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No iuni generale

3.1.3. Înfáçurári de curent alternativ

y !
" #
$ !
%
2
%
m
& ' (
' zona de dus)
' zon de întors. &
Nc
N c = 2mpq * +
' # înf urarea întreag
$ %
,

! ! # -

2 p
= # !
Nc
/
# !
. ( N c , p)
/
Nc
= 0 1 # * 2
mt
# " )
Nc
= # )
m
Nc
= # " * 3
2m
4 !
5 0

3.1.3.2. Înfáçurári trifazate íntr-un singur strat


$ % " #
N c = 24 p = 2 m = 3 ) t=2 5

$ ! * 2 * 3 )
2 2
5$ = /
= = # * 5*
24 6
Nc
*$ =4 )
2m

- 4 # 5 * 6 %
$ # ! !
2
!
3
7 + 2 3 8 / 9 : 5 55
6 /
# A/ B / C / 6
! %

%
; #

Fig. 3.23. Steaua t.e.m.


# pentru înf surarea analizat .
! - % #
<
– =
! )
*
– # #

> # * 56 ? " # > # * 5+ (


= # * 5* =

3.1.3.3. Înfáçurári trifazate ín douá straturi


,
,
y=y !
=

@ #
/
#

Nc
/ #
m
# # ? # * 58

N c = 18 p = 2 m = 3 q = 3 / 2 4
6 0

> # * 58 $

3.1.3.4. Înfáçurári ín colivie


; ! "
Nc

# * 59

> <
N = 1/ 2 Fig.3.29. Înf urare
m = Nc ! # în colivie.

3.2.2. T.e.m. indusá íntr-o ínfáçurare de curent alternativ


$ 0 A B #
# * *5 / ! 0 0 v
1 0 0 A0 B # 0 ! 0 1
- 1 " 1 0 0
A B 1 A
0 0 $ 1 ! 1 0
1 #0 1 0
+

T.e.m. indusá de armonica fundamentalá de spaþiu A


# B1 C ! 0 1
! A0
f 1 = pn * 52
2 p
# =
Nc
$ 0 U ec1 ! !0
01 " 0 # # li ,
1
U ec1 = B1li v * 53
2
B v = Dn = 2 p n
1
U ec1 = B1l i 2 p n * 58
2
> % 0
2
1 = B1 ( x)l i dx = l i B1 sin xdx = B1 l i * 59
0 0

U ec1 = f1 1 * *:
2
1 = 0 0 1 0
# # * *5 0 1 0 # % 0
( 0 0 ! # x
0# 1 B
1 A B #
> 1
0 1 x, 0#
1 B 1 A
B #
1 A0 # 1
x 0 A # # ) 0
# * ** 0 U eci1 47 ( =
1 % =c
2 0

> # * *5 / A A > # * ** C 01 "


# 0 1 A0
01 0 1 #

& B @
U ec1 = R U eci1 = 2 R sin **
2
U eci1 = U ec1 K i1 * *5
c c
K i1 = sin * **
2 2
1 0 B 0
1 0
C 0 1 " 0 U es1 A 0
1 D # 5 *:
y
# # * *6
y
y
U es1 = 2U eci1 sin = 2U eci1 K s1 * *6
2 y
y
/ K s1 = sin
2 y
1 0 0 y = y K s1 = 1).
T.e.m. indusá íntr-o bobiná cu sb spire
3
U eb1 = s bU es1 * *+

> # * *6 C 01 " 0 > # * *+ C 01


0

C ' 1 0 0
q
U eq1 = (U ebk )1 ( 1 0 #
k =1

(U eb1 )1 = (U eb 2 )1 = ... = (U ebk )1 = ... = (U ebq )1 * *2


2 p
= )/ # A A 0 1 1 "
Nc
0@
q
U eb1 = 2 R sin ; U eq1 = 2 R sin * *3
2 2
sin q
U eq1 = qU eb1 K r1 K r1 = 2
q sin
2
/ K r1 0 B " U eq1
0 , 1 0 1 #0 1 0
#
U e1 = 2 pU eq1 * 6:

U e1 = 4 pqsb K i1 K s1 K r1 f1 1 *6
2
& 0 0 N = 2 pqsb
K B1 = K i1 K s1 K r1 1 0 0
8 0

U e1 = 2 f 1 NK B1 1 * 65
@ A ! 0 1 0 0 1 "
U e1 = pU eq1 N = pqsb
2. T.e.m. indusá de armonica de ordinul B
1
= ) p = p
2 p
= = * 62
Nc
> ! A 0
f = p n = pn = f1 * 63
Ue = 2 f NK B * 68
3. T.e.m. indusá pe o fazá 0 A

Ue = U e2 * +5
=1
- 0 y 1 0 c !
A 0
! A 1 0
$ 1 ! 0
0 !c B y B
y

Cãmpul magnetic pulsatoriu


( 0 0 0
B 1 ( x, t ) = B 1 sin x sin t * 29
!0 0 ! B #
1 A ! 1
0 # 0 0 ! > # * *9 /B #
B # # * *9
@ A 0
<
1 1
B 1 ( x, t ) = B 1 sin t x + B 1 sin t+ x * 3:
2 2
9
$" A 0 B # 1 !B
# ! # 1 ! ) B
A !
f
nd = vd = 2 f *3
p
! ! <
f
ni = vi = 2 f * 35
p

3.3.2. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular


1. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular produs pe cale electricá
$ 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0
1 - 1 0 0
0
A<
i A = 2 I sin t
2
i B = 2 I sin t * 3*
3
4
iC = 2 I sin t
3
/ B
0 1 0 0 > # * 6: -
1 - 1 1 B #
A % # * 6: B B # 1 !B
! 0 0 B
1 !B <
1 1
B A ( x, t ) = B sin t x + B sin t+ x
2 2
1 1 4
B B ( x, t ) = B sin t x + B sin t+ x * 36
2 2 3
1 1 8
B C ( x, t ) = B sin t x + B sin t+ x
2 2 3
: 0

$" # A 1 % 4 .:
0
/B A 1 ! <
3
B ( x, t ) = B sin t x * 3+
2
0 0 0 0 1
( 0 ! B A
<
B ( x , t ) = B ( x + x, t + t ) * 32
0<
t x= (t + t ) (x + x) * 33
( 0 A <
x f
v= =2f n= * 38
t p
( !E: B #
01 ! % ;% # * 6
( 0 0 0 1 0 A
" 0<
3
B ( x, t ) = B sin t + x * 39
2
0 0 0 ! 0 1 !
( 0 A <
x f
vi = = 2f ni = * 8:
t p
( vi < 0 B # !
01 # ! % ;% # * 6

2. Cãmpul magnetic ínvãrtitor circular produs pe cale mecanicá


$ 0 0 0 A # * 65
1 0 % A 0 0
( 01 B #
A # 1
0 0
A 0 " A0 % A0
4@ # * 65 % B # -
A % A0 # ! <
B ( x) = B sin eR = B sin p gR

eR " # %
A0 4 @ %
)
gR " # #
$ 0
A0 % A0 4$
0 gSR " # #
% 0 ) gS "
# # 1 A0 > # * 65 -
4$ B < B #
gS = gSR + gR * 85 1 !B 0
( 0 0 %
% A 0 # 0 ! 0
B # A 4$
A *8 * 85 ! A B # A <
B ( x) = B sin p ( gS gSR ) * 8*
/ B 0 .: 1 A <
A.R. A.S . gSR = t p gS = eS = x * 86
1 A <

B ( x, t ) = B sin( p gS p t ) = B sin x t * 8+

$" A B # 1 !B
0 ! # 0 1 1 0
F B 0 A 0 1 B
0

1. MAÇINA SINCRONÁ
1.PÁRÞI COMPONENTE ÇI MATERIALE UTILIZATE
0 0 ! 0
0 A # 0 A n1 = 60 f 1 / p ,
5 0

0 0 B #
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
% A
0 0 #
( 0 !0 !
1 A A
# 0 A ! 0 0
" 0 A
# 5 0 A ! 0 0
" 0 1 A - A A
1

># $ A ! 0 0 ># 5 $ A ! 0 0
" 0 0 A " 0 0 1 A

A 0 # 1 A
# turbogenerator 0 0
0 hidrogenerator 0 0 0
C # # 1 A
A A 0
# # 0 A 1
A 0 ! <
(. "5 – ) . 2"3 " # #
G # # A
A A 0 1
A ! 0 0 % ! !
*
< (. 6" 2 – ) . "5 " #
#
Statorul 0 %0
! 0
0A !
Rotorul 0
B 1 0 ! ! < A
! 1 A

1.1.1. Párþile componente ale statorului


Carcasa #
A 0 A 1
A 0 0
Miezul feromagnetic al statorului B #
! 1 0 0 0 0
% # :+
( 0 # 0 H5:"5+ 0
# ! A % 0
0 - # 0 ! ! !
# ! ! A
0 0 , # 0
0
C !0 0 0
Înfáçurarea statorului e 1 0 0 1 " 1
! % 0 0
01 0
> 1 0 0 0
A A
0 ,
! F.*" + IJ ,
1 0 0 0 B "

1.1.2. Párþile componente ale rotorului


A. Rotorul cu poli aparenþi
$ 0 A
+:: K B !
6 0

, 1 !
1 0 0 % A
@ A 1 # = #
1 0 % A
Miezul feromagnetic al polilor % 0 1
0 A # "5 + #

># - 0 0< " 0 0 )


5" 0 0) *" =0 B # ) 6" 0 )
+" # .

- = # 1
1 0 B 0 # 0
01 C 0 0
/B B
A A 0 % 0 0 0
0 =
Infáçurarea de amortizare (de pornire în asincron) 0
1 0 1 0 0
7 A 0 # 0 % 0
" 1 0 # 0
" 1 0
Infáçurarea de excitaþie % 0 0

B. Rotorul cu poli înecaþi


$ 0 1 A 0 0 %0
! ! #
Miezul feromagnetic al rotorului B 0
::: IJ4 % 0 A
+
1 % 0 !
# 5
C A 1
A 0 0 5K*
K*
- A
#
! # *
% 0 A =
A0
0 " A B 0 0
A B # 6
Infáçurarea de excitaþie 0 % ! 5K*
% 0 0 1 0
/ 1 0 0 1
= %
Infáçurarea de amortizare 0 !
1 0
0

1.2. PROCESUL DE REACÞIE AL INDUSULUI

, A 1 # 1 0 % 0 B #
1 0 % A /B A 0 1 0
B A $ A
A 0 B
<
" ! )
" A 0 # )
"1 0 0 )
" A 1 0 0 )
" A 1 0 0 0)
# 0 0

1.2.1. Reacþia indusului la maçina cu poli plini


Cãmpul magnetic inductor
, 0 0 1 0 % A 0 1
0 0 5K* A % A
2 0

A 0 ( 1
!B 1 ! A A A
# 0<
µo ( x)
B E ( x) = E
//
2p ( x)
0 A B #
A 0 <
E (x) " A % A 0 )
" 0 )
//
( x) "1 !
0 1 ! A A 0
/ kC # A
ks <
( x) = k s k C ( x )
//
5
# + 0
A 0 0 0
# 0 0 1
1 0
% A IE
B
/ # #
$ 1
0 0 ># + $ A
BE B 0 B #
0 0
B E1
( 1 0
0 0 # = 0 $ 0
% # 0 % ' % ! 0
Reac"ia transversalá a indusului
! 1 0 !0 = (U eE , I ) = 0 -
# # 2 L I = I q ( I d = 0) L
a 0 L0 L E /2
0 0 ! 0 1' 1 % d1 , d 2
3
# 2 , M # L
1 # # /@
1 0 ! L0 M #
( ! L =0 L
! 0

># 2 @ L ! 0 <
– A 0 A B
A 0) " #

N # 2 0 ! L L
L 0 ! 1
% ! % 01 % '
( 01 = ct., L 0
B A 0 # 0 <
µo aq ( x)
Baq ( x) = //
+
2p ( x)
; !0 0 # 0 A L
1 0 A B ! 2 0
# A A ! 1 # 3 # 3
# A # A <
a) Maçiná nesaturatá
# 0 # 3
A # 01 1 0 ! BE
8 0

, # A 0 1 0
0 A # ! Bmin 0 0
A ! 2 0 A M max

># 3 A ! 1 0 0<
" 0 0) " 0 0

> % A 1 # A
S abcd A 1 0 S ABcd
( # 0 A 0
# G7 # 0 # G4
# 0 0 0 0 0
0 # # %
0 A 1 0 #
A 1 # = E
b) Maçiná saturatá
# 0
# 3 ! $ A
# $ ! 0 0 A 0
# # 0 A
S abcd ! S ABcd 0 % 0
A 1 0 B A 1 #
< E
Efectele reacþiei transversale sunt urmátoarele:
- # # )
" % 1 ! 0 A0 % 0
# 0)
9
" 0 % 0 A 1 0 A0
1 # 0 A #

Reacþia longitudinalá a indusului ín cazul = /2


0 !0 #
8 0 I = I d ( I q = 0) $ ! 0 0 0
'
L # 8 1 1 % !
, M L 1 /@
# # 1 B

># 8 @ L # 0 = /2
– A 0 A B
A # 0) " #

/ % # 0 %0 B A
! "= /2 L # 0
$ L 0 M L
= 0 M I, I E ) L
/ 0 # 8 M L
# N # 0 ! ! L L
L 0
Reacþia longitudinalá a indusului ín cazul = /2
0 !0 #
9 0 1 I = I d ( I q = 0) $ ! 0
0 0 A 0 0!
5: 0

, M L 1
# # 1
B

># 9 @ L # 0 = /2
– A 0 A B
A # 0) " #

@ L # # 1
# 9 !0 0 L 0 r

1.3. ECUAÞIILE DE TENSIUNI §I DIAGRAMELE


FAZORIALE
1.3.1. Generatorul sincron cu poli ínecaþi
- A
0 1 0 0
$ 0
" O 1 #
0 % 1 0 0
/ B
0
# # 0 A <
Ri + u = $u e
" <
@ " A 1 0 0 0) > # 5* 0
" )
5
" )
$u e " 1 1 0
- 0 # A
#
d
$u e = 5
dt
" % 0 1 0
$ 1 ! 0 % 0 <
= E+ a+ % *
E " % )
a " % A )
% " %
4 % 0 0 A <
E = Nk B E

a = La i 6
% = L% i
& " 0 0 1 0 0 )
kB " =)
E " % )
La " ! 0 B A )
L% " ! 0 B
- 1 % 1 A 88 A <
$u e = u eE + u ea + u e% +
u eE " 0 B )
u ea " 0 B )
u e% " 0 B
0 A 1 ! 0
0 0<
u = u eE + u ea + u e% Ri 2
- A 0
0 0 ! 1 1 2 /3
! 4 /3
55 0

# 1 %
A A 0 0<
U = U eE + U ea + U e% RI 3
! ! ! A <
U eE = j 2 fNK B E

U ea = jX a I 8
U e% = jX % I
Xa " A 0 B A )
X% " A 0 B
4!B 0 A 3 1 # 56 " #
0 0 ! !0 1 # 5+
# 0 ! !0

> # 56 ( # 0 > # 5+ ( # 0
0 ! !0 0 ! !0

Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá transformatá


$ 1 ! A <
U ea + U e% = j ( X a + X % ) I 9
X s = X a + X% 5:
Xs " A 0
/
U es = jX s I 5
5*
A 0 <
U = U eE + U es R I 55
( # 01 # 52 0 ! !0

Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá simplificatá


# = 0 0 A0
U = U eE + U es 5*
( # 0 0 01 # 53

> # 52 ( # 0 > # 53 ( # 0
0 0

1.3.2. Generatorul sincron cu poli aparenþi


0 0 # 1 A
0 1 0 # 5* $ 0
" O 1 #
Ri + u = $u e 56
d
$u e = 5+
dt
" % 0 1 0
= E + ad + aq + % 52
E " % )
ad " % A 0 % # 0)
aq " % A 0 % ! 0)
% " %
Lad " ! 0 B A # )
56 0

Laq " ! 0 B A ! )
id " # 0 )
iq " ! 0
- 1 % 1 A 5+ A <
$u e = u eE + u ead + u eaq + u e% 58
u ead " 0 B A # )
u eaq " 0 B !
0 A 1 ! 0
u = u eE + u ead + u eaq + u e% Ri 59
# 1 %
A A 0 0<
U = U eE + U ead + U eaq + U e% RI *:
! ! ! A <
U eE = j 2 fNK B E

U ead = jX ad I d
*
U eaq = jX aq I q
U e% = jX % I
X ad " A 0 B A # ) X aq "
A 0 B A !

> # 58 ( # 0 > # 59 ( # 0
0 ! !0 0 ! !0
5+
4!B 0 A *: 1 # 58 " #
0 0 ! !0 1 # 59
# 0 ! !0
Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá transformatá
/ B 0 0 %
A 0 0 <
U ead + U eaq + U e% = jX ad I d jX aq I q jX % ( I d + I q ) *5
0
X d = X ad + X %
**
X q = X aq + X %
Xd " A 0 # 0 )
Xq " A 0 ! 0
/ 0
U ed = jX d I d
*6
U eq = jX q I q
U = U eE + U ed + U eq RI *+
- A # 0
01 # *: 0 ! !0

Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá simplificatá


# = 0 0 A0
U = U eE + U ed + U eq *2
( # 0 0 01 # *

> # *: ( # 0 ># * ( # 0
0 0
52 0

1.4. CUPLAREA ÍN PARALEL


A GENERATOARELOR SINCRONE

& 0 1 # <
" # B 0
)
" A 0 # 1 1 0
A 1 A B # B ! ! )
" 0 ! A
N ! ! 0 1
1 1 0 O 0# L
# *5 # ** 0 1 0 A <
J ! # A 0 #
5 $ # A 0
* # ! A # A
6 0 0
# 0 0
Verificarea condiþiilor çi modul de índeplinire al acestora
- A # ! 0 0
! = 0 0 0 # A ( 0
A 1 0 0 % A
# Ug <U 0 U g >U
B 0 B A #
5 - ! A !
# A !
= 0 0 = #
1 !B
Montajul la stingere
0 # *5
# # A 1
# *5 ( 0 0
U1 , U 2 , U 3 0 1 # *5
# #
( 0 1 0 L
1 0 N 1 O 1 L 0
53
L L M
1 # L

> # *5< " = # #


L ) " # 0
# L U 1, U 2 , U 3
0

- % 1 = #
*5 ! 0
L # "
! 7/ $
!0 0 ! U1, U 4 , U 5
0 ! # !
/ 1 A ! ! 0
# A ! 0 L

Montajul la foc ínvãrtitor


$ 0 # ** #
# A 1 # **
- 0 U1, U 2 , U 3
0 0 B 1 !B
( 0 1 0 L
1 0 $ !0 0
! U1, U 4 , U 5 #
- 1 A ! ! 0 #
A ! 0 L
58 0

> # **< " = 1 !B #


L ) " # 0
# L U 1, U 2 , U 3
0

* J A # ! A # A
= ( 0 ! L # 1
% L !0 %0
0 0 0
( 0 ! L 0 0 ! !
# 0 r g r , g L L # $
!0 0 U ! 01 0 0
- 1 A 0 A
! A # B 0 B A # 0
6 4 A 1 0
! 0 montajului la stingere 1
1 O 1 # 0
= 0 # / M
! L M 0
1 M 1 L
montajului la foc ínvãrtitor A 1 0 B
0 0 0A
#
Consecinþe ín cazul nerespectárii condiþiile
59
0 A #
1 0 # 0 A A
A ! ( 0 U g >U
# 0 A 0 !0 A !
Ug <U ! 0
5 4 A !
A 0 1 0 0 1 0 # 0
A A 1 (
0 A
* ( 0 ! A # A #
1 A 0 A 0
! 00
6 & A 6 0 # B
# 0 1 0 A
0 A ( 0
# 0 B A

1.5. CUPLUL ELECTROMAGNETIC AL MA§INII


SINCRONE

1.5.1. Bilanþul puterilor active la generatorul sincron


# *6 A A
0 <
P1 " 0 0
)
PM " # 0
0)
P2 " 0 0 )
p m +v " ! A )
PFe " 1 1

# ) > # *6 7 A
PCu " 1 1 0 !
#
Ecuaþia de miçcare ín regim staþionar
7 A ! <
*: 0

P1 = PM + p m + v *9
( 0 0 A 1 "! # 0 0
A A 1 # A <
M1 = M + M 0 6:

1.5.2. Cuplul çi puterea electromagneticá


$ # = 0 1 1 0
PM ' P2 = mUI cos " 6
( # 0 0
A # *+ 0
"= 65
A A 6
0 A <
PM = mUI cos cos +
6*
+ mUI sin sin
$ 1 ! 0
I d = I sin si I q = I cos 66
( # 0 1
# *+ A
0 0 %
U U cos U sin
I d = eE Iq =
Xd Xq
N L0 A
> # *+ ( # 0
6* 66 6+ A
0
0 # <
A

mUU eE mU 2 1 1
PM = sin + sin 2 62
Xd 2 Xq Xd
/ # 0 1 0A A
! # 0
p - mUU eE mU 2 1 1 *
M = + sin + sin 2 ( 63
+, X d 2 Xq Xd ()
$ !0 0 ! # 0 B
0 <
*
-Componenta principalá % 0 0
0 % A
p mUU eE
M/ = sin 63
Xd
"Componenta auxiliará % 0 A
0 0 0 % <
p mU 2 1 1
M =
//
sin 2 63
2 Xq Xd
0 0 !0
Q = mUI sin " = mUI sin( )=
68
= mUI sin cos mUI sin cos
1 Id , Iq A <
mUU eE mU 2 1 1 mU 2
Q= cos + cos 2 69
Xd 2 Xq Xd Xq
$ !0 0 ! 0 0 0
% A 0 % 0 0 0
0 % 1 0 0

Caracteristica unghiular staticá <


1U = ct.
.
PM , M = f ( ) 0 f = ct. +:
. I = ct.
/ E
La maçina cu poli ínecaþi 1 A
0 0 % ! # A 0
Xd = Xq = Xs +
/ # 0 0
p mUU eE
M =M/ = sin +5
Xs
# 0 01 # *2 0
La maçina cu poli aparenþi 0
# 0 # *2
*5 0

> # *2 / # 0 M = f( ) # <
" 1 A) " A

; !0 # *2 0
# 0 1
# !

1.6. CARACTERISTICILE DE FUNCÞIONARE ALE


GENERATORULUI SINCRON

1.6.1. Caracteristicile generatorului sincron autonom


1.Caracteristica de funcþionare ín gol
4 0 0 0 A0 <
1n = ct.
.
U 0 = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. +*
.I = 0
/
U0 A 1 # U 0 = U eE
( U eE
L 0 %
% A #
A 1 #
U 0 = f (I E ) 0 0
0 #
= f (U mm )

- > # *3 /
0 < A 1 #
**
% A !0 A 0 /B
= # 1 A 0 B % ! 0
0 0 0 % A ( 0 0 #
1 0 0 % A ! ! 0 $
0 0 0 B # 0
0 0
2.Caracteristica de scurtcircuit
0 = L
1 f = ct.
I sc = f ( I E ) 0 +6
/U = 0
, A 1 0 0 0 B
A PEE@ ! 1 /2
@ L # N M
M # 1 L L0 L
1 # 0 M #

@ L I sc = f ( I E ) 0 0 !
0 1 1 L ,
! ! L 0
M
0
N M L #
L 0 )
% L ++
! 0

3. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ín sarciná


L
1 I = ct.
.
U = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. +3
.cos " = ct.
/
; L0 0 0 1 0 !0
" =0 / 1 # 0
. .: 01 0
*6 0

! " 0
. " G 0

> # 6: / 1 0 ># 6 / %
# #

4. Caracteristicile externe
L
1 I E = ct.
.
U = f ( I ) 0 f = ct. +8
.cos " = ct.
/
( 0 % 0 1 M # ! UN , IN
! " = / 2) 1 M L
# 0 0 0 M
1 1 F
, 0 !0 # M 1
! 0
1 #

5. Caracteristicile de reglare
4 L
*+
1U = ct.
.
I = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. +9
.cos " = ct.
/
> I E0 % L
#
L M 1 #
! F 0 N # 65 "
F .
! "
( 0 !
(" = / 2) 1 0 # > # 65 /
L # 0 # #
# 0 U e'
F /
# 0 L F. 0 0
% L

1.6.2. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ale generatorului sincron


cuplat la reþea
1.6.2.1. Funcþionarea generatorului sincron la cuplu constant çi
curent de excitaþie variabil
a) Funcþionarea ín gol
> 0 0
L L
0 0 L
.: U eE = U
=0 # # 6*
$" I Eo "
% A A 1 #
# 0 U eE = U
( 0
% L I E > I Eo U eE 1 > # 6* "! L 1 0 0
# =0 A 0 Rs !
*2 0

U eE U U
I= = 2:
jX s jX s
1 0 L0 # #
# 6*
# 0 !0 1 L
! 0 ! % A = # 1
A
( 0 L0 L 1 # % L I E < I Eo
I L 0 1 U eE #
!0 L # 0 # 6*
4 0! A #
1 J A 1 # P2 = 0 01 # 6+
N 0 0 % L 00
0 1 !0
% L 0 0 0
! 1 A cos " = 0,8

c) Caracteristicile ín V
- 1
J <
1U = ct.
.
I = f ( I E ) 0 f = ct. 2
. P = ct.
/
N # 0 "
1 0
L 0
0 0
/ I = f (I E ) L
J
/ 01
> # 6+ / 1 J
!M 1 J 0
! 1 0 0 !
! L 0 ! -.
# % QH: # % QE:
*3
1.6.2.2. Funcþionarea generatorului sincron la cuplu variabil
çi curent de excitaþie constant
( 0 L 0 # #
2 8 0 L
U eE , U 0 U eE 1
0 I !0 0 ! 0 ( # 0 0 0
1 # 62 / I 0 !0 0 U

L 0 #
!0 L
( 0
0 L
U eE
0 1 0 L0
U # 0 "
# 0
! # 62 $
!0 0 0
0 !0 # !0 > # 62 J A 1 0 0 !
!0 L
0 L 01 #
, % L B
01 1 0 !0 0
0 0 1 # #
a) Stabilitatea staticá a maçinii sincrone
$ 0 0 #
L 1 L P= f( ) M
! 0
- 0 0 #
1 A # 63
4 A 0 # 0
A 1 # A ! <
M1 = M + M 0 25
( 0 M1
/ /
M 1 0 # 0 0 0
*8 0

0 # D /
# A 1 4D A
M1 = M + M 0
/ /
2*

> # 63 $ 0 <
! 1 A) ! A

0 M1
//
M 1// D 0 0 # 0 0
0 0 # R
A ! # A 1 4R A 0
M 1
//
= M + M0
//
26
$ 0 A 7
# 1 A 1 # A 25
# 0 B
/
M1 M1 D 0 # 1
/
1 0 0 # M ///
/ # 1 B/ 0 1
A 0
zona de funcþionare stabilá #
0 # = ( 0 ÷ / 2) zona instabilá
= ( /2÷ ) # 63 63 "
0 A 0 #
1 0 0 ( !0 0 #
20 ÷ 30
o o
B 1 0 )
P 1
K m = M max = = 2 ÷ 2,5 2+
PMN sin N
*9
1.8. FUNCÞIONAREA GENERATORULUI SINCRON ÍN
REGIM STAÞIONAR NESIMETRIC

A % # !
A B A "
A B 0 0
A ! B !

$ # 1
0 A
0 <
# = 0 A 1 A 0)
# 0

A 0 <
A 0 I A , I B , IC A I Al , I Bl , I Cl )
0 U A, UB , UC
# 0
1 ! 0 A 0 ! 0 0
Z d = R + jX d Z i = R + jX i Z h = R + jX h 39
Zd " A 0 A B
B A 1 )
Zi " A ! 0 A B
B 1 )
Zh " A 0 A B
# B % 0 B
#
4 # A 0
1 A <
" 0 )
" ! 0 0 )
"
> A0 # 0 1 0 0
1 0
@ A
V a,V b,V c 1 <
6: 0

Vh 1 1 1 Va
1 2
Vd = 1 a a Vb 8:
3
Vi 1 a2 a Vc
! ! 0
Va 1 1 1 Vh
2
Vb = 1 a a Vd 8
Vc 1 a a2 Vi
I Ai
F # 0 3 5%
I Ad

1.8.1. Regimul de scurtcircuit bifazat al


generatorului sincron
/ 0 0 0
1 % A B 1 "
# 0 # +5
0 0
0 1

A A < > # +5 $
I A = 0 ) I B = I C = I k2 #
U BC = U B U C = 0 8*
- A 0
0 0 1 ! 0 4 <
1 1 1
.U Ah = 3 (U A + U B + U C ) = 3 (U A = 2U B )
.
.
(
1
3
1
) [
0U Ad = U A + aU B + a U C = U A + U B (a + a )
2

3
2
] 86
.
. 1
( 1
) [
.U Ai = 3 U A + a U B + aU C = 3 U A + U B (a + a )
2 2
]
/
( A 86 !0 0 U Ad = U Ai
6
1 1
. I Ah = 3 (I A + I B + I C ) = 0
.
. 1
3
( 2
) 1
3
2 1
0 I Ad = I A + a I B + a I C = I B (a a ) = I k 2 (a a )
3
2
82
.
.
(
1
) 1
. I Ai = 3 I A + a I B + a I C = 3 I B (a
2 2 1
a) = I k 2 (a 2 a)
3
/
$ !0 0 ! 0 0 <
I Ad = I Ai 83
( A # 1 0
U U es = U + jX s I = U eE 88
4 0 A 0 4 0
0 B B
0 ! A <
U Ad + jX d I Ad = U eA
U Ai + jX i I Ai = 0 89
U Ah + jX h I Ah = 0
( 0 0 A 89 1 !
A 8+ 0<
jX d I Ad jX i I Ai = U eA 9:
A A 83 0<
U eA U eA
I Ad = = j 9
j( X d + X i ) Xd + Xi
4 1 ! !0 ! <
U e0
I Ad = 95
Xd + Xi

> # +* ( # < " )


" A 0 ! 0
65 0

# +* " # 0 1
1 0 0 / 0 1 0
/ 2 A0 0 1 4 B #
A 0 ! 0 # +*
# +*
- A # 0
<
I k 2 = I B = I Bd + I Bi + I Bh =
9*
= a 2 I Ad + a I Ai + 0 = I Ad (a 2 a)
$ 1 ! A <
2
1 j 3
a=e + j 3
=
2 2
4
96
j 1 3
a2 = e 3 = j
2 2
1 1 9* A B 9 A <
U eA
I k 2 = j 3 I Ad = 3 9+
Xd + Xi
/ ! !0 ! <
U e0
Ik2 = 3 92
Xd + Xi

1.10. MOTORUL SINCRON

0 ! 0 1
L
#
( 0 0
% L 0 0 M 01 A0
% M 1 !M
" #
L # / > # 26 0
# A 63 0
B A 0 # !
6*
0 ! ! 4 0 0 M 1 0
0 M 0 M = M arb

1.10.1.Ecuaþia de tensiuni çi diagrama fazorialá


# 26 " 1 0
! " 0 0 #
A 0 4 B "
O 0 A 1 ! <
Ri u = $u e 6:
( # A # A <
d
$u e = 6
dt
% 0 1 0 0 <
= E + ad + aq + % 65
E " % 1 0 % A )
ad " % A 0 % # 0)
aq " % A 0 % ! 0)
% " %
A A A 0
0<
u = u eE u ead u eaq u e% + Ri 6*
# 1 %
U = U eE U ead U eaq U e% + R I 66
/ = A 0 # 0
! 0 !0 1
A # 2+ ! ! # 22
- !0 0 A P1 = mUI cos " > 0
# <0 0 U eE 1 U
# #
! 0 0 L L 0
% L 0 !0 1 L
Q = mUI sin " < 0 B % 0 # 2+ !0
Q = mUI sin " > 0 B % 0 # 22
66 0

> # 2+ ( # 0 > # 22 ( # 0
0 !0 0 !0

1.10.2. Bilanþul puterilor active la motorul sincron


# 23 A A
0 A <
P1 " 0 !0 0 A )
PM " # 0 0)

> # 23 7 A ! > # 28 $ A 0
A
6+
P2 " 0 0 )
p m+ v " ! A )
PFe " 1 1 # )
PCu " 1 1 0

Ecuaþia de miçcare ín regim staþionar


7 A ! <
PM = P2 + p m +v + p Fe 6+
$ 1 A A A 1 # A <
M = M2 + M0 62
Avantajele motorului sincron faþá de cel asincron
" L 0 " cos " ! L0
L 1 = !
1 0 0A )
" A 0 # % 1
A % ! L
Dezavantajele motorului sincron faþá de cel asincron
" 0L # L ! L0
# 0)
" L 0
0L 1 L )

1.10.3. Pornirea motorului sincron


- ! L 0 0
# L 0
! ! 0
A. Pornirea cu motor auxiliar
/ L
0 % 0 L 01
L #
B. Pornirea cu frecvenþá reglabilá
- ! 0
! L0 # 0 ! L 0 ,
! A 0 .5"* G A B #
1 0 0 n1 = (5 6) rot / min
62 0

( 01 0 % A 0 ! 0

B 1
- ! ! L L L
L 0 ! L 0 L
L 0
! 0 ! A
0
C. Pornirea ín asincron
4 0 0 0 1 0
01 colivie de pornire
0 4 B 1 0 A 0
B # 1 !B 0 1
!
A A ! B # 0
# M as 1
/B = # A 0
n = 0,9 0,95 n1 1 0 L M as = M rez
01 0 % A
- M #0 L L !
Ms! 0 A
$ 0 0 !
M % A A 1
A0 @ 1 M L
0 0
, L 1
1 L
% L 4 % 0 L # 0
0 # 0 % ' -
1 0 0A <
a) Se scurtcircuiteazá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie
- 0 1 1 0 % A
! 0 % A 0!
B # ! 0 0
B # 1 !B 0 ! 0
4 1 A0 A <
63
60 f 2 60sf 1 n n
n2 = = = n1 1 = n1 n 63
p p n1
/B A0 A <
nd = n + n2 = n1 68
! 0 B /
# Md
/B ! A0 A <
ni = n n 2 = 2n n1 = 2n1 (1 s ) n1 = n1 (1 2 s ) 69
A B A
1 0 0 !
.: +
- A ! 0 0
0

># 3 / < "1 0


% A 01 ) "1 0 % 0 0

( 0 Ms 0
01 0 4 7 A
% A 0 1 A
B 0 = # 1 7 0 !
n = 0,5n1 A 1 0 A
- A 0 ! A
0 0 0 A 0 = #0 1 4 (
0 % A
b) Se lasá deschisá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie
68 0

1 0 0 1 1 0
0 % 0 0 #
A & 0 0! 0
c) Se conecteazá ínfáçurarea de excitaþie pe o rezistenþá
01 0 % A A0
0 ! Rs = (8 10) Rex !
1 0 % A ! Mi # 3 A
Md 0 !
$ ! 0 1
0 A
1 4 ! 1
4 A 0 1

1.10.4. Caracteristicile de funcþionare ale motorului sincron


4 <
1U = ct.
.
P, I , M , n, 6 , cos " = f ( P2 ) 0 f = ct. +:
. I = ct.
/ E
1 # 3*

> # 3* / > # 36 / cos " = f ( P2 )


n, M , 6, I = f ( P2 )
! L % A
69
N M L 0 n = n1 ,
0 caracteristica ! n = f ( P2 ) 0 0 %

P2
/ # M = M0 + M2 M2 = 1 M

M = f ( P2 ) 0 # M0
/ 6 = f ( P2 ) 0 0 0
L
/ cos " = f ( P2 ) ! ! I E = ct. "
1 # 36 $ !0 0 1 L
% L cos " ! 0 0 0 ( 0
% % 0 I E1 1 M 1 # 0
1 0 L cos " = 1 0 0
% L cos " ! ! A 1
!0 A
/ 5 % 0 I E2 > I E1
0 0 1 0 L cos " = 1 , 0
1 0 0 ! cos " 00 ! 1 #
!0 01 L ! % 0
( # 0 % L 0 % 0 !
I E3 > I E2 * 0 0
L ! 1 ! # 0
L 0 #
!0 1 L
/ 6 0 0
I E4 > I E1 - 1 # ! L P2
!0 N ! 0
1 M L L ! 0 L ! 0

1.10.5. Compensatorul sincron


N # 1
!0 1 0 0A
0
@ # # 0
% A 01 # 0 !0
+: 0

1 A 0 0A 1

!0 0 1
A ! !0
1 A !
/ !0 I a/ 0
A 1 0 !0 I r/ 0
/
I # 3+ $ !0 0 0 !0
0 0

( 1 0 !
/
I r 0 B A Ir
!0 0 0 I r//
0
!0 0 0A

> # 3+ $ 1 0 0A B
0 0 !0

/ !
0 ! = 1 0 0A "
# = !
Observaþie. / #
A !0 " A

2. MA§INA DE CURENT CONTINUU


! 0 B 0
# B % =
0 # 0 1 A 1 # B
+
0 A 0 0 ( 0
1 0 0 % A ! 0 <
" % A 0 B 1 0 % A
0 0 0)
" % A ! A B 1 0 % A
0 )
" % A B 1 0 % A
01 )
" % A %0 B ! 0
1 0 0 % A ! A 0

2.1.1. Párþile componenete ale statorului


$ %0 0 inductoare
B # 0
Carcasa 0 0 % 0
% 0 % 0 A
=
, = = #
1 ! = # # > 0 B
# 1 1 1 #
0 # ! A
1 A 0 0
, ! 0
% 0 0 0
1 0 A # "5 + 0
A # :+ 1
% # 0
! 0
Polii principali % 0 A # "
5+ A 1 # % A
0 A0 A
A 0
4 A 1 0 0 % A % 0
0 N ! A #
B # A ! 0 1
01
+5 0

Polii auxiliari 1 # 1 A !0 A
A # A 0
A 1 % %
1 0 0A A
Infáçurárile de excitaþie % % 0
0
# 1 A 0 7
0 1 " 1 B 0 A 0 B
#
, A 0
! B A 0 # = ! 01
# ! înfáçurarea de compensaþie, 0
1 0 1

2.1.2. Párþile componenete ale rotorului


@
Miezul feromagnetic A
0 C
A 0 0 0 0
# :+ 0 % 1 ! 1
#
( ! ! #
0 # 0 l 3 20 cm B
0 0 0
!0 ! A %
# # 0
0 0 A ! 0 ! A
Infáçurarea indusului 0 1
0 0 #
0 1 0 0 0 #
1 C 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
1 0 0
4 1 0 0 1 0
ínfáçurári de curent continuu. $ A
0 1 A
0
+*
Colectorul
0 A 0
B 1 B A0 B # #0
1 0 0
@ 1 #
1 % 1 0 1

2.3.1.Tensiunea electromotoare indusá


@ A l S 0
U e = i N bU es med 55
A 0 ! #5 8
K
Nb = 5 55
2a
! 0S " 0
U es med = 2 wsU ec med 5 5*
i A 0
0)
O– 0 # 0
S 0 0 )
5 – 0 0 S )
ws " 0 0)
U ec med "! S "
( # A # 0<
U ec med = B med Li v a 5 56
B med ! A # S S )
Li " # 0 )
v a –! 0
, ! A <
Dn
va = 5 5+
60
( " )
" S K
( 0 S ! A )
+6 0

D
= 5 52
2p
0 !
2p n
va = 5 53
60
- A S 0
Ue = Ken 5 58

pN
Ke = 5 59
60a
0 0 L )
= i Li B med 5 *:
%

2.3.2. Cuplul electromagnetic al maçinii de current continuu


, L 1 0
# L M
# 1 0 <
PM = U e I a = M 5*
0 !B S ! A 5 58 5 59 <
pN
nI a
U e I a 60a pN
M = = = Ia = Km Ia 5 *5
2 n 2 a
60

pN
Km = 5 **
2 a
0 0 L
/ # L 0 %
L L
# Ia
In concluzie # B
A 0 # ! !
#
++
2.4. GENERATOARE DE CURENT CONTINUU
; 0 L 0 generator M
0 0 0

2.4.1. Bilanþul de puteri çi ecuaþiile generatorului de


curent continuu separata
$ 0 % #
% A 0 A B S 0 A
# 5 52 0 A
A <
" P1 = M 1 puterea mecanicá 0
)
" P2 = UI puterea electricá 0 )
" PM = M = U e I a puterea electromagneticá,
! " 0S )
" p m+v ! L )
" p Fe 1 1 L = #
L0 1 0
0 )
" p ex = U ex I e 1 1 0 > # 5 52 7 A
% ) #
2
" pCua = Ra I a 1 1 0
)
" Ra A S 0 0 )
" p ct = U pe I a 1 0

Ecuaþia de miçcare
( A L
P1 = PM + p m+ v + p Fe 5 *6
& 0 p0 = p Fe + p m+ v 0 #
A S # S S 0 #
P1 PM p0 = 0 5 *+
+2 0

- S 0A A "! # 0 A A
S # A ! T
"<
M1 M M0 = 0 5 *2
" M1 ) "M # ) "M0

Ecuaþia de tensiuni la generatorul de curent contiuu


- " # 5 52 ! 0 A<
P2 = PM pCua p ct 5 *8
% ! <
UI = U e I a Ra I a2 U pe I a 5 *9
( # % A 0 I = Ia
0 # S 0A A
A A <
U = Ue Ra I a U pe 5 6:
0 0 0 " S Ra I a
U = U e Ra I a 56
2.4.2. Curbele caracteristice ale generatorului cu
excitaþie separatá

N # 5 53 0 1 #
% L 0

Fig.2.27. Schema pentru ridicarea experimentalá a caracteristicilor


generatorului de curent continuu cu excitaþie separatá.
+3

Caracteristica de funcþionare ín gol


1I = 0
U 0 = f (I e ) 0 5 6*
/n = ct.
, A S # 0 U 0 = U e0 U e0 0
! e = U mm = 2 N e I e U 0 = f (I e ) 0 0 0
# 0
0 = f (U mm ) ( 0 0
# U0 ! 0
Ie = 0 / M
% L
% L M Rc , L
0 #
# 5 58 , 0 0
% L > # 5 58 /
# 0 A S #
0 0 N
0 ! 0 #0 0 ! 0
% L 0 0 0
- 0 % 0 U rem
% rem
( 0 # M 0 +" 5 U N
- L L - 0 0
# # 0 , 0= 0
- 0

Caractersitica de sarciná
0 A0 <
1 I = ct.
U = f (I e ) 0 5 6+
/n = ct.
$ 0 % # 5 53 1
! ! L 0 Rs 0 % L
Rc 0 0 .
+8 0

/ # 0 0 01
.: > 0 5
0 1 # 5* L 0 # 0 0
0 # 0 .
!M 4 0 # ) !M / 0 0

>#5* / 0 > # 5 *5 / % 0

Caractersitica externá
$ A <
1 I = ct.
U = f (I ) 0 e 5 62
/n = ct.
01 # 5 *5
$ !0 0
0 <
" # A !
A S 0)
" 0 L Ra
/ % L 0 !
UN ,IN
% L
( 0 L 0 0 1 - #
5 *5 0 M 0 1 # ! U0
J L 0 # L <
U0 U N
U= 100% 5 63
UN
N U = (5 10)%
+9

> # 5 ** / % > # 5 *6 / # =

N # 5 ** 0 # 0
% #
# - ! #
0 !M 4 0 # )
!M / I e = ct 0
0

Caracteristica de reglare
$ A <
1U = ct.
I e = f (I ) 0 5 68
/n = ct.
# 5 *6 0 # 0 S
# 5 *6 # 0 ( # #
0 ! L 0 0
1 M !M / 0 F. N # 0 "
# = U =UN
$ !0 0
% L 1 M 0 0 0 0
0

2.4.3. Curbele caracteristice ale generatorului cu


excitaþie derivaþie
U % L ! L 1
# 5 *+ N 0 % L 0 0 0 I e = (2 5)%
0 1 0 0
2: 0

# 01 0 % L
0

> # 5 *+ $ % 0
# % L ! L

Procesul de autoexcitaþie 1 0 0
# L 1 O 0
# 1 1 0
ue ! 0 1
1 0 1 0 %
, ! 0 01 0 0 1 M %
1 0 % L 0 1 %
ue ! 0 0
1 0 % L
( L 5 69 !M 01 i a = ie L
di
u e = ( R + Rc + Re )i e + ( La + Le ) e 5 +:
dt
N # 5 *2 0 #
U e = f (I e ) 5 0 % L 0
( R + Rc + Re ) I e = f ( I e ).
- % L 0 M 01 - L
di e
5 =0
dt
$ !0 0 0 Ue 0
0 # L tg = R + Rc + Re
M Rc > L 0 M
2
L - L - L0 0 Rccr
1 M 5 0 L 5D
0 L 1
cr # % 0
# - L
L ! 0)
Rc > Rccr 5VV
0 % L
( 0 0 0
% L 0
S 0 A <
" 0 % M # > # 5 *2 % !0
S 0) % L
5" % S 0
% A 0 S )
*" A 0 % A 0 0 B
! 0 Rc < Rccr
( 0 !
A S !
0 A B #
% A <
$ ! A Rc B 0
S A Rc < Rccr ( 0 S A
S 0 0 A S 0
0# 0 A "
S 0 S 0
% A ! %
0 ! 0
( 0 A 0
S 0 0 S 0 B #
/ B 0 1 0
% L 0 0 B !
Observaþii: C U0 1 #
# 0 Ue 0 L 1 0 0
L ! Ia = Ie # = )
25 0

L - 0
# C # ! L
L 0 L M (
# L 0 0 # =
M Rc
4 % L 0 1 O 1
N # L L L #
! L 5 69 00
U = U e Ra I a ;
U = ( Rc + Re ) I e 5+
Ia = I + Ie

Caracteristica de funcþionare in gol

1I = 0
U 0 = f (I e ) 0 5 +5 > # 5 *3 /
/n = ct. A S #
N M
U 0 = U e0 1 # 0 0 #
% A 0 0 S 0
% #M L Rc 1 (0, )
Caracteristica externá
1 R = ct.
U = f (I ) 0 c 5 +*
/n = ct.

( % 0 Rc 0 UN
0 IN N # 5 *8
! % # % ! L
0 5 $ !0 0 L 0 1 0
# ! L < M #0 0
# % L 0 S <
2*
U
" % Ie =
Re + Rc
%
( ! 0 0 L 0 Rs
# M 0 ! % 0 I cr curent
critic 0 0 M
M L 0 Rs
0 L 0
1 )
I sc 0
0 ! # 0
0 - L # > # 5 *8 /
% L 0 % #
0 % ! L
I sc = U e / Ra = (10 ÷ 20) I N 0
% L 0 M " %
0 Ue

Caracteristica de sarciná
1 I = ct.
U = f (I e ) 0 5 +6
/n = ct.
çi cracteristica de reglare
U = ct.
I e = f (I ) 5 ++
n = ct.
0 # % L 0
! L

Caracteristica de scurtcircuit 0 #
! L 1 M 0 1 0 % L
0 % % 0

2.4.5. Caracteristicile generatorului cu excitaþie mixtá


$ # % %0 01 #
5 65 U 0 01 0 0 % L ! L %
% ( 0 % 1 0 0 % %
26 0

# excitaþie mixtá adiþionalá diferenþialá ( # 0


1 0 ! L 1 0 % L 0
1 0 0 0 0!

> # 5 65 $ % 0
# % L %0

0 1 M caracteristica externá #
% , 1 # 0 # ! L
M # 1 0 % N 0
1 0 M !
0 " L #
! L
N # 5 6* "
% 0
# ! L ( 0 0
IN 0 0
1 # 1 0
0 0 L
0 1 M 0
0
0 5 $
0 # normal compundat
> # 5 6* /
( 0 1 0 0
% !
0
IN 0 0 1 # *
# supracompundat
, L 0 1 0 0 A S
0 % #
6 # anticompundat
2+
- 0 0 L # 0 0
%

2.5. MOTOARE DE CURENT CONTINUU


; 0 L 0 M
0 0 0 ,
0 #

2.5.1. Bilanþul de puteri çi ecuaþiile motorului de curent continuu


$ 0 %
% A 0 # 5 6+ 0 A <
" P1 = UI puterea electricá 0 A )
" P2 = M 2 puterea mecanicá 0 )
" PM = M = U e I a puterea electromagneticá,
! " 0S )
" p m+v ! L )
" p Fe 1 1 L = #
L0 1 0
0 )
" p ex = U ex I e 1 1 0
% A )
" pCua = Ra I a2 1 1 0
)
" Ra A 0 S 0 0 )
> # 5 6+ 7 A
" p ct = U pe I a
"
Ecuaþia de miçcare
( A L
PM = P2 + p m+ v + p Fe 5 +8
& 0 p0 = p Fe + p m+ v 0 #
A S # S S 0
PM P2 p0 = 0 5 +9
22 0

- S 0A A A A S #
A ! T "<
M M2 M0 = 0 5 2:
"M2 )
"M # )
"M0
# A ! <
d
M M2 M0 = J 52
dt
Ecuaþia de tensiuni la motorul de curent contiuu
- # 5 6+ ! 0 A<
P1 = PM + pCua + pct 5 25
UI = U e I a + Ra I a2 + U pe I a 5 2*
( % A 0 I = Ia S 0A
U = U e + Ra I a + U pe 5 26
U = U e + Ra I a 5 2+

2.5.2. Caracteristicile motorului derivaþie

> # 5 62 $ % 0
! A
0 % A 0 0 0
I e = (2 ÷ 5)% I N
A A S # A <
U = U e + Ra I a ;
U = ( Rc + Re ) I e 5 23
I = Ia + Ie
23
Caracteristicile de funcþionare ale motorului derivaþie
1) Caracteristica vitezei
$ A <
1U = U N
.
n = f ( P2 ) 0 Rs = 0 5 28
. =
/ N
U = K e n + Ra I a 5 29
4 0 A 0 0 A <
U Ra I a U Ra I a
n= = = n0 ns 5 3:
Ke Ke Ke
n0 " A S # 0)
U
n0 = 53
Ke
ns " 0 A
A S 0)
R I
ns = a a 5 35
Ke
4 B A 5 3: S
B # = 0
A = ct.
! 0 n = f (I a ) 0
A 0 # !0
0 0 ( 0
# =0 A > # 5 63 / !

% ! A P2 ' I a
A ! n = f ( P2 ) 0 0
# !0 0S # 5 63
, ! A 0 A 0 0
0 n s = (5 ÷ 8)%
Observaþie
$ A # 0
0 B 0 0 %
28 0

L P2 5 4 ! 1 #
1 M 0 L 0

5 Caracteristica cuplului
1U = U N
.
M = f ( P2 ) 0 Rs = 0 5 3*
. =
/ N
$ !M 1 ! A
S # A M = M0 +M2
A <
M2 "
0)
P > # 5 68 /
M2 = 2 5 36

M0 " S 0 )
p0 p Fe + p m+v
M0 = = 5 3+
( ! 0 A S 0
= ct. B
A 0 # 5 68 , 0 ! ! 0
S B A 5

* Caracteristica curentului
1U = U N
.
I = f ( P2 ) 0 Rs = 0 5 32
. =
/ N
$ !M 1 ! A #
M = Km Ia A I = Ia + Ie $ !0 0 I a = f ( P2 )
A 0 0 I e = f ( P2 )
0 @ # 0 0S # 5 69 "
" 0 = ct. 5" 0
29

> # 5 69 / > # 5 +: /

6 Caracteristica randamentului
1U = U N
.
6 = f ( P2 ) 0 Rs = 0 5 33
. =
/ N
- ! A <
P $p
6 = 2 =1 5 38
P1 P1
$p " 0

6 = (75 ÷ 94)% 0 # 5 +:

Caracteristicile mecanice ale motorului derivaþie


; L0 0 0 1 L 0
caracteristica mecanicá 0 <
1U = ct.
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = ct. 5 39
. = ct.
/
M
- A 0 A 1 Ia =
Km
U Ra M
n= 2
= n0 ns 5 8:
Ke KeKm
3: 0

n0 " A S # 0 0 53 )
ns " 0 A A S 0)
Ra M
ns = 2
58
Ke Km
B
# = 0 A
= ct. !0 0 n = f (M )
0 A 0
# !0 0 0

1) Caracteristica mecanicá naturalá


1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0Rs = 0 5 85
. =
/ N
, ! A 0 >#5+ / 0
A 0 0 0 0
n s = (5 ÷ 8)% B
0 0 # 0 # 5+ "
0 0 1 B 0 ! ! A B ' ct.
1) Caracteristicile mecanice artificiale de tensiune
1U = ct. ! U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = 0 5 8*
. =
/ N
A A <
U/ Ra M
n= 2
= n0/ ns 5 86
Ke KeKm
!0 0 ns . 0 A S # 0
U/
n0/ = 5 8+
Ke
/ ! ! 0
0 0 0 $ 0 0 <
/ U >UN <
3
" S

A B )
" 0
A
0 #
/ U <UN 0

> # 5 +5 /
# 5 +5

2) Caracteristicile mecanice artificiale reostatice


1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = ct. ! 0 5 82
. =
/ N
- A S A <
U ( Ra + R s ) M
n= 2
= n0 n s/ 5 83
Ke Ke Km
A S # 0 n0 " 0 A
( R + Rs ) M
n s/ = a 5 88
KeKm 2
4 ! !
A 0
0

"
Rs > # 5 +* /
0 0
# 5 +*
2) Caracteristicile mecanice artificiale de flux
35 0

1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0Rs = 0 5 82
. = ct. !
/ N
- % A 0 A <
U ( Ra + R s ) M
n= / /2
= n0/ n s/ 5 83
Ke KeKm
!0 0 " A S # 0
U
n0/ = 5 88
Ke /
0 A
Ra M
n s/ = 5 88
Ke Km / 2
/
! ! A 0 A
/
% < N i
0
# 5 ++

2.5.3. Caracteristicile motorului serie


0 % A 0 0 0 Ie = Ia
0 S S 0 ( 0
0A
A S # 0 0 % 0

> # 5 +2 $ % 0
3*
A S # A 0<
U = U e + Ra I a ;
5 9:
I = Ia = Ie
- A 5 2+ !B S ! A
5 58 ! A A A <
U Ra I a U Ra I a
n= = 5 95
Ke Ke Ke

Caracteristicile mecanice ale motorului serie


L 0 caracteristicile
mecanice <
1U = ct.
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = ct. 5 92
. = ct.
/
, 0 M = K m KI a2
M
0 Ia = A 5 95 0
KmK
U Ra U Ra
n= = 5 93
M K e K K1 M K2
KeK
KmK
- 0 7 ct !
M
M = Km s Ia 0 Ia = - S A
Km s
U Ra M
n= 2
5 98
Ke s KeKm s
0
n = f (M ) 0 A 5 93
0 0 5 98

1) Caracteristica mecanicá naturalá


# 5 +9 " 0 0
0 " A 0 0 0 ;
0 elasticá (moale
36 0

1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0Rs = 0 5 99
. =
/ N
, L ! 0
#
! " #0 1
L 0 1 L 0
# ) ! 0
L ! > # 5 +9 / 0
0
0 0 L 1 #

5) Caracteristicile mecanice artificiale de tensiune


1U = ct. ! U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = 0 5 ::
. =
/ N
A A <
/
U Ra
" A n= 5 :
K1 M K 2
U/ Ra M
" A n= 2
5 :5
Ke s Kekm s

! A 0 U <UN
B

0 0
% ! 1
# 5 2:
> # 5 2: /

2) Caracteristicile mecanice artificiale reostatice


3+
1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0 Rs = ct. ! 0 5 :*
. =
/ N
- A S A <
U Ra + Rs
" A n= 5 :6
K1 M K2
" A
U ( Ra + Rs ) M
n= 5 :+
Ke s K e k m 2s
/
#52
0 0 A
Rs
1 A A
>#52 /

3) Caracteristicile mecanice
artificiale de flux
1U = U N
.
n = f ( M ) 0Rs = 0 5 :2
. = ct. !
/ N
( %
0
0 #
1 0 0 % A #
A 1 0 !
0 A0 W > # 5 25 /
< N %

% 1 A 01 A
# 5 25

2.5.4. Caracteristicile motorului mixt


% A %0 S
# 5 2* > % 0
32 0

1 0 0 ! A % %
01 0 0 0 = A B
% 0 0 A B %
= A 0 1 0 A
1 0 0 A 0

> # 5 2* $ % 0

Caracteristicile mecanice ale motorului mixt

0 - %
! A 1 # 5 26 "
<
"
! A )
" 5
)
" *
% A ! A
0 0
# 0 0 0
> # 5 26 /
1 0 )
%
" 6
% 0 0 1 0
! A !B A A 1 # )
" + % A
$ 0 0 0 1 0 0 % L
! L 0
0 L 0 !
% # 1 0
33

2.6. PORNIREA MOTORULUI DE CURENT CONTINUU

- 0 1 0
0 ) A 0 0 0
0 #! #
N 0
# ! ! L 1 ! L !

2.6.1. Pornirea prin cuplare directá la reþea


4 0 0 0 0
M 0 2IX A
1 d
.u a = Ra i a + dt ( La i a ) + u e
.
.u e = K e n
. d
.u ex = RE ie + ( Le ie );
0 dt 5 :3
. d
.m m r = J
. dt
.m = K m i a
.
/ = f (ie )
$ 1 ! motorul derivaþie 0
N u a = u ex = U . ! 0L L a , Le 1 0 0
1 0 0 % L 0 ! 0 L
$ !0 0 M #0 regimul tranzitoriu mecanic
! L L regim tranzitoriu electromagnetic
! L L % " regim tranzitoriu unic electromecanic.
/M m < mr , n = 0 L
di
U = R a i a + La a 5 :8
dt
$ L L 0 ! L % L 0
L
Ta = a 0 ! 0 I p max = U / Ra 4
Ra
38 0

! L
L 0 0
- m > mr
0 1 L M
M
L 1 L Y
) n!0
ue ! 0
/ Ip 1
0 0 0 !
Mr
If = ! # 5 2+
KM
m = mr
C L nf 1 #
0 5 2+
> # 5 2+ /
U Ra I f
nf = / M L 1
Ke 0 L
M Ip
1 0 0 ! 0 I p max / #
M ia M %
( ! % L ! L
1 1 0 % L 0 0
1 M M #
! % L Ip
, motorul serie 0
% !
- 0 1 L 0
I p = (10 15) I N 1 "
.: :5 Mr =0 t p . : ": *
N M 1 # Ip M
0 Ip #
39
Mp 0 4 ! # =
1 L

2.6.2. Pornirea reostaticá


, 0
1 0 Rp
M 0 0 0 01 L
N 0 % L 0 L Rc
0 L L0 0 # 5 23 N L %
! % 0 # !

$ # = 0 0 0 .:
.: 1 0
U
I p max = 5 56
Rp
Rp L 0
( 0 1 B
0 ! 1 0 ) I p max = (1,5 1,7) I N
I p min = (1,1 1,2) I N
U Ken
Ia = ; 5 5+
Rp
! 0 L 0 Rp # 5 28 0
! 0 If 0 0

> # 5 23 $ 0 ! L
8: 0

@ L L0 1
! 0 N # 5 23 L 0 1
Ci /M ! 0
0 1 C1 A
! R1 1 M A 0 ! R p1
ia ! L 0 I p max N 0<
! 0 L R p1 M 0
! I p min M 0 ! L 1 M
0 ! 0 I p max $ 1
L Ri 0
! 1 I p max , I p min ) / L Ri
I p max , I p min # 0 0<
" A 5 2+ 01 4
U = Ke 0 + R p I p max 5 52
0 A Rp 0 ! <
U
Rp = 5 53
I p max
" A 0 7
Rp !/ R p1
U = K e n1 + R p I p min
5 58
U = K e n1 + R p1 I p max
( A 0 A
I p max
R p1 = Rp 5 59
I p min
4 B = 0 A <
R p = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + Rn
5 *:
R p = R2 + R3 + ... + Rn
0 0 0 0 A0<
R1 = R p R p1 5 *
8

> # 5 29 / n = f (I a ) 0
! A

Observaþie
- A ! A
1 0 0 0 ! A
01
#53
- 0 0 0 ! = <
" 0 0)
" A )
" ! 0
/ ! = <
" #

2.6.3. Pornirea cu tensiune redusá


,
! 0
/ ! 0
! 0 # ! 0 0 0 1
A B 0 = # ! 0 $ 1
! A 0
N 0 % L 0 L
Rc 0 L L0 0 # 5 35 N
L % ! % 0 # !
85 0

U/ Ken
Ia = ; 5 *8
Ra

> # 5 35
$ 0 ! L

$ 0 1 B I p max = (1,5 1,7) I N


I p min = (1,1 1,2) I N
A 0 0 U1 0
1 0 I p max $ A
! A A
! 0 0 U 1 /M !
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 B
ia ! L 0 I p max N
$ 1 B
0 ! 1 I p max , I p min ) /
Ui I p max , I p min # 0 0<
" A 5 2+ 01 4
U1 = K e 0 + Ra I p max 5 *9
0! 01 )
" A 0 7
0 U1 !/ U2
U 1 = K e n1 + Ra I p min
5 6:
U 2 = K e n1 + Ra I p max
( A 0 A
U 2 = U 1 + ( I p max I p min ) Ra 5 6
8*
- B 1 # 0

> # 5 3* / n = f (I a ) 0
! 0 ! A
Observaþie.
- ! A 1
0 0 0 ! A
0 1

- 0 0 ! = <
" 0 00 )
" = 0)
" #
( ! = <
" # 0

2.7. REGLAJUL VITEZEI MOTOARELOR DE


CURENT CONTINUU

# L # L
Ua Ra I a
n= 5 *:
Ke
0 < Ua ) 5
A )* %
4 0L # = ! M
M r = ct. 0 " <
86 0

U # ! 8 = n max / n min
5 ( # =
* / # =
6 4

2.7.1. Reglajul vitezei prin variaþia tensiunii


0
# 0 A 0
U <UN

> # 5 36 / # = ! ! A <
! A )
/ # M r = ct. 1 #
5 36 ! A 1 # 5 36
A 0
Indici tehnico- economici 0 0 <
U # ! 8 = nmax / nmin = 8 ÷ 10
0A
5 ( # = < 0
0
* / # = < 1 A

6 4 <
" ! A ! = 0
# 0 0)
" # ! = 0 1 B
# 0
8+

2.7.2. Reglajul vitezei prin metoda restaticá


1 " A0
# Rs > 0 A
@ A 0 # #0 0
! 0 A0 0 #
$ 0 0 1
# ! " # # =

> # 5 3+ / # = ! 0<
! A )

/ # M r = ct. 1 #
5 3+ ! A 1 # 5 3+
1 A 0
Indici tehnico- economici <
U # ! 8 = nmax / nmin = 2 ÷ 3 0
#
5 ( # = < 0
0
* / # = < 1
0 ! A 0
6 4 <
" ! A ! = 0 A
)
82 0

" # ! = 0 1 B 0
#

2.7.3. Reglajul vitezei prin variaþia fluxului de excitaþie


A 0
% $ ! 1 otorul derivaþie
% % A ! L Ie =
B Rc <
U
= f (I e ) Ie = 5 *9
Re + Rc
, ! A !
% " 0 0 # 0
% / % < N L

U Ra M
n= / /2
= n0/ n s/ 5 6:
Ke Ke Km
0 L 1 #
/
0 L ns ; 0 0
1 # 5 32

> # 5 32 / # = ! % <
! A )

C ! 1 0 0 %
M = M r = ct , ! L
83
M = Km Ia ) 0 0 0! 0 N #
5 32 " 0 0 @ 0 0 =
0 L M #0 M M r = ct
La motorul serie B # ; #
A % A <
2we I e
= e = 5 6
Rm Rm
e " A % A )
Rm " A # 0 0 % )
we " 0 1 0 0 % A )
Ie " % A
4 B 0 A 0 0 0
% <
" 0 1 0 % A
0 0

#
)
" 1 0 0
% A # 5 33 0 #
0 B 0
% A A > # 5 33 $ =
0 0 B % A
O B <
Rd
Ie = Ia 5 65
Rd + Re
Indici de relare 0 :
U # ! 8 = nmax / nmin = 2 ÷ 3 0
0 A 0 % 0 <
" 1 0 0L L
1 01 L )
" 0 A 0 B # 0
0 L ! 0 A
0 0 0 0 )
88 0

5 ( # =

* / # = " 1 )
! A A Rc ! Rd
6 4 <
" ! A ! = 0
1 % A )
" # ! = 0
#

2.8. FRÃNAREA MOTOARELOR DE CURENT CONTINUU


$ 0 B <
" B !0)
" B )
" B 0

2.8.1. Frãnarea recuperativá


; 0 # 1 #
B 0 !0 B 01
! 1 A A B # 0A
! A 0
0
Frãnarea recuperativá la motorul derivaþie
$0 0 %
! 0

L 0 1 4
0 0
# 5 38 /B 0 0

0 1 ! Ma
# A 0 # 0A
1 A
/ A
A > # 5 38 / M
0 0 /B " !0 ! A
89
0 A 1 # 0 n0 0 A
1 ! 0 0 !
B $ = # A 01 7 # 5 38
B 0 A 0 1
0 0 Ma = M f
( 0 0 0 B ! 0
A0 B Rf 1 7D
4 0 0 M 0 ! = 1
L 0 M
Cazul motorului serie
( A 1 # 0 0
0 1 B
!0

Frãnarea recuperativá la motorul mixt


, % 0 0A 1 A
= A % 01 0 0 <
= d+ s 5 33
/B 1 # B 0 !0
0 Ia < 0 0 % 1 0
s = f (I a ) < 0 / = ! A %
0 0 B ( A
! B 01 0
B 0
Bilanþul de puteri: 1 # 0
0 0 " B 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 A 0 $ B
! = 0 0 # 0 ! = 0
0 B 0 A n > n0 0 M
M 0 0 0 0

2.8.2. Frãnarea contacurent (electromagneticá)


- # 1
# B 0 # 0 0 A <
9: 0

" 01 0 A 0
! 0)
" 1 A B
- A B L
# 0 M
<
U + Ken
If = 5 6*
Ra + R f
@ 0 1
! #
L # M 0
# 0

Frãnarea contracurent la motorul


derivaþie
# 5 39 0
L 4
0 0
0 L 0 1
7 0 0 > # 5 39 /
B Rf1 B
/ #
L M 0 ! A
B
A 0 B 0 $ !0 0 0 0
A B
( 0 B 0 0 B
B = # ! 0 M f min 0 A
B A 0 Rf 2 0
! % 0 M f max B
N ! 0 1 0 L
0 M > Mr - L
L 0 1 !
4 0 0 M M 0
0 0
9
Frãnarea contracurent la motorul serie
, 0
0 1 0
% s = f (I a ) / #
0 ! A 1
- 1 # B 0 ! !
1 0
1 0 % A ! A B 1
$ ! A A !
B 1 0 0
0
Frãnarea contracurent la motorul mixt
, % A 1 # B 0
0 = 0 % A /
! B %
01 0 #
Bilanþul de puteri: A 0
0 " B 0 N L0
L M 0 # 0
0 ! #
N # 0 0
01 0 0 ( 0 A B
1 0 # !
I f = (20 ÷ 30) I N ) B A 1 0
1 ( L Rf
0 1 M # = 0 0 0 0
01 1 %

2.8.3. Frânarea dinamicá


- ! 1 0 0 L
0 A0 B 1 0 % A 0 B
01
/ 0 L 0 !

Ken
If = 5 69
Ra + R f
95 0

1 # # % A 0 !B
0 1 A ! 0 1 L0
# M
Frãnarea dinamicá la motorul derivaþie
/ # M <
Ke Km 2
M = Km I f = n 5 +:
Ra + R f
! 0 A . 0 A
0 # !0 #
# 5 85 B 1
0 A 4
0 0 0 A 0 1 7
B R f1
$ !0 0 0 B 0 0 A
0 0
B 0
B 0 B
= # ! 0 M f min
! A B
A 0
Rf 2 0
! % 0
M f max B
- 0
> # 5 85 /
! 0 L Rf
B
L #
0 ! A
M M 1
M 0 L
>M L
Frãnarea dinamicá la motorul serie
, M 1 # #
% 1 A <
" 0 1 0 % A
! 0 U erem
L0 A " # # )
9*
" L B 0 ! 0 R f < R f cr
/ B 1
0
Frãnarea dinamicá la motorul mixt
, % A 1 # B 0 0
0 = 0 % A /
! B %
01 0 #
Bilanþul de puteri< 1 B
" B 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 A B $
B ! = 0 0 A
- ! A B 0
! B 0

Interese conexe