

L = 800 cos 45° = 565.69 mm


5
Px¿ = = 0.00884 mm>mm Ans.
565.69

12 8
.
y
2–25. The square rubber block is subjected to a shear
strain of gxy = 40(10 - 6)x + 20(10 - 6)y, where x and y are
in mm. This deformation is in the shape shown by the dashed D
lines, where all the lines parallel to the y axis remain vertical C
after the deformation. Determine the normal strain along
edge BC.
400 mm
Shear Strain: Along edge DC, y = 400 mm. Thus, (gxy)DC = 40(10 - 6)x + 0.008.
dy

Here, = tan (gxy)DC = tan 340(10 - 6)x + 0.0084. Then,


dx

dy = tan [40(10 - 6)x + 0.008]dx x


L0 L0 A B

300 mm
1 300 mm
dc = - e ln cos c 40(10 - 6)x + 0.008 d f `
40(10 - 6) 0

= 4.2003 mm

dy
Along edge AB, y = 0. Thus, (gxy)AB = 40(10 - 6)x. Here, = tan (gxy)AB =
dx
tan [40(10 - 6)x]. Then,

dB 300 mm
dy = tan [40(10 - 6)x]dx
L0 L0
300 mm
1
dB = - e ln cos c 40(10 - 6)x d f `
40(10 - 6) 0

= 1.8000 mm

Average Normal Strain: The stretched length of edge BC is

LB¿C¿ = 400 + 4.2003 - 1.8000 = 402.4003 mm


We obtain,

LB¿C¿ - LBC 402.4003 - 400


(Pavg)BC = = = 6.00(10 - 3) mm>mm Ans.
LBC 400

Ans:
(Pavg)BC = 6.00(10 - 3) mm>mm
129
.

2– 26.

Ans:
1Pavg 2 CA = - 5.59110-3 2 mm > mm

13 0
..

2–27. The square plate ABCD is deformed into the shape y


shown by the dashed lines. If DC has a normal strain y¿ x¿
Px = 0.004, DA has a normal strain Py = 0.005 and at D,
600 mm
gxy = 0.02 rad, determine the shear strain at point E with
A¿ B¿
respect to the x¿ and y¿ axes.
A B

600 mm E

x
D C C¿

Average Normal Strain: The stretched length of sides DC and BC are

LDC¿ = (1 + Px)LDC = (1 + 0.004)(600) = 602.4 mm

LB¿C¿ = (1 + Py)LBC = (1 + 0.005)(600) = 603 mm


Also,
p 180°
a = - 0.02 = 1.5508 rad a b = 88.854°
2 p rad

p 180°
f = + 0.02 = 1.5908 rad a b = 91.146°
2 p rad

Thus, the length of C¿A¿ and DB¿ can be determined using the cosine law with
reference to Fig. a.

LC¿A¿ = 2602.42 + 6032 - 2(602.4)(603) cos 88.854° = 843.7807 mm

LDB¿ = 2602.42 + 6032 - 2(602.4)(603) cos 91.146° = 860.8273 mm


Thus,
LC¿A¿ LDB¿
LE¿A¿ = = 421.8903 mm LE¿B¿ = = 430.4137 mm
2 2

Using this result and applying the cosine law to the triangle A¿E¿B¿, Fig. a,

602.42 = 421.89032 + 430.41372 - 2(421.8903)(430.4137) cos u

p rad
u = 89.9429° a b = 1.5698 rad
180°

Shear Strain:
p p
(gE)x¿y¿ = - u = - 1.5698 = 0.996(10 - 3) rad Ans.
2 2

Ans:
(gE)x¿y¿ = 0.996(10 - 3) rad

13 1
..
*2–28. The wire is subjected to a normal strain that is
(x/L)e–(x/L)
2
2
P
defined by P = (x>L)e - (x>L) . If the wire has an initial x

length L, determine the increase in its length. x

L
1 - (x>L)2
¢L = xe dx
L L0
2

e - (x>L) L L
= -L c d = 31 - (1>e)4
2 0 2

L
= 3e - 14 Ans.
2e

13 2
..

2–29.

Ans:
1Pavg 2AC = 0.0168 mm >mm,
1gA 2 xy = 0.0116 rad

13 3
..

2–30. The rectangular plate is deformed into the shape y


shown by the dashed lines. Determine the average normal
strain along diagonal BD, and the average shear strain at 6 mm
400 mm
corner B.
2 mm 2 mm
6 mm

D C

300 mm
2 mm
x
A B
Geometry: The unstretched length of diagonal BD is 400 mm 3 mm

LBD = 23002 + 4002 = 500 mm

Referring to Fig. a, the stretched length of diagonal BD is

LB¿D¿ = 2(300 + 2 - 2)2 + (400 + 3 - 2)2 = 500.8004 mm

Referring to Fig. a and using small angle analysis,


2
f = = 0.004963 rad
403
3
a = = 0.009868 rad
300 + 6 - 2

Average Normal Strain: Applying Eq. 2,


LB¿D¿ - LBD 500.8004 - 500
(Pavg)BD = = = 1.60(10 - 3) mm>mm Ans.
LBD 500

Shear Strain: Referring to Fig. a,


(gB)xy = f + a = 0.004963 + 0.009868 = 0.0148 rad Ans.

Ans:
(Pavg)BD = 1.60(10 - 3) mm>mm,
(gB)xy = 0.0148 rad

13 4
.

2–31. The nonuniform loading causes a normal strain in


L
the shaft that can be expressed as Px = kx2, where k is a
constant. Determine the displacement of the end B. Also, A B
what is the average normal strain in the rod?
x

d(¢x)
= Px = kx2
dx
L 3
2 kL
(¢x)B = kx = Ans.
L0 3

kL3
(¢x)B 3 kL2
(Px)avg = = = Ans.
L L 3

Ans:
3
kL kL2
(¢x)B = , (Px)avg =
3 3

13 5
.

*2–32 The rubber block is fixed along edge AB, and edge y
CD is moved so that the vertical displacement of any point
in the block is given by v(x) = (v0>b3)x3. Determine the
shear strain gxy at points (b>2, a>2) and (b, a). v (x)
v0
A D

x
B C
Shear Strain: From Fig. a,
b
dv
= tan gxy
dx
3v0 2
x = tan gxy
b3
3v0 2
gxy = tan - 1 a x b
b3

Thus, at point (b>2, a>2),


3v0 b 2
gxy = tan - 1 c a b d
b3 2

3 v0
= tan - 1 c a b d Ans.

4 b
and at point (b, a),
3v0
gxy = tan - 1 c (b2) d
b3

v0
= tan - 1 c 3 a bd Ans.
b

13 6
..

2–33. The fiber AB has a length L and orientation u. If its y


ends A and B undergo very small displacements uA and vB,
B¿
respectively, determine the normal strain in the fiber when vB
it is in position A¿B¿. B
L
u
x
A uA A¿

Geometry:
2
LA ¿B ¿ = 2(L cos u - u A) + (L sin u + vB)2

2 2
= 2L2 + uA + vB + 2L(vB sin u - uA cos u)
Average Normal Strain:
LA¿B¿ - L
PAB =
L
2 2
u + v 2(vB sin u - uA cos u)
= 1 + A 2 B + - 1
A L L

Neglecting higher terms u2A and v2B


2(vB sin u - uA cos u) 21
PAB = B 1 + R - 1
L

Using the binomial theorem:


1 2v sin u 2uA cos u
PAB = 1 + ¢ B - ≤ + ... - 1
2 L L

vB sin u uA cos u
= - Ans.
L L

Ans.
vB sin u uA cos u
PAB = -
L L

13 7
.

2–34. If the normal strain is defined in reference to the


final length, that is,

¢s¿ -¢s
P¿n = lim ¿ a b
p:p ¢s¿

instead of in reference to the original length, Eq. 2–2 , show


that the difference in these strains is represented as a
second-order term, namely, Pn - Pn¿ = Pn Pn¿ .

¢ S ¿ -¢S
PB =
¢S

¢S ¿ -¢S ¢ S ¿ -¢S
PB - PœA = -
¢S ¢S¿

¢ S ¿ 2 -¢S¢S ¿ -¢S¿ ¢S +¢S2


=
¢S¢S¿
¢ S ¿ 2 +¢S2 - 2¢S¿ ¢S
=
¢S¢S¿
(¢ S ¿ -¢S)2 ¢ S¿ -¢S ¢ S¿ -¢S
= = ¢ ≤¢ ≤
¢S¢S¿ ¢S ¢S¿

= PA PœB (Q.E.D)

13 8
Mechanics of Materials SI 9th Edition Hibbeler Solutions Manual
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