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Jan 15, 2020

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Usaha, energi, dan daya

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SOWETO/DIEPKLOOF

! P.O.BOX 39067 ! BOOYSENS 2016 !

Tel. 011 938-1666/7 Fax 011 938-3603

email: sec@global.co.za

website: www.sec.org.za

Content Page

Worked Examples: Structured Questions 4–5

Worksheet 1: Multiple Choice Questions 6–8

Worksheet 2: Multiple Choice Questions 9 – 10

Worksheet 3: Multiple Choice Questions 11 – 13

Model Answers: Structured Questions 14 – 18

Answers: Worksheet 1, 2 and 3 19

Science Education Centre !

SOWETO/DIEPKLOOF ◈ P.O.BOX 39067 ◈ BOOYSENS 2016 !!! " 011 9381666/7 # 011 9383603 email: sec@global.co.za

ENERGY

If something has ‘energy’ it can make things happen. To speak in more scientific terms:

Energy is the capacity of a system to perform work. The 'Law of Conservation of Energy'

states that energy can neither be destroyed nor created, but can be transformed from one form

to another. There are several types or forms of energy.

ENERGY FORMS

The energy forms most commonly used are:

• chemical energy

• potential energy (EP)

• kinetic energy (EK)

• heat energy

• magnetic energy

• electrical energy

• nuclear energy

• sound energy

• electromagnetic wave energy.

Energy is always measured in joules (J) no matter what form it is in.

Note: Sometimes EK and EP are considered together under the heading mechanical energy;

sound and electromagnetic waves are considered under the heading wave energy.

Chemical

Nuclear Potential - EP

(EP = m·g·h)

(E = I · V · t) unit: Joule (J) (EK = ½ m · v2)

Sound Heat

Fig. 1: Energy forms: all energy resources result from the sun

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Chemical energy

Chemicals such as food, oil, coal and gas would be included in this list. They can all be burnt

to provide heat. The chemicals inside a battery will react together to provide electricity.

Chemicals are stores of energy that can be released at a convenient time.

Potential energy (EP)

Potential means hidden or stored. A battery, a spring or a stretched elastic band are examples

of stored energy. Anything that is high up will have the ‘potential’ to be pulled down by

gravity, e.g., water behind a dam. This is sometimes called ‘gravitational energy’.

Kinetic energy (EK)

This is the energy of movement. The k.e. of a moving object increases with mass (kg) and/or

velocity (m/s). The equation used to calculate the k.e. of a moving object is:

Kinetic energy = ½ · Mass · Velocity2 = ½ m · v2

Electromagnetic waves (EMS)

Any wave form, such as light, X-rays, ultraviolet or gamma waves, belongs to a set known as

the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). They are sometimes called waves, rays or even

radiations. These titles are sometimes even mixed together, e.g., ‘microwave radiation’. They

all transfer energy from place to place. Infrared radiation is a good example and is

responsible for the warming effect of a sunny day. Try to avoid phrases such as ‘heat wave’

when you really mean infrared radiation.

Heat energy

Ice melts when it is heated, an iron bar will expand when heated, etc.

Sound energy

This is an energy form because sound is the movement of air molecules.

Magnetic energy

Magnetism is an energy form and can make things happen (attraction/repulsion).

Electrical energy

The most easily converted energy form. A bulb will give out light (and heat) when provided

with electrical energy. The amount of electrical energy passing through a device depends on:

the current flow (in amperes), the potential difference (in volts) and the time (in seconds) for

which the circuit is switched on. Increase any of these and the total energy will increase. The

equation used to find electrical energy is:

Energy = Current x Potential Difference x Time = I x V x t

Nuclear energy

As atomic nuclei break up they have a heating effect on their surroundings. In nuclear power

plants nuclear energy is converted into heat, which is used to provide steam to drive a turbine

in order to generate electricity.

ENERGY TRANSFERS

Energy changes

Energy arrows (see figure 2 below) can be used to show the changes that take place when

energy is used. It is quite usual for energy to be wasted (in the form of heat) when one form

of energy is changed into another.

Light

(causes bulb to glow)

Battery Electrical

(Echem) Energy Heat

(causes bulb to get hot: energy wasted)

Fig. 2: The major energy changes that take place in a torch light

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

WORK

In Physics, work requires a force to move. For instance: pushing a car to 'bump start' it

involves work. Work always involves an applied force moving a certain distance and is

measured by the product of the force and the distance it moves along its line of action. If the

force is perpendicular to the direction of motion, no work is done.

" It is a scalar.

" It is measured in joules (J).

Kinetic Energy = Resultant Force x Distance*

Potential Energy = Weight x Distance*

Energy Dissipated = Frictional Force x Distance*

* Distance must always be in the direction of the force

POWER

Energy and power are not the same: do not confuse the terms 'energy' and 'power'. The word

energy has no connection with time but power does. To be powerful means to be able to use a

large amount of energy all the time. Power is the rate at which energy is used or transformed

" It is a scalar.

" It is measured in watts (W).

FORMULAE

• F x s = work (provided F and S are in the same direction)

• Work = Power x Time

• Work done = energy gained.

• Kinetic energy: EK = 1/2 m · v2

or: EK = acceleration · mass · distance* = a · m · s

(derived from: v2 = u2 + ½ · a · t2 with u = 0 m/s)

• Potential energy: EP = m · g · h

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

WORKED EXAMPLES

STRUCTURED QUESTIONS

Find:

i) the force required,

ii) the work done,

iii) the power required.

140 N.

Find a) total work done

b) gain in EP

c) gain in EK

d) power required

minutes. If the voltage of the motor is 380 V find the current required to pump the

water (assume there are no frictional forces).

Q4 A bullet with a mass of 20 g is fired horizontally at 500 m/s into a stationary wooden

block with a mass of 4 kg. The block with the bullet embedded in it then slides for

1,55 m across a rough horizontal surface before it comes to a stop.

a) Show by calculation that the velocity of the bullet and the block immediately after

impact, is 2,5 m/s in the direction of motion.

b) Calculate the loss of kinetic energy of the system when the bullet strikes the block.

What happened to the energy?

c) Calculate the average magnitude of the frictional force between the block and the

surface when the block slides over it.

shown in the sketch.

100 N

The frictional force

experienced by the

block is 20 N.

20 N 10 kg 600

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Q6 An object with mass 25 kg moves at a constant speed of 4 m/s along a horizontal

surface towards point A. It then moves up an incline towards point B which is 0,9 m

higher than point A (see sketch below). Provided all surfaces are frictionless, will the

object reach point B? Show all calculations to support your answer.

0,9 m

25kg A

Q7 John, with a mass of 47kg, rides a skateboard with a mass of 3kg on a rough

horizontal road. At the bottom of an incline, his velocity is 4m/s. He rides up the

incline and reaches the top with a velocity of 1 m/s. the difference in height between

the top and the bottom of the incline is 0,6 m.

a) Calculate the work done against friction while John rode up the incline.

b) When John reaches the top of the incline with a velocity of 1 m/s, his cat with a

mass of 5 kg, drops from a tree into his arms. Calculate the velocity of John and the

cat as they move together on the skateboard.

1 m/s

4 m/s

0,6m

Q8 A skier of mass 70 kg starts from rest to move down a hill of slope 300 with a constant

acceleration of 3,2 m/s2 from a point P on the top to the foot Q of the hill.

The distance PQ is 100 m.

reaching Q.

energy of the skier between the points P

and Q.

energy.

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Science Education Centre !

SOWETO/DIEPKLOOF ◈ P.O.BOX 39067 ◈ BOOYSENS 2016 !!! " 011 9381666/7 # 011 9383603 email: sec@global.co.za

Topic: Work, Energy, Power

Worksheet 1: Multiple Choice Questions Time: 30 Minutes

Instructions: Make a cross over the letter A, B, C, D or E to show the correct answer.

1) The diagram below shows an object of mass 10 kg being pulled for a distance of 3 m by a

force of 30 N.

10 kg 30 N

3m

The work done is

A 9J

B 30 J

C 90 J

D 300 J

E 900 J

the box is lifted vertically through a height of 1 m (see sketch below).

1m

10 N

2m

50 N

What is the total work done on the box?

A 35 J

B 55 J

C 70 J

D 110 J

E 180 J

Her increase in gravitational potential energy is

A 1600 N

B 1600 J

C 1600 W

D 2000 J

E 2000 W

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

4) During the latter part of the motion of a rocket its mass is halved because the fuel is used

up, while its velocity increases by a factor of 10. By what factor does the kinetic energy

of the rocket increase during this stage?

A 5

B 10

C 50

D 100

5) A ball is projected vertically upwards and then returns to the ground. Ignore all friction.

Which one of the following statements about the kinetic energy and potential energy of

the ball is true?

B The kinetic energy is always less than the potential energy

C The kinetic energy is always more than the potential energy.

D The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy is always constant.

6) Two skiers S and T have identical masses. They begin from rest from the top of a hill at

point A and move to the ski resort. Skier S takes route 1 and skier T takes route 2, as

shown in the sketch. Which one of the following statements concerning the speed with

which S and T reach the ski resort is correct? Ignore all friction forces.

B The speed of S is smaller than the speed of T.

C S and T both have the same speed.

D The speed of S is greater than the speed of T.

E The information given is insufficient to answer the question.

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Questions 7 to 10:

A chemical to heat

B kinetic to sound

C kinetic to heat

D potential to heat

E potential to kinetic

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Science Education Centre !

SOWETO/DIEPKLOOF ◈ P.O.BOX 39067 ◈ BOOYSENS 2016 !!! " 011 9381666/7 # 011 9383603 email: sec@global.co.za

Topic: Work, Energy, Power

Worksheet 2: Multiple Choice Questions Time: 30 Minutes

Instructions: Make a cross over the letter A, B, C, or D to show the correct answer.

1. An object moving in a straight line at constant velocity has kinetic energy E and

momentum p. If the speed of the object is doubled, the new value of kinetic energy and

momentum will be …

A 2E 2p

B 2E 4p

C 4E P

D 4E 2p

2. A boy lifts a packet upwards by applying a constant force to it of magnitude greater than

the weight of the packet. The work done by this force equals the gain in …

A potential energy of the package.

B potential energy plus kinetic energy of the package.

C kinetic energy of the package.

D kinetic energy minus the gain in potential energy.

3. An object is dropped from the top of a high building and falls freely to the ground. Which

one of the graphs below best represents its potential energy (Ep) as a function of the

distance (s) fallen by the object?

Ep A Ep B

distance distance

Ep C Ep D

distance distance

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

4. A large and a small sphere are released at the same time from the same height above the

ground. Which one of the following quantities associated with the spheres will be the

same for both after 1 second, if frictional effects are ignored?

A speed

B momentum

C potential energy

D kinetic energy

5. Which one of the following expressions has the same units as power?

A force x distance

B work x time

C force x acceleration

D force x velocity

6. A person lifts a heavy load to a vertical height of 2,0 m in 3 seconds. If he/she had done

this more slowly in 6 seconds, the work on the load would have been:

A twice as great

B four times as great

C the same

D half as great.

7. At what height above the ground must a mass of 10 kg be to have a potential energy equal

in value to the kinetic energy possessed by a mass of 10 kg moving with a velocity of 20

m/s?

A 10 m

B 20 m

C 50 m

D 100 m

8. A girl runs up one flight of steps. Which one of the following factors does not affect the

work done by the girl against gravity?

A mass of the girl

B height of the steps

C speed of the girl

D acceleration due to gravity

9. A girl weighing 400 N runs up the a flight of stairs (height 5 m) in a time of 4 seconds.

Her rate of working against gravity is

A 320 W

B 400 W

C 500 W

D 2000 W

10. A stone dropped from the top of a 80m high building strikes the ground at 40 m/s after

falling for 4 seconds. The stone's potential energy with respect to the ground is equal to

its kinetic energy …

A at the moment of impact.

B 2 seconds after the stone is released.

C after the stone has fallen 40 m.

D when the stone is moving at 20 m/s.

___________________________ 10

© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Science Education Centre !

SOWETO/DIEPKLOOF ◈ P.O.BOX 39067 ◈ BOOYSENS 2016 !!! " 011 9381666/7 # 011 9383603 email: sec@global.co.za

Topic: Work, Energy, Power

Worksheet 3: Multiple Choice Questions Time: 30 Minutes

Instructions: Make a cross over the letter A, B, C, or D to show the correct answer.

by a cable hanging from a helicopter. The helicopter accelerates

upwards and the tension in the cable is T.

The work done on the object (in J) and the type of energy that

this work is converted into, is …

W

Work done on the object Work done converted into

A Th potential energy only

B (T – W) h potential energy only

C Th potential and kinetic energy

D (T – W) h potential and kinetic energy

2. Thembi does exercises in the gym. The amount of work she does is measured in various

time frames. In which of the following cases will her power output be greatest?

When she does

A 10 J work in 10 s

B 60 J work in 20 s

C 80 J work in 30 s

D 100 J work in 40 s

3. A car moving at a speed of v has kinetic energy Ek. If the speed of the car increases to 2v,

the kinetic energy will then be …

A 2 Ek

B 4 Ek

C 8 Ek

D 16 Ek

respectively are at rest at point A. They are allowed

Y X

to run down a smooth frictionless track. As the cars

pass point B, how will their velocities compare

A vx = vy A

B vx = 2 vy

C 2 vx = vy

D 4 vx = vy B

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

5. In the diagram to the right a simple pendulum with

mass m swings to and fro. At position B the value

of the potential energy and kinetic energy are as

follows:

EP EK

maximum maximum A C

A B

B maximum minimum

C minimum minimum

D minimum maximum

6. When a racing car brakes heavily, coming to a halt, into what form of energy is its kinetic

energy transformed?

A potential energy

B kinetic energy

C internal energy

D elastic energy

A N/s

B kg · m/s

C J/C

D J/s

8. Observe the pendulum in the drawing to the right. At the highest point A of its swing the

ball has 500 J potential energy in respect to its lowest point.

At the lowest point B of its swing the ball has 500 J kinetic

energy. The total mechanical energy of this system is …

A 0J

B 250 J

C 500 J

D 1000 J A B

masses are at a swimming bath. Child A B

A drops vertically from a diving

board 5 m high. Child B slides from

the same height down a slide into the

water.

5m 5m

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

The children start moving at the same instant. Which one of the following statements is

true? (Ignore air resistance and friction on the slide.)

The children hit the water …

B at the same time with different speeds

C at different times with the same speed

D at different times with different speeds

10. An object is dropped from the top of a high building and falls freely to the ground. Which

one of the graphs below best represents both its potential energy and kinetic energy as

functions of the time fallen by the object?

energy energy

A B

EP EP

time time

energy energy

C D

EP EP

time time

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Model Answers Structured Questions:

Q1:

i) Since there is only one force acting on the mass, this force is the resultant force (FRes).

a = 1m/s2

2 kg

2 kg FRes =m·a

= 2kg · 1m/s2

FRes =2N

2N x 20m = 40 J = work done

Since we don't know the time, we have to apply the equations of motion:

given:

u = 0 m/s s = u t + 1/2 · a · t2

v = ____ 20 = 0 + 1/2 · 1 · t2

a = 1 m/s2 t2 = 40

s = 20 m

Answer to Q2

140 N 140 N

Start with a force diagram:

10kg

FRes = 40 N↑ = m · a

Weight = mg = 100 N

40 N↑

10 kg = a = 4 m/s2↑ (keep this for later)

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

b) EP = m · g · h = 10kg · 10m/s2 · 20m = 2000 J

TABLE: s = u t + 1/2 a t2

u = 0 m/s

20m = 0 + 1/2 · 4 · t2

v =

a = 4 m/s2

40/4 = 10 = t2

s = 20 m

t = ???

t = 3,16 seconds

Answer to Q3

This is a case of pump lifting a certain mass of water (10000 kg) up a certain vertical distance

(50 m) in a certain time (600 s). Using Power = Voltage · Current we can find I.

8333 W = 380 V · I

∴ I = 8333/380 = 21.9 A

+ ve 500m/s comes to rest

Start with a diagram: 1,55 m from initial position

given:

mass of bullet mB = 20 g = 0,02 kg mass of wood mW = 4kg

velocity of bullet vB = 500 m/s velocity of wood before impact vW = 0 m/s

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Momentum before = Momentum after

mB · vB + mW · vW = (mB + mW) v

10 + 0 = 4,02 · v

b)

before after

impact: = 1/2 · 0,02 · (5·102)2 impact: = 1/2 (00,2 + 4,0) · 2,52

= 2500 J = 12, 6 J

= EK (before) - EK (after)

= 2500 J - 12,6 J

= 2487,4 J

u = 2,5 m/s v2 = u2 + 2 · a · s

v = 0 m/s 0 = 2,52 + 2 · a · 1,55

a = ? -6,25 = 3,1 · a

t = ? ∴a = -2 m/s2

s = 1,55 m

= 4,02 · 2

frictional force = 8,04 N in the opposite direction to movement

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

Answer to Q5

The block can only move horizontally, therefore all forces must be in the horizontal direction,

which the 100 N is not. So, first one has to find the component of the 100 N in the horizontal

direction.

100 N

cos 600 = adj/hyp = F/100N

600 F

Now we have:

10 kg 50 N

20 N

∴ a = 3 m/s2 (in the opposite direction to the friction)

Answer to Q6

To reach B the object must have an energy greater or at least equal to Potential energy at

point B:

EP = m g h = 25 · 10 · 0,9 = 225 J

EK = 1/2 m v2 = 1/2 · 25 · 42 = 8 · 25 = 200 J

As a result the object will not reach point B since it does not have sufficient energy at point A

to do so.

Answer to Q7

a) At the bottom John has only kinetic energy:

At the top he has potential energy (he has risen 0,6 m higher) and kinetic energy (he is still

moving at 1 m/s).

therefore: EP = m g h = (47 + 3) · 10 · 0,6 = 50 · 6 = 300 J

EK = 1/2 m v2 = 1/2 · (47 + 3) · 12 = 25 J

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

b) John's direction of movement taken as positive)

50 · 1 + 5 · 0 = (50 + 5) · v

Answer to Q8

a) let's use equation of motion:

v=? v2 = u2 + 2 · a · s

a = 3,2 m/s2 = 0 + 2 · 3,2 · 100

t=? = 640

s = 100 m ∴ v = 25,3 m/s

= m · g · h - 1/2 m · v2

P

= 35000 J - 22400 J

= 12600 J 100m

300 Q

∴ opp (height) = 0,5 · 100 = 50 m

c) In an isolated system the energy is always conserved. It may be converted from one form

to another, but it is never lost.

___________________________ 18

© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1 C 1 D 1 C

2 C 2 B 2 B

3 D 3 A 3 B

4 C 4 A 4 A

5 D 5 D 5 D

6 C 6 C 6 C

7 E 7 B 7 D

8 C 8 C 8 C

9 A 9 C 9 C

10 E 10 C 10 A

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© Science Education Centre 2002

Physics/FET/Revision: Work, Energy, Power

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