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English language course for police

ACADEMIA DE POLIŢIE “ALEXANDRU IOAN CUZA”

Conf. univ. dr. CHERVASE CARMEN-VALERIA

ENGLISH
LANGUAGE COURSE
FOR POLICE
SUPORT DE CURS

PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL CU FRECVENŢĂ REDUSĂ


ŞI ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT LA DISTANŢĂ

ACADEMIA DE POLITIE “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” – Centrul Învăţământ cu Frecvenţă Redusă şi 2015
Învăţământ la Distanţă
English language course for police

2015
PREZENTARE

Acest curs de limba engleză se adresează studenţilor Academiei de Poliţie


de la forma de învăţământ fără frecvență și la distanță, dar şi cunoscătorilor de
limba engleză din instituţiile de educaţie şi structurile din cadrul Ministerului
Afacerilor Interne. Cuprinde aria tematică necesară însuşirii terminologiei de
specialitate poliţienească în limba engleză şi este elaborat în conformitate cu
programa analitică pentru disciplina Limba engleză.

Structura cursului:

Prezentarea capitolelor
Conţinuturile selectate în fiecare capitol urmăresc, pe de o parte să
îmbogăţească cunoştinţele de specialitate din domeniul poliţienesc ale
studenţilor, iar pe de altă parte să dezvolte deprinderea de exprimare în limba
engleză utilizând terminologia specifică domeniului. Selectarea materialelor,
organizarea lor în cadrul capitolelor, concepţia structurii cursului şi redactarea sa
se supun rigorilor autoarei.
După prezentarea conţinuturilor, urmează Lista cuvintelor noi/de
specialitate traduse în limba română, apoi secţiunea Exerciţii care cuprinde o
serie de întrebări şi exerciţii menite să fixeze cunoştinţele şi vocabularul din
domeniul poliţienesc. Răspunsurile la întrebări presupun obligatoriu parcurgerea
teoriei capitolului, iar întrebările de tip “deschis” solicită creativitatea şi
exprimarea liberă a propriilor opinii. Fiecare capitol se încheie cu un scurt
Rezumat care le foloseşte studenţilor în ordonarea şi sintetizarea cunoştinţelor.
Sursele de informare care au stat la baza selectării conţinuturilor au fost
căutate pe site-urile de Internet şi în alte referinţe bibliografice studiate. Acestea
sunt prezentate la finalul cursului, alături de alte trimiteri spre site-uri
suplimentare care pot fi consultate de cei care doresc mai multe informaţii.
În speranţa că materialele prezentate în diverse forme şi sarcini de lucru
vor atrage interesul studenţilor/utilizatorilor şi le vor fi utile în activitatea de
poliţie, vă doresc succes!
AUTOAREA

ACADEMIA DE POLITIE “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” – Centrul Învăţământ cu Frecvenţă Redusă şi 2015
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English language course for police

OBIECTIVE GENERALE

 Dezvoltarea capacităţii de comunicare în limba engleză utilizând


terminologia de specialitate poliţienească

OBIECTIVE SPECIFICE

 Însuşirea unui vocabular de specialitate prin studierea de texte cu specific


poliţienesc
 Perfecţionarea deprinderilor de scris, citit, ascultat şi vorbit în limba
engleză
 Valorificarea elementelor gramaticale prin exerciţii diversificate
 Dezvoltarea capacităţii de exprimare a opiniilor în mod logic, argumentat
şi coerent în limba engleză
 Elaborarea şi susţinerea de proiecte pe teme de cercetare cu profil
poliţienesc
 Dezvoltarea deprinderilor de comunicare, relaţionare în limba engleză
 Formarea unei atitudini pozitive faţă de limba străină studiată

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English language course for police

Unit 1 – POLICE. INTRODUCTION

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about Police as an institution, police roles, responsibilities
etc.;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary acquired and the policing concepts;
– to encourage the free expression of feelings, opinions in English.

Definition. Etymology

T he police is the personification of the state designated to put in practice the


enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters.
The police powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most
commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police
power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are
often defined as organizations separate from any military forces, or other organizations
involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie and
military police are military units charged with policing.

Law enforcement, however, constitutes only a part of policing activity. Policing has
included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned
with the preservation of order.
Alternative names for police force include:
- constabulary
- gendarmerie

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- police department
- police service
- crime prevention
- protective services
- law enforcement agency
- civil guard or civic guard.
Members can be: police officers, troopers, sheriffs, constables, rangers, peace officers
or civic/civil guards.
First attested in English in 1530, the word police comes from Middle French police, in
turn from Latin politia, which means civil administration. The term is the latinisation of the
Greek πολιτεία (politeia), "citizenship, administration, civil polity" and that from πόλις
(polis), interpreted as 'city' in English. In ancient Greece the term πολισσόος (polissoos)
referred to a person who was "guarding a city". This term comes from polis + the verb σῴζω
(sōizō), "I save, I keep".

Police Roles and Responsibilities


Maintaining law and order in the society forms the core of different duties and roles of
a police officer.
The power of a police officer lies in his ability to enforce the law. Although, the rules
governing duties of police officer differ from country to country, their basic responsibilities
don't change. The police are different from defense forces in a sense they have to work amidst
civil society in maintaining law and order. Their job is no less important than the defense
forces as handling tricky situations while operating in the vicinity of civilians can be
challenging.
However, along with the routine tasks, the police officer may need to handle many
critical situations during his career. The following list may not cover each and every
duty/responsibility of police officers; this is an attempt to summarize the tasks handled by
these professionals.
- Protecting the life and property of people is the prime responsibility of a police officer.
The legal system, in this case acts as a support for the police. The laws and ordinances
passed by the country helps him approach a problem in a systematic manner.
- Patrolling the area assigned to him is one of the duties of a police officer. While on a
routine patrol, the officer checks for any kind of violations of rules and regulations.
- Completing routine tasks delegated to him by the seniors officers, ranging from
conducting interrogations to carrying out searches.
- Answering complaints related to criminal activities and accidents also comes under the
purview of a police officer.
- Handling the situation at the crime scene is another crucial task of the police officer.
Collecting evidence pertaining to the crime, investigations, witnesses and many such
activities are a part of a police officer's duty. Police officers also provide basic life
support to people injured in accidents such as car crashes. They have to obtain written
statements from the drivers of such vehicles. To remove the wreckage from the spot of
an accident and handling the traffic is the duty of the traffic police.
- Escorting prisoners during their trials. Relaying the criminal to and from the court is
one of the risky jobs handled by police officers.
- 'Community policing' activity exercised by the police helps in keeping a watch on
criminal activities and creating a safe atmosphere in the society.
- Maintaining the custody of evidence, property and records obtained in criminal cases.

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- Tackling emergency situations like an outbreak of fire, with the support of fire
brigades.
- Controlling mobs during riots is one of the important task for police officers. The
mobs may become destructive at times, and maintaining law and order in such
situations becomes very crucial.
- Reprimanding people who commit minor crimes. The police officers may penalize the
offenders by issuing citations. Citation is a kind of summon, issued 'on the spot' i.e.,
where the crime takes place. In case of violation of traffic rules, the police have the
right to impose a fine.
- Assisting those who face a car breakdown. People who face emergency medical
situations can take the help of police officers by dialing helpline numbers.
- Acting as security guards during rallies, processions and important gatherings.
Sometimes, the police has to provide security to VIPs. The VIPs may need security in
life threatening situations.
- Park rangers are the police officers who look after the security of national parks. They
have to provide security to people visiting the parks as well as protect the animals
from illegal poaching.
- Look after the security of airports and other public places.
In a broad sense, we can say that police officers keep the bad elements in the society at
bay. They fight for maintaining peace and harmony. There are many forces in the world,
constantly trying to disrupt the balance of our social environment. Thus, one should not take
the services of police officers for granted. Let's salute them for the courage and responsibility
they display in ensuring our safety!

Reactive and Proactive Policing


The police are the officers of the state who have also the task of the investigation of
crime (the investigative role). They see it as central to their job, even though, in reality, non-
investigative work takes up most of their time.
In carrying out this work, the police have a great deal of discretion. The basic powers
of a police officer arise from the status of the office constable, and this means that the police
officer does not simply act as directed like a normal employee. In addition, the task in hand
also lends itself to the exercise of discretion. Though the police are expected to investigate
crime, not every crime which is detected is expected to result in formal action.
In addition, a basic function of the police is to keep the peace, which again requires
sensitivity and common sense rather than legalistic intervention at all times.
When investigating crime, the main choice of strategies has been presented as between
reactive and proactive policing
 The reactive approach involves the police in responding to public calls for help. It
has the advantages that the police operate openly and in response to real public
demand and with the consent of the public. When not answering calls, the police are
expected to be patrolling openly to deter wrongdoing. The police have traditionally
approached policing in this way, and it is important to realise that most crime is
reported by, and detected on the basis of information from, members of the public.
The police are heavily dependent on public cooperation - it is far more important than
any legal powers to detect crime. But it has been pointed out that the strategy,
especially patrolling, is very inefficient - the police rarely bump into criminals who are
on their way home from a burglary.

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 The proactive approach involves building up pictures of threats to the peace and
potential criminality through the targeting of potential criminals and the surveillance
of them. Intelligence is vital so that threats can be identified and appropriate counter-
measures taken. But this information may or may not come from the general public.
Rather, this form of policing tends to involve specialist squads (eg drugs and fraud
squads) who are reliant on the analysis of crime patterns and information from
informants. The dangers with this form of policings are that it is secretive and so less
accountable and that the targets will be selected out of prejudice.
In reality, both forms of policing are practiced at the same time and there is a
compromise between them. On the one hand, patrolling and reactive policing is felt to have
limited impact against serious or professional crime which must be the target of proactive
policing. On the other hand, public tranquility and reassurance are important goals which can
be addressed by visible patrols.
Reflecting the broad duties of the constable, the original powers of a constable to keep
the peace and to act against crime were seen as no more than those of a private citizen. The
constable was a "citizen in uniform" with no special powers and no special immunities. This
picture was never 100% accurate, and the increasing professionalisation of the police
prompted calls for more formal powers to intervene. The issue was considered in depth by the
Philips Royal Commission (Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure, Cmnd. 8092, 1981),
following which the police’s powers have been set out in two main legislative sources: the
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) and the Public Order Act 1986. As a result,
the police are now a specialised agency distinct from ordinary citizens. In granting these
powers, the Philips Commission applied three important tests, which should always be
considered when assessing either existing police powers or the possible grant of further
powers:
 are the powers open? This means that whatever police powers exist, they should be
clear and understandable
 are the powers workable? Police powers must be designed so that the police can carry
out the tasks assigned to them lawfully and without using unlawful or socially
unacceptable tactics
 are the powers fair? This has two aspects. From the individual’s point of view, if a
person has a legal right, fairness means it should be exercisable and respected. fairness
to the police means that they should be able to do their jobs in a way which takes
account of the rights on individuals, so that they are not unknowingly or necessarily
infringed.
Of course, these tests do not tell us all the answers. The criteria conflict to some extent
and terms such as fairness and rights are themsleves rather vague. But they are very helpful
ways of looking at police powers and have been influential.

VOCABULARY
- amidst = în mijlocul
- to answer a complaint = a da curs unei plângeri
- breach of peace = tulburarea liniştii
- burglary = (furt prin) spargere
- to caution = a preveni; a avertiza
- consent = consimţământ
- constable = poliţist; sergent

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- constabulary = forţă poliţienească, poliţişti; poliţienesc


- crime = infracţiune
- criminal = infractor; infracţional (adj.)
- crime prevention = prevenirea infracţionalităţii
- crime pattern = tipar al infracţionalităţii
- crime scene = locul faptei
- criminal activity = activitate infracţională
- criminal damage = daune; prejudicii
- to detain = a reţine
- to disrupt = a dezbina
- to enforce law = a aplica legea
- entitled (to) = îndreptăţit (la)
- evidence = dovadă, dovezi
- to execute a warrant = a pune în aplicare un mandat
- to handle critical situations = a administra situaţiile critice
- to impose a fine = a da o amendă
- to indict = a pune sub acuzaţie
- indictable = condamnabil
- to injure = a răni
- to issue a citation/summons = a emite o citaţie
- to keep smb.at bay = a ţine pe cineva la distanţă
- law enforcement = aplicarea legii
- mob = adunătură, gloată, mulţime
- offence = infracţiune; delict
- offender = infractor
- ordinance = decret, hotărâre, ordin
- outbreak = izbucnire
- to pass a law = a legifera
- pertaining to = legat de; referitor la
- poaching = braconaj
- premises = clădire; local; incintă
- purview = competenţă; domeniu
- reasonable grounds = temei legal
- riot = răzmeriţă, tulburări, dezordini
- to search = a percheziţiona
- to seize = a confisca
- summons = citaţie
- statement = declaraţie
- surveillance = supraveghere
- to tackle = a placa; a opri
- theft = furt
- trial = proces
- to violate rules = a încălca reguli
- wreckage = resturi; rămăşiţe

EXERCISES
1) Define “police”.

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2) Write ten duties of a police officer.


3) Specify in a short paragraph the distinction between the reactive and proactive
police.
4) Find words which may be associated with the term “police” in order to build
word associations:

POLICE

5) Select five terms and expressions from the vocabulary list and make sentences.

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Unit 1 – Summary

1. Definition

Police = the state institution designated to enforce law

2. Roles and responsibilities


- protect citizens’ life and property
- maintain public order and safety
- reduce civil disorder in civilian matters

3. Classification of police activities


- Investigative (carried out during a police investigation)
- Non-investigative (preventive activities, community
activities etc.)

o Reactive (the police response to all the incidents


and crimes reported)
o Proactive (identification of measures to prevent
potential crimes)

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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES


"The Role and Responsibilities of the Police". Policy Studies Institute. p. xii.
http://www.psi.org.uk/publications/archivepdfs/Role%20pol/INDPOL-0.P.pdf. Retrieved
2009-12-22.
 Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of
Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-6690-1292-7.
 Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police
Power. Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1.
 Alpert, G., & Dunham, R. (1988). Policing Multi-ethnic Neighborhoods. Westport,
CT: Greenwood.

http;//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/police
Read more:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_different_roles_and_responsibilities_of_a_police_o
fficer cer#ixzz1WPEIwh68

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Unit 2 - ROMANIAN POLICE


ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND RANKS

Language Learning Objectives:


– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the Romanian police
organization structure and ranks;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary related to names of police structures and
institutions;
– to be able to make the correspondence between the Romanian and English ranks.

Romanian Police Label

Romanian Police
Poliţia Română
Common name Poliţia

Coat of arms of the Romanian Police


Motto Lex et Honor
Law and Honour
Agency overview

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Formed 1990
Preceding agency Miliţia
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency ROU
Law enforcement
General nature
Civilian police
Operational structure
Headquarters Bucharest
Parent agency Ministry of Internal Affairs (MAI)
The Romanian Police are responsible for:
- the protection of the fundamental rights and liberties of the citizens and of the private
and public property
- the prevention and identification of criminal offenses and their perpetrators
- maintaining the public order and safety

Romanian Police Organization


General Inspectorate of Romanian Police is the central unit of police in Romania,
which manages, guides, supports and controls the activity of the Romanian police units,
investigates and analyses very serious crimes related to organized crime, economic, financial
or banking criminality, or to other crimes which make the object of the criminal cases
investigated by the Prosecutor’s Office of the Supreme Court of Justice, and which has any
other attributions assigned by law.
The organizational chart of General Inspectorate of Romanian Police includes general
directorates, directorates, services and, offices established by the order of the Minister of
Administration and Interior:
- Directorate for Operations Management
- Directorate for Human Resources Management
- Legal Directorate of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police
- Directorate for Budget and Accounting
- Directorate for Internal Control
- Directorate for European Affairs, Programmes and International Cooperation
- Directorate for Intelligence Management and Analysis
- Service for Schengen and Personal Data Protection
- The International Police Cooperation Centre
The General Inspectorate is under the command of a General Inspector appointed by
the Minister of Administration and Interior.
Central units
General Directorate for Countering the Organized Crime - with 5 central directorates:
- Anti-Drug Directorate
- Directorate of Combating Human Trafficking
- Cyber Crime Directorate
- Directorate of Combating Terrorism Financing and Money Laundering
- Special Operations Directorate
and 15 regional Brigades of Countering Organized Criminality.

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These Brigades are specialized units and have the mission to fight against organized
crime, drug trafficking, human trafficking, illegal migration, cyber crime, serious financial
frauds, financing terrorism and money laundering.
General Directorate for Criminal Investigations - with 3 central directorates:
- Fraud Investigations Directorate
- Criminal Investigations Directorate
- Directorate of Firearms, Explosives and Toxic Substances.
General Directorate for Public Safety Police - with 3 central directorates:
- Public Order Directorate
- Traffic Police Directorate
- Transport Police Directorate.

Uniformed police agents from the Public Order Directorate

General Directorate for Administrative Police - with 4 central directorates:


- Forensics Institute
- Directorate for Criminal Records, Statistics and Operational Registry
- Directorate for Logistics Management
- Directorate for IT&C.
Under the command of the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police operates a
specialized intervention squad, The Independent Service of Special Interventions and
Operations.
Territorial units
The Romanian Police is divided into 41 County Police Inspectorates, corresponding to
each county, and The Bucharest General Directorate of Police.
Each County Police Inspectorate has a rapid reaction unit (Police Rapid Intervention
Squad). The similar unit attached to the Bucharest Police is called Police Rapid Intervention
Service.

Romanian Police Ranks


The ranks are denoted by the epaulettes or badges worn on all police uniforms
especially on the shoulders of the uniforms.

Commissioned Ranks
Rank Shoulder Translated as Military French police British Metropolitan

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insignia rank rank Police rank equivalent


equivalent equivalent

Chestor- Police
Directeur des
general de Quaestor- General Commissioner
services actifs
poliţie General

Chestor-şef Police Chief- Lieutenant Inspecteur


Assistant Commissioner
de poliţie Quaestor General général

Chestor Police
Major Contrôleur Deputy Assistant
principal de Principal
General général Commissioner
poliţie Quaestor

Chestor de Police Brigadier Contrôleur


Commander
poliţie Quaestor General général

Comisar-şef Police Chief- Commissaire


Colonel Chief Superintendent
de poliţie Commissioner divisionnaire

Comisar de Police Lieutenant Commissaire


Superintendent Grade I
poliţie Commissioner Colonel de police

Subcomisar Police Sub-


Major Commandant Superintendent
de poliţie Commissioner

Inspector Police
principal de Principal Captain Capitaine Chief Inspector
poliţie Inspector

Inspector de Police
Lieutenant Lieutenant Inspector
poliţie Inspector

Subinspector Police Sub- Second Lieutenant Temporary/Probationary


de poliţie Inspector Lieutenant intern Inspector

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Non-commissioned Ranks
Shoulder Military rank French police British police
Rank Translated as
insignia equivalent rank equivalent rank equivalent

Agent-şef
Police Principal Sergeant Station
principal de Brigadier-major
Chief Agent Major Sergeant
poliţie

Agent-şef de Police Chief Station


Staff Sergeant Brigadier-chef
poliţie Agent Sergeant

Agent-şef
Police Deputy
adjunct de Sergeant Brigadier Sergeant
Chief Agent
poliţie

Agent
Police Principal Gardien de la
principal de Corporal Acting Sergeant
Agent paix
poliţie

Agent de Gardien de la
Police Agent Private Constable
poliţie paix stagiare

VOCABULARY
- advancement from …to …= promovare în funcţie de la ... la ...
- appointment = numire în funcţie
- assistant = ajutor de; adjunct
- badge = emblemă, semn distinctiv; insignă
- board = conducere, consiliu, comisie
- brigade = detaşament, brigadă
- county = judeţ
- department = department
- deputy = adjunct, ajutor, locţiitor
- designation = desemnare, numire
- directorate = direcţie
- division = divzie; compartiment
- epaulette = epolet
- headquarters = centru de comandă
- insignia = decoraţie, distincţie, însemn al gradului militar; tresă (milit.); stea (milit.)
- inspectorate = inspectorat

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- to outrank = a avea un grad/rang mai mare


- precint = secţie de poliţie
- service = serviciu (în cadrul unei structuri organizatorice)
- squad = detaşament, formaţie militară

EXERCISES
1) Identify the Romanian ranks by the shoulder insignia:

__________________ __________________ _____________________

__________________ ___________________ _____________________

__________________ ____________________ _____________________

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__________________ ____________________ ______________________

__________________ _____________________ _____________________

2) Classify the following ranks into commissioned and non-commissioned ones:


Inspector, Police Deputy Chief Agent, Police Sub-Commissioner, Commander, Police
Principal Inspector, Police Principal Agent, Chief Superintendent, Police Quaestor-General,
Police Commissioner, Station Sergeant, Police Quaestor, Police Principal Agent, Police
Agent, Police Chief-Quaestor, Police Chief Agent, Police Principal Quaestor, Constable,
Police Principal Chief Agent, Police Inspector, Police Chief-Commissioner, Police Sub-
Inspector

Commissioned Ranks Non-commissioned Ranks

3) Find the Romanian police rank equivalent for:

Ranks Romanian police rank equivalent


Sergeant Major (military)
Deputy Assistant Commissioner
General (military)
Colonel (military)
Station Sergeant
Commissioner
Commander
Major (military)
Chief Superintendent
Sergeant
Assistant Commissioner
Superintendent
Lieutenant General (military)
Inspector
Superintendent Grade I

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Constable
Probationary Inspector
Station Sergeant
Acting Sergeant
Chief Inspector
Captain (military)
Brigadier General (military)
Lieutenant Colonel (military)
Second Lieutenant (military)

Unit 2 - Summary

1. The ranks are denoted by the epaulettes or badges worn on


all police uniforms especially on the shoulders of the
uniforms. Police ranks are commissioned and non-
commissioned.

2. Commissioned Ranks are:


- Police Quaestor-General
- Police Chief-Quaestor
- Police Principal Quaestor
- Police Quaestor
- Police Chief-Commissioner
- Police Commissioner
- Police Sub-Commissioner
- Police Principal Inspector
- Police Inspector
- Police Sub-Inspector

3. Non-commissioned Ranks are:


- Police
ACADEMIA Principal
DE POLITIE ChiefIoan
“Alexandru Agent
Cuza” – Centrul Învăţământ cu Frecvenţă Redusă şi 2015
- Police Chief Agent Învăţământ la Distanţă

- Police Deputy Chief Agent


- Police Principal Agent
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

http://www.police999.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=54:general-
police-info&id=1444:uk-police-ranks
http://www.police.nl/PoliceGB/RANKS.HTM
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police_ranks_of_the_United_States
http://www.careerpoliceofficer.com/PoliceandPolice/police_rank_insignias.htmlhttp://letcone
x.blogspot.com/2011/04/romanian-police-ranks.html
http://www.google.ro/images?hl=ro&source=hp&q=police+organizational+structure&btnG
=C%C4%83utare+Google&gbv=2&oq=police+organizational+structure&aq=f&aqi=&aql
=&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=13000l28187l0l30953l31l31l0l21l0l0l1031l2891l2-
1.2.1.1.0.1l6l0&oi=image_result_group&sa=X

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Unit 3 - POLICE ETHICS

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about police ethics, types of unethical behavior, legitimacy
and trust, corruption, immorality etc.;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary specific to different codes of ethics;
– to develop the communication skills in English.

Types of Unethical Behavior

T he vast majority of police officers are honest and ethical, at least in their
personal, or ordinary, morality (which may be different from their "role
morality" or police ethics), but all of them pay the price for decreased public
confidence and trust when there is little respect for police ethics.
There are two possible causes of public mistrust for police ethics:
- the perception that a police subculture exists that either turns good officers bad
or tolerates evil in policing
- the perception that most of policing is just a front for racial discrimination.
These perceptions affect all of policing, go to the heart of police role in society, and
involve ethical issues like trust.

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There are a number of unethical behavior examples such as:


- Deviance - behavior inconsistent with the police culture's norms or values.
- Corruption - immoral, habitual behavior involving misuse of office for self-interest.
- Favoritism - unfair or unjust acts ("breaks") usually given to friends or relatives.
- Misconduct - wrongful violations of a police department's rules, policies, and
procedures. There are different types of misconduct usually classified as follows:
o Malfeasance - intentional commission of a prohibited act or intentional unjust
performance of some act of which the party had no right (e.g., gratuity,
perjury, use of police resources for personal use)
o Misfeasance - performance of a duty or act that one is obligated or permitted to
do in a manner which is improper, or negligent (e.g., report writing, unsafe
operation of motor vehicle, aggressively "reprimanding" a citizen, improper
searching of arrestees)
o Nonfeasance - failure to perform an act which one is obligated to do either by
law or directive due to omission or failure to recognize the obligation (e.g.,
failure to file report, improper stop, security breach).

Legitimacy and Trust


Legitimacy and trust are complex issues in policing. Legitimacy refers to how fair or
just the outcomes of policing are, and trust refers to a faith in the procedural justice of
policing. In practice, most researchers (e.g. Stoutland 2001) combine the two into one big
concept called TRUST and use the following indicators:
- Priorities (do the police share the same priorities as the public?)
- Competency (do the police accomplish the requirements of their job?)
- Dependability (are the police dependable?)
- Respect (do the police treat people with respect?)
The indicators of shared priorities and respect are specific indicators of trust and the
indicators of competency and dependability are specific indicators of legitimacy. The police
need the public to have positive perceptions on all these indicators, which are usually seen as
the "four dimensions of trust" in police studies. Researchers (Hawdon et. al. 2003) have found
that about the only thing which is correlated with these indicators is police visibility (the
number of patrols in a neighborhood). Whether or not police officers stop to informally talk
with anybody doesn't matter, and neither does any attempt by police to engage in community
policing.
Image is everything, and a police officer who just needs to be seen, can be seen doing
anything, as long as it's not ridiculous. From the point of view that visibility is the only thing
that matters, being seen sleeping in a car would be a worse offense than being callous toward
citizens. Americans don't seem to want human beings as police officers, just machine-like
robots who fill up a uniform and stand visibly by for action and/or service.

Corruption and Immorality


Corruption is a subtype of immorality, and all corrupt actions are a subtype of
immoral action. However, not all immorality is corruption, and not all immoral acts are
corrupt acts. For example, minor lawbreaking by a police officer might count as immoral
without being an act of corruption. Also, negligent acts are sometimes immoral, but not
necessarily corrupt. Corrupt acts have a number of properties that other immoral actions do
not possess, such as:

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- corruption involves manifestation of a regular disposition or habit on the part of the


officer;
- corruption exists when the law is seen as hopelessly inadequate and irredeemable,
such as when guilty offenders go unpunished;
- corruption is driven by narrow, personal or collective self-interest, such as the
financial gain of a group of employees or the career advancement of employee(s).
Just defining corruption can be problematic. Three examples should suffice. Goldstein
(1977), for example, defines corruption as "misuse of authority for personal gain." Both
elements must be present for this definition to apply. In other words, there must be some
misuse of authority (malfeasance) and some personal gain. Alternatively, McMullan (1961)
defines corruption as "accepting money or money's worth for doing something under a duty
not to do or to do anyway." This definition seems to get at misfeasance and nonfeasance, and
is generally regarded as relating to police "productivity" problems, or what is also called the
"selective nonenforcement" issue. A third definition comes from Lundman (1980) where
corruption is defined as "violations of conduct norms that are rarely enforced." This
definition seems ideal for analyzing situations where a police subculture is a culture within a
culture, and probably fits most any kind of malfeasance, misfeasance, and nonfeasance. It has
the advantage of focusing on "conduct" or actual behavior.

The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics


Codes are like firearms; they have their value and they have their dangers. One of the
more interesting questions to ask is why police created a code of ethics in the first place. It
may be that codes contain historically important clues to the contextual mandates for policing,
but more often than not, they represent aspirations toward the future without any clear
directions for how to get from one place (the past) to another (the future). The police code
illustrated below is designed to be like an oath of office, and the effectiveness of making
someone say "I will..." over and over again is debatable.

Law Enforcement Code of Ethics


”As a Law Enforcement Officer, my fundamental duty is to serve
mankind; to safeguard lives and property; to protect the innocent against
deception, the weak against oppression or intimidation, and the peaceful
against violence or disorder; and to respect the Constitutional rights of all
men to liberty, equality and justice.
I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all; maintain
courageous calm in the face of danger, scorn, or ridicule; develop self-
restraint; and be constantly mindful of the welfare of others. Honest in
thought and deed in both my personal and official life, I will be
exemplary in obeying the laws of the land and the regulations of my
department.
Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided in
me in my official capacity will be kept ever secret unless revelation is
necessary in the performance of my duty.
I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices,
animosities or friendships to influence my decisions.
With no compromise for crime and the relentless prosecution of criminals, I
will enforce the law courteously and appropriately without fear of favor,
malice
ACADEMIAor illDEwill, never
POLITIE employing
“Alexandru unnecessary
Ioan Cuza” force or violence
– Centrul Învăţământ cu Frecvenţăand never
Redusă şi 2015
accepting gratuities. Învăţământ la Distanţă
I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith,
and I accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the
ethics of the police service.
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VOCABULARY
- appropriately = în mod adecvat
- badge = insignă
- breach = încălcare
- callous = aspru, dur, crud
- code of ethics = codul deontologic
- to confide (in) = a se încrede (în)
- courteous = politicos
- dependable = de nădejde, demn de încredere
- deviance = deviere
- to fail = a greşi
- gratuity = bacşiş
- irredeemable = deznădăjduit, fără speranţă
- malfeasance = abuz; infracţiune
- malice = răutate
- misconduct = abatere; neglijenţă (în serviciu)
- misfeasance = abuz de putere; executare nelegală şi incorectă a unui act legal;
realizarea unor drepturi legale pe căi ilegale
- mistrust = neîncredere
- misuse of office = abuz în serviciu
- nonfeasance = eşec datorat nesupunerii faţă de autoritatea ierarhică/
nerecunoaşterii obligativităţii de a îndeplini o sarcină de serviciu
- to obey the law = a respecta legea
- oath of office = jurământ de credinţă
- officiously = cu servilism
- perjury = încălcare a jurământului, mărturie falsă
- scorn = dispreţ
- self-restraint = stăpânire de sine
- to strive = a se strădui; a se lupta
- unsullied = nepângărit
- welfare = bunăstare

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EXERCISES
1) Match the definitions with the titles below:
1. Wrongful violations of a police department's rules, policies, and procedures.
2. Immoral, habitual behavior involving misuse of office for self-interest.
3. Behavior inconsistent with the police culture's norms or values.
4. Unfair or unjust acts ("breaks") usually given to friends or relatives.
A. Deviance
B. Favoritism
C. Corruption
D. Misconduct

2) Identify the term the definitions below refer to:

violations of conduct
misuse of authority norms that are rarely
for personal gain enforced
accepting money or money's
worth for doing something
under a duty not to do or to
do anyway

3) Use the correct verbs in the following description of the Common Curriculum on
Police Ethics & Corruption tasks:

ensure, demonstrate, develop (x3),


improve (x2),
strenghten (x2), follow, incorporate

The Common Curriculum on Police Ethics & Corruption is intended to:


- _________ awareness of the role of police in a democratic society;
- __________ and __________ knowledge about police ethics and the need for
prevention of corruption;
- ____________ that everyone has a responsibility to act in an ethical manner;
- ____________ the desire to behave in an ethical way and the ability to behave
correctly under pressure or in stressful situations;
- ___________ awareness of risks in day-to-day police work;
- _________ an ethical climate (managers);
- ____________ ethical behaviour in day-to-day police work;
- ____________ common European standards in policing;
- ____________ the quality of activities and _________ professionalism.

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4) Translate the Romanian Law Enforcement Codes of Ethics into English:

„ Jur credinţă patriei mele, România,


Jur solemn să-mi apăr ţara,
chiar cu preţul vieţii.
Jur să respect legile ţării
şi regulamentele militare.
Aşa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!”
Legea nr.46/05.06.1996

„ Jur să respect Constituţia,


drepturile şi libertăţile fundamentale ale omului,
să aplic în mod corect şi fără părtinire legile ţării,
să-mi îndeplinesc cu răspundere şi bună credinţă
îndatoririle ce-mi revin potrivit funcţiei
şi să păstrez secretul profesional.
Aşa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!”
Jurământul de credinţă al poliţistului

Unit 3 - Summary

1. Examples of unethical behavior:


Deviance - behavior inconsistent with the police culture's norms
or values.
Corruption - immoral, habitual behavior involving misuse of
office for self-interest.
Favoritism - unfair or unjust acts ("breaks") usually given to
friends or relatives.
Misconduct - wrongful violations of a police department's rules,
policies, and procedures.

2. DE
ACADEMIA Corruption is: Ioan Cuza” – Centrul Învăţământ cu Frecvenţă Redusă şi
POLITIE “Alexandru 2015
- misuse of authority for personal gain Învăţământ la Distanţă
- accepting money or money's worth for doing something under a
duty not to do or to do anyway
- violations of conduct norms that are rarely enforced
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

 Lundman, R. (1980). "Police misconduct." In R. J. Lundman (Ed.), Police Behavior: A


Sociological Perspective, (pp. 163-180). New York: Oxford University Press
 MacDonald, H. (2003). Are Cops Racist? Chicago: Ivan Dee.
 Manning, P. & Van Maanen, J. (Eds.) (1978). Policing: A View from the Street. Santa
Monica: Goodyear.
 McMullan, M., (1961). "A Theory of Corruption." Sociological Review, 9(2): 181-
201.
 Stoutland, S. (2001). "The Multiple Dimensions of Trust in Resident/Police
Relations," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33(3): 226-256.

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Unit 4 - POLICE COOPERATION

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about police cooperation and the important international
police institutions and agencies;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary acquired and the police cooperation concepts;
– to develop the communication skills in English.

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Transnational Policing
The term transnational policing entered into use in the mid-90s as a description for
forms of policing that transcended the boundaries of the sovereign nation state (Sheptycki,
1995). It is distinguished against the terms ‘international policing’ and ‘global policing’. The
former term would seem to indicate only those types of policing that are formally directed by
institutions usually responsible for international affairs (for example the State Department in
the US, the Foreign Office in the UK, etc.). The later term would seem to indicate only those
forms of policing that are fully global in scope.
Transnational policing pertains to all those forms for policing that, in some sense,
transgress national borders. This includes a variety of practices, but cross-border police
cooperation, criminal intelligence exchange between police agencies working in different
nation-states, and police development-aid to weak, failed or failing states are the three types
that have received the most scholarly attention.

INTERPOL
NTERPOL is the world’s largest international police organization, with 188

I member countries. Its role is to enable police around the world to work together to
make the world a safer place. Its high-tech infrastructure of technical and
operational support helps meet the growing challenges of fighting crime in the 21st century.
Supporting police worldwide
They work to ensure that police around the world have access to the tools and services
necessary to do their jobs effectively. They provide targeted training, expert investigative
support, relevant data and secure communications channels.
This combined framework helps police on the ground understand crime trends, analyse
information, conduct operations and, ultimately, arrest as many criminals as possible.
Neutrality
It aims at facilitating international police cooperation even where diplomatic relations
do not exist between particular countries. Action is taken within the limits of existing laws in
different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its
Constitution prohibits ‘any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial
character'.
Vision and mission
The vision: "Connecting police for a safer world".
The mission: "Preventing and fighting crime through enhanced international police co-
operation".
A global presence
The General Secretariat is located in Lyon, France, and operates 24 hours a day, 365
days a year. It also has seven regional offices across the world and a representative office at
the United Nations in New York and at the European Union in Brussels. Each of our 188
member countries maintains a National Central Bureau staffed by its own highly trained law
enforcement officials.
Technical tools
All 188 INTERPOL member countries are connected through a secure
communications system known as I-24/7. This gives police real-time access to criminal

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databases containing millions of records. This unique system of notices is used to alert
member countries to fugitives, dangerous criminals, missing persons or weapons threats.
24-hour response
The Command and Coordination Centre is operational around the clock and serves as
the first point of contact for any member country faced with a crisis situation. It can deploy
specialized response teams to the scene of a serious crime or disaster or to assist with security
preparations for a major international event.
Investigative skills
Forensic experts provide targeted support to member countries in the areas of
fingerprint and DNA analysis and the identification of victims of disasters. Criminal
intelligence analysts monitor and analyse information related to specific areas of crime and
criminal organizations, and inform member countries about evolving trends and patterns.
Police training
The training portfolio ranges from practical courses in specific crime areas and
investigative techniques for frontline officers, to high-level management programmes for
senior police staff.
All crime areas
Many crimes in the 21st century have a transnational dimension and require a global
response. INTERPOL works to prevent and investigate a wide range of crimes, delivering
tangible initiatives and making a real difference to international co-operation.

Corruption Financial crime

Crimes against children

Cybercrime Firearms

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Environmental crime Drugs

Fugitive investigations Trafficking in human beings

Intellectual property crime and counterfeiting

Maritime piracy Terrorism

Organized crime Works of art

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Pharmaceutical crime Vehicle crime

EUROPOL
EUROPOL is the European law enforcement agency.
Vision and mission
Its job is to make Europe safer by assisting the Member States of the European Union
in their fight against serious international crime and terrorism. Large-scale criminal and
terrorist networks pose a significant threat to the internal security of the EU and to the safety
and livelihood of its people. It’s main goal is to help achieve a safer Europe for the benefit of
all EU citizens.
Personnel
The agency uses its unique information capabilities and the expertise of 700 staff at
the headquarters in The Hague, the Netherlands who work closely with law enforcement
agencies in the 27 European Union member states and in other non-EU partner states such as
Australia, Canada, the USA and Norway. Europol personnel come from different kinds of law
enforcement agencies, including regular police, border police, customs and security services.
This multi-agency approach helps to close information gaps and minimise the space in which
criminals can operate. Some 137 EUROPOL Liaison Officers are based at EUROPOL
headquarters.
Supporting police forces in Europe
As EUROPOL officers have no direct powers of arrest, it supports law enforcement
colleagues by gathering, analysing and disseminating information and coordinating
operations. Its partners use the input to prevent, detect and investigate offences, and to track
down and prosecute those who commit them. EUROPOL experts and analysts take part in
Joint Investigation Teams which help solve criminal cases on the spot in EU countries.
Law enforcement authorities in the EU rely on this intelligence work and the services
of Europol’s operational coordination centre and secure information network, to carry out
almost 12 000 cross–border investigations each year.
Unique services
It offers a variety of services. It is a support centre for law enforcement operations,
criminal information, and law enforcement expertise.
Analysis is at the core of the activities. It employs more than 100 criminal analysts
who are among the best trained in Europe. This gives EUROPOL one of the largest
concentrations of analytical capability in the EU.
It is a high-security operational centre which deals with more than 9,000 cases a year,
turning high-quality analysis into operational successes. This flexible service centre operates
non-stop: 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
It serves as a EU centre of expertise, providing a central platform for law enforcement
experts from the European Union countries.
State-of-the-art technology

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International crime and terrorist groups operate worldwide and make use of the latest
technology. To ensure an effective and coordinated response, Europol needs to be equally
flexible and innovative, and make sure its methods and tools are up to date. It has state-of-the-
art databases and communication channels, offering fast and secure capabilities for storing,
searching, visualising and linking information.
Areas of expertise
It focuses on different areas of criminal and terrorist activity from year to year,
depending on the demands of the situation. Its main priorities, however, tend to remain
relatively stable, reflecting those of international criminal and terrorist groups. Over the years
they have built up substantial experience in fighting drug trafficking, illicit immigration
networks and trafficking in human beings, illicit vehicle trafficking, cyber crime, money
laundering, forgery of money, euro counterfeiting.

CEPOL
CEPOL (European Police College) - The acronym CEPOL is French and stands for
Collège européen de police - European Police College in English.
Vision and mission
It was established as an agency of the European Union in 2005 (Council Decision
2005/681/JHA). It brings together senior police officers across Europe with the aim to
encourage cross-border cooperation in the fight against crime, maintenance of public security,
law and order. It has been running training activities since 2001.
Services provided
It organises between 70-100 courses, seminars and conferences per year. The
implementation of the activities takes place at the national police training institutes of the
Member States and the activities cover a wide-range of topics.
Budget
It has an annual budget of about €7.8 million (2010).
Organisational Structure
It’s Secretariat is managed by a Director, who has been appointed for a four-year
period, ending February 2014.
The Director is accountable to the Governing Board which is made up of
representatives from the EU Member States, usually the Directors from the national police
training institutes.
The Chair of the Governing Board is a representative of the member state holding the
Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
The Governing Board normally meets four times a year and has established four
committees.
The committees are supported by Working Groups, Project Groups and Sub-groups.
Personnel
It’s Secretariat has about 30 staff members who carry out the day-to-day work, within
two departments; the Learning, Science, Research & Development Department and the
Corporate Services Department.

VOCABULARY
- to aim at = a ţinti; a viza
- at the core of =
- border police = poliţie de frontieră

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- core = miez, inimă


- to counterfeit = a falsifica; a contraface
- cross-border cooperation = cooperare transfrontalieră
- customs = vamă
- to deploy = a (se) desfăşura
- to enable = a face posibil; a permite; a da posibilitatea
- to enhance = a spori
- to evolve = a desfăşura; a transforma; a evolua, a se dezvolta
- fingerprint = amprentă digitală
- forgery = fals; falsificare; plastografie
- intelligence = informaţii; spionaj
- livelihood = mijloace de trai; trai, existenţă
- money laundering = spălare de bani
- on the spot = imediat; pe teren; la locul respectiv
- to pose = a pune; a supune; a poza
- to prosecute = a urmări în justiţie
- to range (from) = a se întinde; a varia, a diferi
- state-of-the-art technology = tehnologie de ultimă oră
- threat = ameninţare
- weapon = armă

EXERCISES

1) Fill in the table below with the similarities and differences between the specified
institutions:

Similarities Differences

INTERPOL

EUROPOL

CEPOL

2) Imagine that you are in charge with planning the Community Policing Activities
and Programmes. Give examples and complete the chart below.

NAME OF THE ACTION/PROGRAMME DATE/TIME LOCATION PARTNERS


Special crime prevention programmes:
-
Programmes for students & youth:
-
Programmes for citizen participation:
-

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Programmes to assist crime victims:


-
Other programmes:

3) Write a short essay about the role of INTERPOL/EUROPOL in preventing


crimes.

4) Select five terms and expressions from the vocabulary list and make sentences.

Unit 4 - Summary

1. Transnational Policing
= forms of policing that transcended the boundaries of the
sovereign nation state
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2. International police cooperation need through
international police institutions and agencies:
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

http://www.interpol.int/
http://www.interpol.int/About-INTERPOL/Overview
http://www.interpol.int/INTERPOL-expertise/Overview
http://www.interpol.int/Crime-area
https://www.europol.europa.eu/content/page/introduction-143

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https://www.europol.europa.eu/content/page/about-europol-17
https://www.europol.europa.eu/content/page/history-149
www.cepol.europa.eu
http://www.google.ro/search?q=community+police+powers&hl=ro&source=hp&aq=1&aqi
=g4&aql=&oq=community+police+

Unit 5 – POLICE POWERS AND THE HUMAN


RIGHTS

Language Learning Objectives:


– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the police powers;
– to raise awareness regarding the observance of the human rights in policing;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
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– to develop the communication skills in English.
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Police powers
The powers of the police can be categorised as:
 The power to stop and search people/vehicles/objects/places
 The power to stop and detain people
 The power to arrest people
 The power to enter property

The power to stop and search people/vehicles/objects/places


(without arrest)
The police may act if there is reasonable grounds for suspicion to stop, detain and
search you or your vehicle, or anything in or on your vehicle for certain items. Any items
found may be seized.
The police do not have general powers, apart from those specified in a statute, to stop
and search you. You should always ask a police officer to explain on what basis they are
searching you. If no search power exists you should not be searched unless you are entering
sports grounds or other premises and your consent to the search is a condition of entry.
Where can the search take place?
The power of stop and search may be used by the police in most public and some
private places as follows:
 A place to which, at the time of the proposed stop and search, the public - or any
section of the public - has access as a matter of legal right or because there is
permission.
 Any place - other than a dwelling - to which people have ready access at the time of
the proposed stop and search.
What can the police search for?
The power to stop and search enables a constable to search for stolen or ‘prohibited
articles’ which can be:
 An offensive weapon.
 An article made or adapted for use in connection with one of a list of offences
including burglary, theft, taking a conveyance without authority (or being carried in
one), obtaining property by deception and criminal damage.
Virtually any article could come within this second definition but there would have to
be some evidence of the use of the article or the intention of the person making, adapting or
carrying it, otherwise a constable would not have reasonable grounds to search.
The police also have power to stop and search for specific items under a number of
other statutes. Most particularly, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 enables a constable to stop
and search you or your vehicle for ‘controlled drugs’.

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The power to stop and detain people


A police officer who has reasonable grounds for suspicion can stop and detain you in
order to conduct the search. Before doing the search they can ask you questions to confirm or
eliminate that suspicion. If their suspicion is eliminated by the questioning or any other
circumstances, you are free to leave and you must be told this. The police have no powers to
stop you in order to find grounds that would justify a search.
Any police officer, whether or not in uniform, may search you personally, but usually
only a constable in uniform may stop a vehicle. A police officer may detain you or your
vehicle for a search, but the police officer must inform you as soon as the detention begins.
The detention may only last for as long as is reasonably required to permit a search to
be carried out at the place of detention or nearby. You cannot be compelled to remain with
your vehicle while the vehicle is searched, but you may wish to do so. Police officers have
other powers to stop a vehicle, for example to check whether it is roadworthy or stolen, but
not to search it.
If you are lawfully detained for a search, but no search in fact takes place (for instance
because the grounds for suspicion are eliminated), the detention in the first place is not
unlawful.
Reasonable grounds for suspicion
Most stop and search powers can only be exercised when the constable is acting on
‘reasonable suspicion’. This includes the power to search a person for illegal drugs (under the
Misuse of Drugs Act 1971) and the power to search for stolen or prohibited items (under
PACE).
There must be some basis for the officer’s belief, related to you personally, which can
be considered and evaluated by an objective third person. Mere suspicion based on hunch or
instinct might justify observation but cannot justify a search.
However, reasonable suspicion can sometimes exist without specific information or
intelligence and on the basis of some level of generalisation stemming from the behaviour of a
person. For example, if an officer encounters someone on the street at night obviously trying
to hide something, this clearly constitutes conduct that might reasonably lead the officer to
suspect that stolen or prohibited articles are being carried.
The power must be used fairly, responsibly, with respect for people being searched
and without unlawful discrimination. This would include discrimination on grounds of race,
colour, ethnic origin, nationality or national origin. Accordingly, reasonable grounds for
suspicion cannot be based solely on attitudes or prejudices towards certain types of people,
such as membership of a group within which offenders of a certain kind are relatively
common - for example, young football fans. Nor can it be based solely on your skin colour,
age, hairstyle, mode of dress or previous convictions.

The Rights of Suspects


Most police powers and rights for suspects are to be found in the Police and Criminal
Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) and in the accompanying Codes of Practice. PACE originally
aimed to strike a balance between the interests of the community on the one hand, and the
rights and liberties of the individual suspect on the other. PACE has been amended many
times since then, most recently by the Criminal Justice Act 2003.
If any police powers are abused:
 The evidence obtained by the police may be inadmissible in court
 You may make an official police complaint

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 You may be able to bring a civil action against the police


 You may be able to bring judicial review proceedings against the police
 You may bring an action under the HRA (Human Rights Act) against the police.

The power to arrest people


The police may arrest with or without a warrant. There are many powers of arrest
under a warrant issued by a justice of the peace or judge, and the rules governing each of them
is set out in the statute creating the power.
An arrest is unlawful unless you are told that you are under arrest and the grounds for
the arrest at the time. Such an unlawful arrest will become lawful when the police tell you the
reason for the arrest. This information must be given at the time of the arrest or as soon as
possible afterwards. The information need not be given if it was not reasonably practicable to
do so because, for example, you escaped from arrest before it could be given. You must also
be cautioned if you attend voluntarily at a police station, or any other place with a constable
without having been arrested, that you are entitled to leave at will unless placed under arrest.
Arrest other than at a Police Station
After arrest, a constable must take you to a police station as soon as possible. A
constable may, however, delay taking you to a police station if your presence elsewhere is
necessary in order to carry out such investigations as it is reasonable to carry out immediately,
such as a search of premises. If there are no grounds for keeping you under arrest the police
should release you either with or without bail. If you are released in these circumstances the
only condition of bail can be that you are required to attend at a police station. Once you have
been released on bail there is nothing preventing you being re-arrested if new evidence
justifying a further arrest comes to light after your arrest.
Use of Force
Under specific legislation the police are allowed to use reasonable force when
exercising their powers.
Search of a Person on Arrest - other than at a Police Station
A police officer may search you where there are reasonable grounds for believing that:
 You may present a danger to yourself or to somebody else.
 You may have concealed on you anything which might be used to assist an escape
from lawful custody or which might be evidence relating to any offence.
 You cannot be required to remove any of your clothing in public other than an outer
coat, jacket or gloves.
Police detention
The circumstances in which an arrested person may be kept in police detention are set
out in specific legislation.
Normally, the period of detention without charge should not exceed 24 hours, although
in some cases the maximum period, with extensions, is as long as 96 hours. There are a
number of stages at which continuation of custody must be authorised, in the early stages by
police officers and in the later stages by magistrates. Provision is made for the appointment of
custody officers and the performance by them and any other constable in charge of the
prisoner of important duties. The custody officer is responsible for ordering your immediate
release if he or she becomes aware at any time, perhaps after representations from a solicitor,
that the grounds for the detention have ceased to apply and that there are no other grounds for
continued detention. Conversely, you may not be released except on the authority of a custody
officer at the police station where detention was last authorised. The custody officer is also
responsible for keeping a custody record. Your solicitor must be permitted to consult your

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custody record as soon as practicable after their arrival at the station and at any other time
during your detention. You or your legal representative is entitled to a copy of this very
important document on leaving police detention or appearing before the court. This
entitlement lasts for twelve months after release.
On Arrival at or after Arrest at the Police Station
As soon as is practicable after your arrival at the police station or answering to bail, or
after arrest at the police station, the custody officer must determine whether there is sufficient
evidence to charge you with the offence for which the arrest was made. The custody officer
may detain you for as long as is necessary to make such a determination which includes
waiting for others arrested with you to be interviewed. If the custody officer decides that there
is sufficient evidence to charge you, then you should be charged and must be released unless
one of the post-charge detention conditions applies.
Detention without Charge
If the custody officer decides that there is insufficient evidence to charge you, then you
must be released. If the custody officer has reasonable grounds for believing that detention
without charge is necessary to secure or preserve evidence relating to an offence for which
you are under arrest, or to obtain such evidence by questioning you, he or she may order
further police detention. The grounds for the detention must be recorded in writing on the
custody record. You must be told what these grounds are.
Detention without charge cannot be authorised in your own interest, or to prevent the
repetition or continuation of an offence, or to authorise police fishing trips as the evidence
must relate to an offence for which you are under arrest. If the custody officer has reasonable
grounds to believe that you will not answer questions - for example, because your solicitor
has said so - detention cannot be extended to obtain evidence by questioning. Detention for
questioning in such circumstances may well be unlawful.
Review of Detention
Periodic reviews of detention must be carried out for all persons in police custody
pending the investigation of an offence. If you have been charged the review is carried out by
the custody officer. If you have not been charged it is carried out by an officer of at least the
rank of inspector who has not at any stage been directly involved with the investigation. The
general rule is that the first review must be not later than six hours after the detention was first
authorised, and subsequent reviews must take place at intervals of not more than nine hours.
Before deciding whether to authorise your detention, the review officer must give you
(unless you are asleep) and your solicitor or the duty solicitor an opportunity to make oral or
written representations. Representations by a solicitor may be made over the telephone. The
representations might relate, for example, to the amount of evidence already obtained or to
your refusal to answer questions.
An inspector may in certain circumstances, carry out these reviews by telephone or
using video-conferencing facilities. You or your representative can make representation, in
the appropriate way and records must still be kept.
Detention Limits and Police Extensions
The general rule is that you may not be kept in police detention for more than 24 hours
without being charged. This period can be extended by a maximum of twelve hours on the
authority of an officer of the rank of superintendent or above after giving opportunity for
representations to be made. The extension can only be authorised where:
 The officer has reasonable grounds for believing that the offence is an arrestable
offence.
 The investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously.

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 Detention without charge is necessary to secure or preserve evidence of an offence for


which you are under arrest or to obtain evidence by questioning.
 The authorisation cannot last beyond 36 hours from when the detention clock began.

Detention Limits and Magistrates' Extensions


You must be released by the end of 36 hours from the starting point, unless an
application is made to a Magistrates' Court sitting in private. The application is made on oath
by a police officer and supported by written information, which must state the nature of the
offence; the general nature of the evidence for the arrest, what enquiries have been made and
are proposed, and the reason for believing the continued detention is necessary.
You are entitled to a copy of the information and to be legally represented - you can
have an adjournment to obtain legal representation. The police officer will be at court to be
cross-examined and representations may be made to the magistrate(s). These might be
directed, for example, towards any delay in the investigation or in making the application,
whether there is a serious arrestable offence involved, whether detention is necessary, and
whether there is sufficient evidence for you to be charged.
The court may only authorise further detention if:
 The offence is a serious arrestable offence.
 The investigation is being conducted diligently and expeditiously.
 Further detention is necessary to secure or preserve evidence relating to the offence or
to obtain such evidence by questioning you.
 The court may authorise further detention for up to 36 hours from the time that the
application is granted. A further extension of up to 36 hours may be granted if the
same procedure is followed. The total maximum period of detention is 96 hours from
the original starting point - except under the Terrorism Act 2000 where the maximum
is currently seven days.
Detention after Charge
After you have been charged, the custody officer must order your release unless one of
the following post-charge detention conditions applies:
 Your name or address is unknown or doubted.
 Detention is necessary to prevent your committing an offence - if you were arrested
for an imprisonable offence - or from causing physical injury to any other person or
damaging property - if you were not arrested for an imprisonable offence.
 Detention is necessary to prevent your failing to appear in court to answer bail.
 Detention is necessary to prevent your interfering with the administration of justice or
with the investigation of offences.
 You are over 14 and detention is necessary to take a sample of urine or a non-intimate
sample (see later) in order to find out whether you have specified Class A drugs in
your body.
 Detention is necessary for your own protection.
 A juvenile needs to be detained in his or her own interest - this is additional to the
other grounds that may apply equally to juveniles.
 A person who has been detained after charge must be taken to court as soon as
practicable and not later than the first sitting after charge. The police are also able to
impose bail conditions.

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The Rights of Suspects in the Police Station


The rights of suspects after arrest are contained in specific legislation (i.e.in PACE and
in the Code of Practice on the Detention, Treatment and Questioning of Persons and the Code
of Practice on Identification of Persons by the Police - Codes C and D in the USA)..
If you are arrested and taken to a police station or if you are arrested at a police station, the
custody officer must, among other things, determine whether you are, or might be, in need of
medical treatment, require an appropriate adult and/or an interpreter to help check
documentation. The custody officer has to make a formal risk assessment defining the
categories of risk relevant to your custody and must make sure any response to any specific
risk assessment, for example insuring a reduction in opportunities for self-harm. This risk
assessment must be kept under review.
Some of the fundamental rights of the suspects are:
 prohibition of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment
 the right to a fair trial
 the right to privacy
 the right to not to be kept incommunicado
 the right to decent conditions
 the right to legal advice
 the rights of the suspect when searched (at the police station)
 the rights of the persons when taken an interview.

The power to enter property


A constable has the power, at common law, to enter premises to deal with or prevent a
breach of the peace. A constable may also enter and search any premises for the purpose:
 of executing:
- a warrant of arrest issued in connection with or arising out of criminal proceedings
- a warrant of commitment issued under section 76 of the Magistrates' Courts Act 1980
 of arresting a person for an indictable offence
 of arresting a person for other offences (relating to entering and remaining on
property, fear or provocation of violence, failure to stop when required to do so by
constable in uniform, relating to offences involving drink or drugs, offences relating
to the prevention of harm to animals etc.)
 of recapturing any person who is liable to be detained:
- in a prison, remand centre, young offender institution or secure training centre
 of saving life or preventing serious damage to property.
Where can the search take place?
The power of stop and search may be used by the police in most public and some
private places as follows:
 A place to which, at the time of the proposed stop and search, the public - or any
section of the public - has access as a matter of legal right or because there is
permission.
 Any place - other than a dwelling - to which people have ready access at the time of
the proposed stop and search.

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VOCABULARY
- amidst = în mijlocul
- to answer a complaint = a da curs unei plângeri
- breach of peace = tulburarea liniştii
- burglary = (furt prin) spargere
- to caution = a preveni; a avertiza
- consent = consimţământ
- constable = poliţist; sergent
- constabulary = forţă poliţienească, poliţişti; poliţienesc
- crime = infracţiune
- criminal = infractor; infracţional (adj.)
- crime prevention = prevenirea infracţionalităţii
- crime pattern = tipar al infracţionalităţii
- crime scene = locul faptei
- criminal activity = activitate infracţională
- criminal damage = daune; prejudicii
- to detain = a reţine
- to disrupt = a dezbina
- to enforce law = a aplica legea
- entitled (to) = îndreptăţit (la)
- evidence = dovadă, dovezi
- to execute a warrant = a pune în aplicare un mandat
- to handle critical situations = a administra situaţiile critice
- to impose a fine = a da o amendă
- to indict = a pune sub acuzaţie
- indictable = condamnabil
- to injure = a răni
- to issue a citation/summons = a emite o citaţie
- to keep smb.at bay = a ţine pe cineva la distanţă
- law enforcement = aplicarea legii
- mob = adunătură, gloată, mulţime
- offence = infracţiune; delict
- offender = infractor
- ordinance = decret, hotărâre, ordin
- outbreak = izbucnire
- to pass a law = a legifera
- pertaining to = legat de; referitor la
- poaching = braconaj
- premises = clădire; local; incintă
- purview = competenţă; domeniu
- reasonable grounds = temei legal
- riot = răzmeriţă, tulburări, dezordini
- to search = a percheziţiona
- to seize = a confisca
- summons = citaţie
- statement = declaraţie
- surveillance = supraveghere

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- to tackle = a placa; a opri


- theft = furt
- trial = proces
- to violate rules = a încălca reguli
- wreckage = resturi; rămăşiţe

EXERCISES
5) List five rights of the suspects in the Police Station.
6) What are the limits of a police detention?
7) What are the four police powers?

police powers

8) Match the parts of the sentences from the two columns:

1) Police power is defined a) is one of the significant aims behind exercising a


state’s police power.
2) Police power extends b) to refuse to give your name and address, or to give
false details to the police.
3) Preservation of public c) you should exercise your right to speak to a solicitor.
health
4) In case of arresting d) to all appropriate ordinances for the protection of
peace, safety, and good morals of the people.
5) It is a criminal offence e) if they suspect on reasonable grounds you have drugs
of dependence, weapons, volatile substances.
6) Before you are interviewed f) that permits the search of persons.
by the police
7) Police may take your g) as the power of a governmental body to impose laws
photograph and regulations.
8) Police can search you, your h) being given a summons to attend court.
bags or your car without a
warrant
9) Police can search you if i) for the purpose of identification at a trial.
they have a search warrant
10) Being charged means j) there is no obligation for you to provide police with
any further information than your name and address.

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Unit 5 - Summary

1. Police powers
- to stop and search people/vehicles/objects/places
- to stop and detain people
- to arrest people
- to enter property

2. Police powers and the human rights:

Some of the fundamental rights of the suspects are:


 prohibition of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment
 the right to a fair trial
 the right to privacy
 the right to not to be kept incommunicado
 the right to decent conditions
 the right to legal advice
 the rights of the suspect when searched (at the police station)
 the rights of the persons when taken an interview.

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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

http://municipal.uslegal.com/police-powers/
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/duties-of-a-police-officer.html
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_different_roles_and_responsibilities_of_a_police_o
fficer
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/law/hamlyn/police.htm
http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/police/powers/?view=Standard
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/index.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/where-can-
the-search-take-place.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/what-can-the-
police-search-for.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/stopping-and-
detaining.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/reasonable-
grounds-for-suspicion.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/overview-of-police-powers-
and-the-rights-of-suspects.html and the rights of suspects
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/police-powers-of-
arrest/index.html
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/the-rights-of-suspects-in-the-
police-station/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Powers_of_the_police_in_England_and_Wales
http://www.yourrights.org.uk/yourrights/the-rights-of-suspects/stop-and-search/where-can-
the-search-take-place.html

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Unit 6 - POLICE DOCUMENTS (REPORTS)

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about police report: classification, elements,
characteristics, writing shortcuts etc.;
– to be able to fill in different types of police reports;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the report writing skills acquired.

Definition. Different Approaches

W
hile the forms and formats of police reports vary from one department to
another, every police investigation begins with a police report. Police
reports are used to document incidents, alleged criminal offenses, arrests
and traffic accidents. Although the types of police reports vary according to the circumstances
that require them to be generated, common techniques are used to compile all reports.
Here are some definitions of police reports:
- the physical record of an incident deemed to be illegal or potentially illegal. It is taken
by a representative of a police department and filed according to the department's
procedure. It is also known as an "incident report";
- an official document that describes claims that the police officers handle. A police
report will open an investigation into the claim and allow police to begin taking
action;
- a document generated by a law enforcement agency which will contain facts about an
incident, as well as person(s) present and involved in it;
- the most important document of evidence in any complaint, case or legal proceeding.
It is a written record of the statements made by the individual(s) who file the
complaint and the police officer's observations, thoughts, opinions and any statements
made by other people involved in the situation;
- an official document detailing circumstances surrounding an incident, such as a car
accident or a crime, investigated by a police officer. Police reports are usually one of
the most important elements in an investigation. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability
of these reports is of utmost importance, as police reports can come under scrutiny in a
court of law;

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- the first part of any investigation. A well-written, complete and accurate police report
is an important piece of evidence for any future prosecution. Police reports are also
often part of the public record and used to gather statistics and perform evaluations;
- also known as a police statement, it is a document that details what happened during a
particular incident. Prosecuting attorneys use the information in these statements in
determining if criminal charges should be pursued.

Classification of Reports
Short description:
a. A crime/incident report allows the police to get a good idea of what happens when a
crime takes place without actually seeing it. Crime reports are filed for criminal offenses such
as theft, assault and vandalism.
The report consists of five separate parts:
- a heading that quickly points out what the report is about;
- an introduction, which outlines the subject of the report;
- a body that details exactly what is being reported;
- a statement summarizing points made in the body of the report;
- a recommendation that outlines what the officer feels should be done about the
claim.
b. An administrative police report documents violations and crimes of personnel members,
detailing information that will allow the police to take administrative action in response to the
incident.
c. A traffic violation reports one the following: speeding, failure to yield and expired vehicle
registration etc. A police traffic report will include information such as: the driver's name, the
violation, vehicle make and model, license number and vehicle identification number.

Routine Reports Occasional Reports Special Reports of a


Commission

Situational a. Crime/Incident
Monthly b. Administrative
Memorandum etc. c. Traffic violation
d. Intelligence

Elements of a Police Report


Every police investigation starts with the police preliminary report. With the help of
reports, we come to know the criminal’s background and case history that proves helpful in

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solving case with hi-tech theories and process. Some police departments make brief reports
and cover only very basic information but that is not good. Police reports should include
every bit of relevant information that is the part of investigation produced. Depth of
investigations depends on investigation abilities, time and sources that are available to you.
Police report forms and formats can vary according to each other department requirements
but basic elements remain the same in all reports.

Elements of a Police Report Description


a) Officer's Identifying Information - the officer's name, rank and the agency that
(for evidentiary purposes, it is important to dispatched him
carefully record who took the police report)
- basic information about the incident and
b) Basic Factual and Contact Information why the officer was called to the scene (as
(this part of the police report is generally fill- much information as possible, including
in-the-blank) contact information for everyone involved in
the incident)
c) Location, Date and Time of the Incident - the location and the time (if the incident
(its accuracy is important. In a court of law, took place at more than one location, the
mistakes as to date, time and address can reports should document each location and
make the report inadmissible) corresponding time of location change
carefully)
- the witness's statements as well as what the
d) Narrative officer witnessed personally in a
( the "story" of the incident) chronological account (if the other portions
of the report are complete, the report does not
need to repeat unnecessary information)
e) Suspect Description - age, race, sex, hair color, eye color, weight,
height and any notable features of the suspect

Characteristics of a Police Report


Police reports are legal documents that chronicle the events of a crime and will be seen
by many individuals, including lawyers and judges. Therefore the main characteristics of the
police reports are:
Clarity - writing needs to clearly state what events occurred so that there is no ambiguity that
may be questioned later
Conciseness - police reports should summarize an event, not reenact it. This means that the
report should provide all of the details that occurred or pertain to the event but should not
contain superfluous details. It can sometimes be difficult to determine what information is
pertinent and what is not
Completeness - police reports should be concise without being incomplete This means that all
of the necessary detail mentioned above should be included in the police report
Correction - police reports should follow all the necessary grammar rules of Standard
American English (correct spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure).

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Common Problems with Police Reports


Writing effective police reports is a skill that must be practiced and learned, just as any
other skill in police work. An effective police report requires time to organize thoughts and
outline the events. Unfortunately, many investigators take shortcuts in report writing, which
leads to many common problems in police reports.

Problems Description
Confusing and A police report should have only one interpretation.Unclear or confusing
unclear sentences could lead to a misunderstanding of the facts. To be clear, the
sentences report should contain concrete facts and details. Grammar is important to
ensure each statement only means one thing.
Conclusions, A well-written report should be factual. Opinions and assumptions reflect
assumptions or personal beliefs, which mean nothing in an investigation. Inferences or
opinions conclusions without supporting facts and details are also meaningless.
Conclusions can be helpful if backed up with facts and details.
Missing All information and facts need to be in a police report. Reports need to
information and contain the "Who? What? When? Where? How? and Why?" factual
facts statements. Information kept only in the reporting officer's head is of no
value in a case.
Wordiness A police report should be concise. Extreme wordiness can make the
report confusing. The report should state the facts and only the facts.

VOCABULARY
- accuracy = corectitudine
- to allege = a bănui; a suspecta
- assumption = presupunere
- attorney/lawyer = avocat
- completeness = completare; finalizare; desăvârşire
- to deem = a crede, a considera
- defense attorney = avocatul apărării
- to dispatch = a trimite; a expedia
- to file a report/complaint = a întocmi un raport/o plângere
- to fill in = a completa
- legal proceedings = proceduri juridice
- loan = împrumut
- to lock = a încuia
- to outline = a sublinia
- prosecuting attorney = avocatul acuzării
- to pursue = a urmări

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- to retrieve = a recupera
- wordiness = limbuţie; prolixitate

EXERCISES
1) Read all the information given below about a car theft by Ms. Price. Then imagine that
you are the officer on-duty at the Police Station and after taking Ms. Price’s statement
you have to fill in a Vehicle Theft Report given below.

On the 5th of April 2001, at about 11.00 PM Ms. Price comes to the Police Station and reports
the theft of her car.
Ms. Price described her car as a maroon, 1999 Mitsubishi Eclipse with a black convertible
roof. The car registration number is GTL-682-P. She estimated the value of the car at ₤8,500
and said there were no distinguishing marks or items.
Ms. Price told me she locked the car, but she does not have the keys. She now believes she
may have left the keys in the boot lock after removing the faulty torch from the boot. Ms. Price
said she gave no one permission to take her car, and she is up to date with her loan
repayments.
I conducted a survey of the crime scene but found no items of evidence. I saw no broken glass
in the area, and there were no items to retrieve or photograph.
I obtained a statement from Ms. Price and provided her with the case number 0115902-33-21
and Information Leaflet 99/07 ("What to do when your car is stolen"). I entered the vehicle
into the station database as a stolen vehicle. I also searched the area but was unable to find
the vehicle.

Police Station no:


Address:

Case Number:

Person Reporting:

Incident Reported:

Location:

Date and Time:

Officer on-duty
(to whom the
incident was
reported):
Narrative ( the
"story" of the
incident):
Description of the

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suspect(s)

Other details:

2) Read the beginning of a Police Report about a Larceny (theft) case and continue with
the narrative part:

“On October 6,1998, at 14:00 hours, I, Officer M. W.


Jackson, responded to 4853 Lucerne Road in reference to a
larceny complaint. Upon my arrival, I spoke with the
complainant, Ms. Melissa Hemby. She told me that …”

3) Read the following missing person case. Imagine that you know very well the person
who is missing and then fill in the police report with all the details you know about
him/her.

November 11, 2011


My wife went "missing" on Saturday, 10/09/11. I dropped her off at the El
Paso airport early that morning and she was supposed to arrive in
Medellin, Colombia THAT night ... she has yet to contact me ... it is 2
days now and no communication from her ... I called the American
Airlines and that said her ticket was "used"... whatever that means .... the
guy on the phone did not seem to care one bit ... he just said she is most
likely in Medellin, Colombia .... yet, he gave no suggestions or anything
on what I can do to find her ... any suggestions on finding my wife would
be appreciated.

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Unit 6 - Summary

1. Definition
Police report/statement = an official document detailing
circumstances surrounding an incident; a means of gathering
information about a crime
2. Where is the information obtained from?
- the accused
- victims
- witnesses
- crime scene
3. Who receives a police report?
It is distributed to everyone involved in the crime, including legal
representation.
4. Legal status of the police report
It functions as a legal document of the crime's events.
It is not part of the court system, and it is not presumed to be
open to the public.
5. Classification of police reports
- Crime report
- Administrative report
- Traffic report
o Arrest report
o Crime/incident report
6. Contents of a Police Report:
- Officer’s identifying information
- Contact information
- DE
ACADEMIA Location, date andIoan
POLITIE “Alexandru time of–the
Cuza” incident
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- Narrative (the ”story” of the incident) Învăţământ la Distanţă
- Suspect(s) description
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

http://multimedia.journalism.berkeley.edu/tutorials/police-records/police-reports/
http://multimedia.journalism.berkeley.edu/tutorials/police-records/arrest-warrants/
Warrantshttp://multimedia.journalism.berkeley.edu/tutorials/police-records/search-warrants/
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5679723_definition-police-report.html#ixzz1G5PfdE1V
http://www.ehow.com/list_7583924_elements-police-report.html
www.conflictresolution.colostate.edu/frequent-terms.aspx
http://www.abika.com/Reports/PoliceReports.htm
http://www.ehow.com/way_5649921_police-report-writing-tips-uk.html
http://www.ehow.com/list_7583924_elements-police-report.html
Adapted from the link: http://www.ehow.com/list_7478674_grammar-tips-hints-police-
reports.html
Read more: Techniques Used in Police Reporting & Recording | eHow.com
http://www.ehow.com/about_5142038_techniques-used-police-reporting-
recording.html#ixzz1G0apmvII
http://searchwarp.com/swa220385.htm
"Sample Narrative of a Violent Domestic Incident Police Report"
http://wikieducator.org/Lesson_1:_Police_Administrative_Report#Types_of_Police_Report
Adapted from: WilliamHanz, eHow Contributor http://www.ehow.com/list_5793658_police-
report-types.html
Adapted from: http://multimedia.journalism.berkeley.edu/tutorials/police-records/police-
reports/
Adapted from:
http://wikieducator.org/Lesson_1:_Police_Administrative_Report#Types_of_Police_Report
http://www.reporttemplate.org/law-and-order-reports/police-report-template.html
Adapted from: Abby Lane, eHow Contributor
updated: December 1, 2010, http://www.ehow.com/list_7583924_elements-police-report.html

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Read more: Elements of a Police Report | eHow.com


http://www.ehow.com/list_7583924_elements-police-report.html#ixzz1G0V0938a
Adapted from: Brad Conway, eHow Contributor updated: December 10, 2010
http://www.ehow.com/list_7478674_grammar-tips-hints-police-reports.html
Adapted from: Ann Westin, eHow Contributor updated: December 8, 2010
http://www.ehow.com/list_7463811_common-problems-police-reports.html
Read more: Common Problems With Police Reports | eHow.com
http://www.ehow.com/list_7463811_common-problems-police-reports.html#ixzz1G0ZUhiS0
http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Sample-Police-Report/169598 Sample Police Report
http://www.tesoltasks.com/PoliceReport.htm
Adapted from: Clayton Steenberg, Arkansas State University Mountain Home
http://www.wadsworth.com/criminaljustice_d/templates/stripped_features/WADCJ_StHelpCtr
Report.html
http://www.reporternews.com/news/2011/mar/15/abilene-police-report-robbery-suspect-
caught-after/

Unit 7 – POLICE. AND THE MEDIA

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about Police as an institution and its relation with the
media;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary acquired;
– to encourage the free expression of feelings, opinions in English.

The image of the police


Being a police officer is not an easy job. The media portrays an average policeman to
be in full time action, fighting against criminals and having a lot of car chases but this is just a
minority of what they do. Most policemen's career is dedicated on making the designated
community given area to be a safe and friendly environment. They have to complete a lot of
paper work which is also not been conveyed through the media. By bringing the criminals to
justice they are reassuring the public and the society in which they work in. They reduce the
fear of crime and improve the quality of life for all citizens.

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What's Publicly Available


While police records are subject to state public records laws (like the California Public
Records Act), many types of police records are specifically exempt from disclosure. There
also are general exemptions that police can cite, such as that the release of information would
endanger someone's life or undermine an investigation, to decline to provide copies of arrest
or crime/ incident reports.
As a result, police departments vary widely in how they respond to reporters' requests
for arrest or crime reports. Some will routinely provide the reports but with sensitive
information edited out, some will provide most reports but withhold those that concern
sensitive pending cases, and some will decline to release any police reports.
Reporters can ask for a copy of a police report, but if the police decline to provide it
they probably are within their rights to do so.
This is why it's very important for a reporter to check the court record to see if
criminal charges have been filed in a case. In the court file you'll often find police reports
attached to the original criminal complaint that a prosecutor files against a defendant listing
the charges against him/her.
So the same documents that police decline to give to a reporter might be publicly
accessible in the court file.
When police arrest a person, the person usually is held at a county or city jail facility
until the prosecutor's office decides whether to file charges. Records of people in custody or
released on bail are kept at jails.
Bail for people arrested for suspicion of committing crimes usually is initially set
according to a "schedule," which lists the standard bail amounts for each section of the penal
code.
Police often will obtain an arrest warrant signed by a judge to apprehend a person.
Arrest warrants are used in various circumstances, such as when officers have investigated a
crime, identified a suspect and then want to go and arrest the person, such as at the person's
home.

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To obtain an arrest warrant, a police officer usually goes to a prosecutor who then
must convince a judge that a crime has occurred and there is probable cause that the accused
was responsible for the crime. The judge then must sign the arrest warrant.
An arrest warrant will list the defendant's name, a narrative description of the crime,
the amount of bail and the court in which the warrant was issued. Arrest warrants generally
aren't made publicly available by police agencies.
Police must get a judge's written approval to conduct searches of private property in
criminal investigations, unless the person in possession of the property consents to a search.
These are called search warrants.
Search warrant filings thus are court-related public records, and they can have very
detailed information on a criminal case being investigated. Most courts assign a clerk to
manage the files that contain the search warrants granted by judges to law enforcement
officers.
These search warrant files are separate from the actual criminal court cases in which
people are charged with crimes (search warrants often are obtained by police before any
arrests or formal charges are filed in a case).
Local police agencies will file search warrants in county superior courts, while federal
law enforcement officers (FBI, DEA, U.S. Customs, etc.) will file search warrants in U.S.
district courts.
The search warrants are organized differently in different courts. An index usually is kept
by date, and then within each date is a list of the addresses of the places approved to be
searched that day. In other cases the index may just be numerically arranged by a number the
court assigns for each warrant.
Search warrants are not indexed according to the names of the people whose property is
being searched or seized, which can make it difficult for a reporter to track down the files.
Thus you’ll often need to ask a law enforcement officer or a prosecutor for the search warrant
file number, or for the date a search was approved by a judge and a description of what was
searched, in order to dig the search warrant records out of the court clerk's files.
Search warrants have to be obtained to search everything from a residence or business
to a vehicle or other personal property, such as a storage facility or a bank safety deposit box.
In a broad sense, we can say that police officers keep the bad elements in the society at
bay. They fight for maintaining peace and harmony. There are many forces in the world,
constantly trying to disrupt the balance of our social environment. Thus, one should not take
the services of police officers for granted. Let's salute them for the courage and responsibility
they display in ensuring our safety!

VOCABULARY
- to answer a complaint = a da curs unei plângeri
- breach of peace = tulburarea liniştii
- to caution = a preveni; a avertiza
- consent = consimţământ
- crime = infracţiune
- criminal = infractor; infracţional (adj.)
- crime prevention = prevenirea infracţionalităţii
- criminal activity = activitate infracţională
- criminal damage = daune; prejudicii
- to detain = a reţine
- to disrupt = a dezbina

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- to enforce law = a aplica legea


- evidence = dovadă, dovezi
- to execute a warrant = a pune în aplicare un mandat
- to injure = a răni
- to keep smb.at bay = a ţine pe cineva la distanţă
- law enforcement = aplicarea legii
- offence = infracţiune; delict
- offender = infractor
- to pass a law = a legifera
- premises = clădire; local; incintă
- purview = competenţă; domeniu
- to search = a percheziţiona
- to seize = a confisca
- statement = declaraţie
- surveillance = supraveghere
- trial = proces
- to violate rules = a încălca reguli

EXERCISES
5) Write about a famous police case in Romania.
6) Select five terms and expressions from the vocabulary list and make sentences.

Unit 7 – Summary

1. What’s available for public?

- police records are subject to state public records laws


- many types of police records are specifically exempt from
disclosure. There also are general exemptions that police can
cite, such as that the release of information would endanger
someone's life or undermine an investigation, to decline to
provide copies of arrest or crime/ incident reports.
- As a result, police departments vary widely in how they
respond to reporters' requests for arrest or crime reports. Some
will routinely provide the reports but with sensitive information
edited out, some will provide most reports but withhold those
that concern sensitive pending cases, and some will decline to
release
ACADEMIA any police
DE POLITIE reports.
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- Reporters can ask for a copy of a police report, Învăţământ la Distanţă
but if the police
decline to provide it they probably are within their rights to do
so.
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES


"The Role and Responsibilities of the Police". Policy Studies Institute. p. xii.
http://www.psi.org.uk/publications/archivepdfs/Role%20pol/INDPOL-0.P.pdf. Retrieved
2009-12-22.
 Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of
Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-6690-1292-7.
 Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police
Power. Pluto Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1.
 Alpert, G., & Dunham, R. (1988). Policing Multi-ethnic Neighborhoods. Westport,
CT: Greenwood.

http;//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/police
Read more:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_different_roles_and_responsibilities_of_a_police_o
fficer cer#ixzz1WPEIwh68

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Unit 8 - POLICE FIREARMS

Language Learning Objectives:


– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the police fireams: parts of a
firearm, types of police weapons in UK and USA, firing positions etc.;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary related to the parts of a firearm, types of police
weapons, firing positions etc.;
– to encourage the communication in English..

Basic Parts of a Firearm

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Sniper rifle

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Police Firearms in UK

UK Police armed with MP5 - single-fire only

In the United Kingdom, the majority of police officers do not carry firearms, except in
special circumstances. This originates from the formation of the Metropolitan Police Service
in the 19th century, when police were not armed, partly to counter public fears and objections
concerning armed enforcers as this had been previously seen due to the British Army
maintaining order when needed. The arming of police in the United Kingdom is a perennial
topic of debate.
Most officers are instead issued with other items for personal defence, such as
Speedcuffs, Extendable "ASP" Baton, and incapacitant sprays such as PAVA or CS spray.
While not a firearm, CS spray is subject to some of the same rules and regulations as a
projectile firing firearm under Section 5 (b) of the Firearms Act 1968.
The Ministry of Defence Police, Civil Nuclear Constabulary and Police Service of
Northern Ireland (formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary) are issued firearms as a matter of
routine. Every force can also call upon the Force Firearms Units, Armed Response Vehicle,
and certain specialist units of the Metropolitan Police are routinely armed.
In the year 2007-2008, there were 6,780 Authorised Firearms Officers, 21,181 police
operations in which firearms were authorised throughout England and Wales and 7 incidents
where conventional firearms were used.
Since 2004, police forces have increasingly been deploying tasers, for use against
armed assailants, by Authorised Firearms Officers. Tasers are considered by the authorities to
be a less lethal alternative to firearms, although Amnesty International links their use to 70
deaths in the US and Canada.

Legal status

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The usage of firearms by the police is covered by statute (such as the Police and
Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and Human Rights Act 1998), policy (such as the Home Office
Code of Practice on Police use of Firearms and Less Lethal Weapons and the ACPO Manual
of Guidance on Police Use of Firearms) and common law.
United Kingdom law allows the use of "reasonable force" in order to make an arrest or
prevent a crime or to defend oneself. However, if the force used is fatal, then the European
Convention of Human Rights only allows "the use of force which is no more than absolutely
necessary". Firearms officers may therefore only discharge their weapons "to stop an
imminent threat to life".

List of police firearms in the United Kingdom


Within the British Police, officers are not routinely armed. Instead, they rely on
specially trained Authorised Firearms Officers (AFO), crewing Armed Response Vehicles to
attend emergency calls where firearms might be needed. Specialist Firearms Officers are
usually trained to a higher standard than an AFO, because they are likely to be the officers
required to enter premises. The vast majority of firearms used by the British Police are semi-
automatic.

A hand-picked team from CO19 will carry submachine guns in gun crime hotspots

The following firearms are commonly issued to Authorised Firearms Officers.


- Glock 17 pistol
- Glock 26 pistol (in use with the London Metropolitan Police Service)
- Sig Sauer P226 pistol
- Walther P99 pistol (in use with Nottinghamshire Constabulary)
- Heckler & Koch MP5 SF A3 semi-automatic carbine
- Steyr AUG Semi-automatic carbine, used by some forces instead of the MP5 carbine
- Heckler & Koch G36C semi-automatic carbine
- SIG 556 carbine (used by Strathclyde Police).
- Heckler & Koch L104A1 baton gun less lethal option, fires Plastic Attenuated Energy
Projectiles
- X26 Taser, a non-lethal weapon classified as a firearm (as shown bellow).

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Taser stun guns deliver a 50,000v shock making a person's muscles rigid

Taser is a brand name for a type of electrical gun that is licensed, in the UK, for
exclusive use by police and military personnel. Police can use one of two Taser weapons in
England and Wales: the M26 and the X26.
The commonly used version looks like a handgun and uses compressed nitrogen
canisters to project a pair of darts towards a suspect. When these are embedded in a person,
the Taser delivers a 50,000v electric shock through wires connecting the darts to the handheld
device.The 19 pulses of electricity per second stimulate nerves that control muscles and are
designed not to affect the heart. The shocks make the persons' muscles rigid, dropping them to
the ground.
Possible adverse medical effects have been highlighted in case studies over the years,
however. In 2006, Amy Sheil at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston
described how a fit, 28-year-old prisoner had died after getting six Taser shocks, giving him a
169-second burst of electricity.

Specialist weapons
The following have in the past been on issue to Specialist Firearms Officers (SFO).
- L1A1 irritant chemical launcher, launches projectiles of irritant substances such as CS
gas or PAVA
- Remington 870 Pump-action shotgun, mainly used for door breaching
- Precision (sniper) rifles:
- Heckler & Koch PSG1 sniper rifle
- Heckler & Koch G3KA4 battle rifle, used in sniping roles
- Heckler & Koch MSG-90 sniper rifle
- Heckler & Koch 93 sniper rifle
- Heckler & Koch HK417, used in sniping roles
- Riflecraft TMR1 sniper rifle

Non-Home office police firearms


Ministry of Defence Police:

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- SIG Sauer P226 pistol


- Heckler & Kock MP7 SF
- L85A2 IW assault rifle - In limited use for Nuclear Weapons officers.
- L129A1 Long Range Rifle
- Heckler & Koch L104A1 baton gun less lethal option, fires Plastic Attenuated Energy
Projectiles
- X26 Taser, a non-lethal weapon classified as a firearm
Civil Nuclear Constabulary:
- Heckler & Koch G36
British Transport Police:
- Heckler & Koch MP5 (in progress)

A CO19 officer prepares to use a breaching shotgun to blast open a door during CQB (Close
Quarters Battle)

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Police Weapons in USA


Handguns
Police in the United States usually carry a handgun on duty. Many are required to be
armed on-duty and off-duty. Among the most common sidearms are models produced by
Glock, Smith & Wesson, SIG Sauer, and Beretta, usually in 9mm, .40 S&W, or .45 ACP.
Until the 1980s, most US police carried revolvers, typically in .38 Special or .357 Magnum
calibers, as their primary duty weapons. Since then, most have switched to semiautomatic
pistols. Two key events influencing many US police forces to upgrade their primary duty
weapons to weapons with greater stopping power were the 1980 Norco shootout and the 1986
FBI Miami shootout.
Some police departments allow qualified officers to carry shotguns and/or
semiautomatic rifles in their vehicles for additional firepower.

Less lethal weapons

ASP 21" tactical baton in expandable and collapsed states

Police also often carry an impact weapon - a baton, also known as a nightstick. The
common nightstick and the side handle baton, have been replaced in many locations by
expandable batons such as the Monadnock Auto-Lock Expandable Baton or ASP baton. One
advantage of the collapsible baton is that the wearer can comfortably sit in a patrol vehicle
while still wearing the baton on their duty belt. The side handle night stick usually has to be
removed before entering the vehicle. Many departments also use less-lethal weapons like
mace, pepper spray, electroshock guns.
Another less lethal or non-lethal weapon that police officers often carry is an
electroshock gun, also known as a taser. The handheld electroshock weapon was designed to
incapacitate a single person from a distance by using electrical current to disrupt voluntary
control of muscles. Someone struck by a Taser experiences stimulation of his or her sensory
nerves and motor nerves, resulting in strong involuntary muscle contractions.

Specialized weapons
Most large police departments have elite SWAT units which are called in to handle
situations, such as barricaded suspects, hostage situations and high-risk warrant service, that
require greater force, specialized equipment, and special tactics. These units usually have

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submachine guns, automatic carbines or rifles, semiautomatic combat shotguns, sniper rifles,
gas, smoke and flashbang grenades, and other specialized weapons and equipment at their
disposal. A few departments have an armored vehicle for especially dangerous work.

Body armor
Uniformed police officers are often issued body armor, typically in the form of a
lightweight Level IIA, II or IIIA vest that can be worn under service shirts. SWAT teams
typically wear heavier Level III or IV tactical armored vests, often with steel or ceramic
trauma plates, comparable to those worn by US military personnel engaged in ground
operations. Officers trained in bomb disposal wear specialized heavy protective armor
designed to protect them from the effects of an explosion.

Firing Positions

The basic firing positions used with light antiarmor weapons are: standing, kneeling,
sitting and prone position. Firing from a supported position naturally increases accuracy,
which improves the odds for a first-round hit or kill.

1. Standing position
Two standing positions are used: a basic standing position and one modified for the
infantry fighting position.
a. Basic Standing Position. Raise the launcher slightly higher than shoulder level.
Execute a left face, rotate your shoulder under the launcher, and spread your feet a
comfortable distance apart. Move your left foot 15 to 24 inches forward, keeping your hips
level and your weight balanced on both feet. To obtain a firm, stable position, tuck both
elbows tightly into your body. To track a moving target, turn your body at the waist--not with
your legs. This enables you to track the target smoothly. Unless you are behind a protective

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barrier such as a wall, the standing position exposes you more than any other position to
enemy observation and possible suppression.

Warning
Always keep the launcher pointed in the direction of fire

b. Modified Standing Position. Use this position when you occupy an infantry
fighting position. Assume the basic standing position, but instead of stepping forward, lean
against the back wall of the fighting position. Ensure that the rear of the weapon extends
beyond the rear of the fighting position.

Danger
Never fire from within a completely enclosed, unventilated bunker
or fighting position

2. Kneeling position
The basic kneeling position is the best position for tracking moving targets. The
modified kneeling position is best for engaging stationary targets, since it is a supported
position. However, either can be used for stationary or moving targets.
a. Basic Kneeling Position. Kneel from the basic standing position onto your right
knee, keeping your left thigh parallel to the ground. Rotate your lower right leg 90 degrees to
the left. (This removes your right foot from exposure to the backblast.) Keep your right thigh
and back straight and perpendicular to the ground. Point your left foot in the direction of fire
and tuck your elbows in to your sides.
b. Modified Kneeling Position. From the basic kneeling position, sit back on your
right heel. Place the back of your upper left arm on your left knee, making sure you do not
have bone-to-bone contact between your left elbow and left knee. Keep your right elbow
tucked in close to your right side. Use any protective barriers available.

3. Sitting position
The sitting position is the most stable firing position. In this position, the arms are
placed on the legs for support. Depending on his physique, the firer can use either of two
versions of the sitting position. Either is suitable for engaging stationary targets.
a. Basic Sitting Position. Sit on your buttocks while facing the target, and spread your
feet a comfortable distance apart. Lean forward and place the backs of your upper arms on
your knees, avoiding bone-to-bone contact.
b. Modified Sitting Position. From the basic sitting position, cross your ankles for
added support. Raise or lower your knees to adjust for elevation on the target.

4. Prone position
The prone position is the most dangerous position due to its proximity to the ground.
Ideally, the ground should slope downward from the rear of the launcher. This reduces the
effects of the backblast.
a. Lie on your stomach with your body at a 90 degree angle to direction of fire, and
with your body and legs to the left of the direction of fire.
b. Ensure that neither your body nor your legs are in the backblast area.
c. Unlike other firing positions, this one prevents you from placing the launcher on
your right shoulder. Instead, you must hold the launcher in place against your upper right arm.

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For stability, apply extra pressure on the firing mechanism with your right hand. The prone
position is the least stable of all firing positions. You must practice it often to become
confident using it.

Danger
Failure to maintain a 90 degree angle from the direction of fire could cause injury or death to
the firer

VOCABULARY
- barrel = ţeavă de puşcă
- beanbag shotgun = armă cu gloanţe de cauciuc
- bi-pod = crăcan
- bolt-action rifle = puşcă cu ţeavă ghintuită
- cylinder = cilindru
- day scope = lunetă
- discharge a weapon = a descărca o armă
- enter a premise = a intra într-o incintă
- flashbang grenade = grenadă cu emisie de lumină şi zgomot
- folding stock = pat rabatabil
- frame = cadru
- grip = mânerul armei
- hammer = cocoşul pistolului
- hinge = punct de articulaţie
- hinge-action shotgun = armă cu ţeavă lisă
- holster = toc pentru pistol
- to jeopardise = a pune în pericol, a periclita
- mace = gaz lacrimogen
- magazine = încărcător
- magazine tube = ţeava încărcătorului
- muzzle = gura ţevii
- pepper spray = gaz lacrimogen ce conţine o componentă chimică ce poate provoca
temporar orbirea
- prone = aplecat, înclinat
- safety = piedica armei
- slide = manşon
- sniper rifle = puşcă cu lunetă
- stock = patul armei
- stun gun = pistol cu electroşocuri cu contact direct
- suppresor = amortizor
- taser = armă care administrează electroşocuri de la distanţă
- trigger = trăgaci
- trigger guard = apărătorul trăgaciului

EXERCISES
1) Match the definitions with the names of the following gun parts:

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The revolver can be broken down into four basic parts: the grip, frame, barrel and cylinder.

A. GRIP a. The grip fits into it. It is the main body of the revolver.
Within it there is the trigger assembly, hammer assembly
and firing pin.
B. FRAME b. The place where the bullets are inserted. Some of these
parts are attached to the frame using a rocker arm. This is
the part that lowers the cylinder to the side, allowing
easy loading.
C. BARREL c. It is the part you hold onto. It's commonly made of
plastic, rubber or wood, though it can be made of more
exotic materials like bone or mother of pearl.
D. CYLINDER d. It is attached to the frame together with the cylinder. It
can vary in lenght.

2) Make the correspondence between the Romanian and English terms:

beanbag shotgun încărcător gura ţevii stock

holster cartuş ţeavă de puşcă trăgaci

mace puşcă cu lunetă magazine

amortizor hammer piedica armei

barrel pistol cu electroşocuri cu contact direct

muzzle grip tocul armei cartridge

patul armei mânerul armei

trigger safety cocoşul pistolului sniper rifle

stun gun gaz lacrimogen suppresor

armă cu gloanţe de cauciuc

3) Explain the role of the following three basic parts of the gun using the picture below:
- barrel =
- frame (receiver) =
- action =

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4) What is the most dangerous firing position?


5) What is the best firing position for tracking moving targets?
6) What is the most stable firing position?
7) Match the following pictures with their descriptions and explain why they are the
best firing positions for each situation:

A. B.

C. D.

E.

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a. Fire around the wall, not over it, where possible


b. Fire around the left corner of the building or wall using the left-handed firing technique
c. Firing from loophole
d. Fire around the right corner of the building or wall using the right-handed firing technique
e. Firing from a window

8) Classify the following weapons into their categories:

Lethal weapons Non-lethal weapons

tactical baton, mace, taser, single-action revolver, pepper spray, semiautomatic combat
shotguns, gas, smoke, flashbang grenades, nightstick, machine gun, Glock 17 pistol,
electroshock guns, breaching shotgun, beanbag shotgun, sniper rifle, expandable baton, semi-
automatic carbine, Remington 870 Pump-action shotgun, semi-automatic pistol

9) Select five terms and expressions from the vocabulary list and make sentences.

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Unit 8 - Summary

1. The 3 basic parts of a weapon are:


- frame (receiver) = it helps holding the gun
- action = it activates the bullet when pulling the trigger
- barrel = it helps the bullet get out

2. Classification of weapons:
- Lethal
- Non-lethal

3. Types of guns:
- Handguns
- Firearms
- Specialized weapons etc.

4. Firing positions:
- Standing - exposes you more than any other position
- Kneeling - the best position for tracking moving targets
- Sitting - the most stable firing position
- Prone - the most dangerous position due to its proximity to the
ground
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REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

http://www.google.ro/imgres?imgurl=http://www.hunter-
ed.com/images/graphics/gun_parts_handgun_flash.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.hunter-
ed.com/pa/course/3-
9_parts_handgun_flash.htm&h=399&w=575&sz=34&tbnid=PeVW4FCKD2U16M:&tbnh=
93&tbnw=134&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dparts%2Bof%2Ba%2Bfirearm%26tbm%3Disch%26
tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=parts+of+a+firearm&hl=ro&usg=__cDDQVblo03wxqj4YscUyAlPq
zNY=&sa=X&ei=TLKNTsGKDemE4gTix8S_AQ&ved=0CBoQ9QEwBQ
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police_use_of_firearms_in_the_United_Kingdom
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_police_firearms_in_the_United_Kingdom
http://www.eliteukforces.info/police/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_enforcement_in_the_United_States
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2001/life_of_crime/police.stm
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/24/police-tasers-research-safety directly to the
chest when practicable.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/6407137/Armed-officers-placed-on-routine-
foot-patrol-for-first-time.html
http://tna.europarchive.org/20100419081706/http:/www.police.homeoffice.gov.uk/operationa
l-policing/firearms/index.html
http://www.army.mod.uk/images/general-content/equip_sniper_410px.jpg
http://www.ehow.com/about_5144325_parts-gun.html
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/23-25/FM232_6.htm
http://www.bestpracticeguides.org.uk/firearms_firing.aspx
Read more:
Parts of a Gun | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5144325_parts-
gun.html#ixzz1dx2HD5mD

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Unit 9 - POLICE AND COMMUNITY

Language Learning Objectives:


– to develop knowledge about police cooperation with the community;
– to acquire relevant specific vocabulary related to the topic;
– to enhance speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English;
– to practice and use the vocabulary acquired;
– to develop the communication skills in English.

Public order and safety (organization)


In most Western police forces, perhaps the most significant division is between
preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Terminology varies from country to country.
Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal
investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties.

Uniformed police
Preventive Police, also called Uniform Branch, Uniformed Police, Uniform Division,
Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol, designates the police which patrol and
respond to emergencies and other incidents, as opposed to detective services. As the name

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"uniformed" suggests, they wear uniforms and perform functions that require an immediate
recognition of an officer's legal authority, such as traffic control, stopping and detaining
motorists, and more active crime response and prevention.

Detectives
Police detectives are responsible for investigations and detective work. Detectives may
be called Investigations Police, Judiciary/Judicial Police, and Criminal Police. In the UK,
they are often referred to by the name of their department, the Criminal Investigation
Department (CID). Detectives typically make up roughly 15%-25% of a police service's
personnel.
Detectives, in contrast to uniformed police, typically wear 'business attire' in
bureaucratic and investigative functions where a uniformed presence would be either a
distraction or intimidating, but a need to establish police authority still exists. Thus they are
also called "plainclothes" officers.
In some cases, police are assigned to work "undercover", where they conceal their
police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are
unsolvable by other means. In some cases this type of policing shares aspects with espionage.
Despite popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, many US police departments
prefer not to maintain officers in non-patrol bureaus and divisions beyond a certain period of
time, such as in the detective bureau, and instead maintain policies that limit service in such
divisions to a specified period of time, after which officers must transfer out or return to patrol
duties. This is done in part based upon the perception that the most important and essential
police work is accomplished on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats,
prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice
their skills.
Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after
patrol officers have responded first to a situation. Investigations often take weeks or months to
complete, during which time detectives spend much of their time away from the streets, in
interviews and courtrooms, for example. Rotating officers also promotes cross-training in a
wider variety of skills, and serves to prevent "cliques" that can contribute to corruption or
other unethical behavior.

Auxiliary
Police may also take on auxiliary administrative duties, such as issuing firearms
licenses. The extent that police have these functions varies among countries, with police in
France, Germany, and other continental European countries handling such tasks to a greater
extent than British counterparts.

Specialized units
Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement
organizations either for dealing with particular types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement
and crash investigation, homicide, or fraud; or for situations requiring specialized skills, such
as underwater search, aviation, explosive device disposal ("bomb squad"), and computer
crime.
Most larger jurisdictions also employ specially selected and trained quasi-military
units armed with military-grade weapons for the purposes of dealing with particularly violent
situations beyond the capability of a patrol officer response, including high-risk warrant
service and barricaded suspects. In the United States these units go by a variety of names, but
are commonly known as SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams.

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In counter insurgency type campaigns, select and specially trained units of police
armed and equipped as light infantry have been designated as police field forces who perform
paramilitary type patrols and ambushes whilst retaining their police powers in areas that were
highly dangerous.
Because their situational mandate typically focuses on removing innocent bystanders
from dangerous people and dangerous situations, not violent resolution, they are often
equipped with non-lethal tactical tools like chemical agents, "flashbang" and grenades, and
rubber bullets. The London Metropolitan police's Specialist Firearms Command (CO19) is a
group of armed police used in dangerous situations including hostage taking, armed
robbery/assault and terrorism.

Military police
Military police may refer to:
- a section of the military solely responsible for policing the armed forces (referred
to as provosts)
- a section of the military responsible for policing in both the armed forces and in
the civilian population (most gendarmeries, such as the French Gendarmerie, the
Italian Carabinieri and the Portuguese Republican National Guard also known as
GNR)
- a section of the military solely responsible for policing the civilian population
(such as the Romanian Gendarmerie)
- the civilian preventative police of a Brazilian state (Policia Militar)
- a Special Military law enforcement Service, like the Russian Military Police

Religious police
Some Islamic societies have religious police, who enforce the application of Islamic
Sharia law. Their authority may include the power to arrest unrelated males and females
caught socializing, anyone engaged in homosexual behavior or prostitution; to enforce Islamic
dress-codes, and store closures during Islamic prayer time.
They enforce Muslim laws, prohibit the consumption or sale of alcoholic beverages
and pork, and seize banned consumer products and media regarded as un-Islamic, such as
CDs/DVDs of various Western musical groups, television shows and film. In Saudi Arabia,
religious police actively prevent the practice or proselytizing of non-Islamic religions within
Saudi Arabia, where they are banned.

Community Policing
Community Policing is a collaborative effort between a police department and
community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the
community in the search for solutions to these problems. It is founded on close, mutually
beneficial ties between police and community members. At the center of community policing
there are three essential and complementary core components:
- Partnerships between the police and the community are collaborative partnerships
between the law enforcement agency and individuals/organizations which serve to
develop solutions to problems and increase trust in police. Potential partners:
 Other Government Agencies
 Community Members/Groups
 Nonprofits/Service Providers

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 Private Businesses
 Media
- Organizational Transformation is the alignment of organizational management,
structure, personnel, and information systems to support community partnerships and
proactive problem solving. Development guidelines:
o Agency Management
 Climate and culture
 Leadership
 Labor relations
 Decision-making
 Strategic planning
 Policies
 Organizational evaluations
 Transparency
 Organizational Structure
o Geographic assignment of officers
 Despecialization
 Resources and finances
o Personnel
 Recruitment, hiring, and selection
 Personnel supervision/evaluations
 Training
o Information Systems (Technology)
 Communication/access to data
 Quality and accuracy of data
o Change Management within the police organization to accommodate increased
community involvement.
- Problem Solving is a method to identify and solve problems of concern to the
community; it is also the process of engaging in the proactive and systematic
examination of identified problems to develop and rigorously evaluate effective
responses. Stages:
o Scanning: Identifying and prioritizing problems
o Analysis: Researching what is known about the problem (How much of a
problem is it? When is it a problem? Who is affected? What are the problem's
causes?)
o Response: Developing solutions to bring about lasting reductions in the
number and extent of problems
o Assessment: Evaluating the success of the responses
o Maintanence: Problem solving is only successful if it produces a long-term
solution. A response may have short-term positive results, but can these results
be maintained over a longer term (6-month? 1-2 years?) without constant
intervention by police, residents and/or other agencies? In other words, "Has
the problem been solved?"
Community Policing is a philosophy for doing police work; problem solving is the
tactic or strategy used to solve community problems of crime; and partnerships are the tool or
means with which the problem solving takes place.
Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which
support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively

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address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social
disorder, and fear of crime.

- VOCABULARY
- to aim at = a ţinti; a viza
- at the core of =
- border police = poliţie de frontieră
- core = miez, inimă
- to counterfeit = a falsifica; a contraface
- cross-border cooperation = cooperare transfrontalieră
- customs = vamă
- to deploy = a (se) desfăşura
- to enable = a face posibil; a permite; a da posibilitatea
- to enhance = a spori
- to evolve = a desfăşura; a transforma; a evolua, a se dezvolta
- fingerprint = amprentă digitală
- forgery = fals; falsificare; plastografie
- intelligence = informaţii; spionaj
- livelihood = mijloace de trai; trai, existenţă
- money laundering = spălare de bani
- on the spot = imediat; pe teren; la locul respectiv
- to pose = a pune; a supune; a poza
- to prosecute = a urmări în justiţie
- to range (from) = a se întinde; a varia, a diferi
- state-of-the-art technology = tehnologie de ultimă oră
- threat = ameninţare
- weapon = armă

EXERCISES
1) What is community policing?
2) What are the three essential and complementary core components of the community
policing?
3) Match the paragraphs with their titles:
1. Community Policing is a collaborative effort between a police department and community
that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in
the search for solutions to these problems. ________
2. It is a collaborative form of developing solutions to problems and increasing trust in police.
________
3. It is a method to identify and solve problems of concern to the community. ________
4. The organizational structure, personnel, and information systems of the community
policing support community partnerships and proactive problem solving. ________
5. At the theoretical level, the community policing promotes organizational strategies, which
support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively
address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social
disorder, and fear of crime. ________

A. Problem solving

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B. Community policing philosophy


C. Definition of community police
D. Developing partnerships
E. Organization management

4) Find other names for:

Police members Uniformed police Detectives

5) Imagine that you are in charge with planning the Community Policing Activities and
Programmes. Give examples and complete the chart below.

NAME OF THE ACTION/PROGRAMME DATE/TIME LOCATION PARTNERS


Special crime prevention programmes:
-
Programmes for students & youth:
-
Programmes for citizen participation:
-
Programmes to assist crime victims:
-
Other programmes:
-

6) Select five terms and expressions from the vocabulary list and make sentences.

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Unit 9 - Summary

1. Organization
Uniformed police
Detectives
Auxiliary police
Specialized Units
Military police
Religious police

2. Community policing
= ACADEMIA
the joint DE
effort of the
POLITIE policeIoanand
“Alexandru Cuza”community to solve
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The 3 main components:


English language course for police

REFERENCES AND INTERNET RESOURCES


http://www.google.ro/search?q=community+police+powers&hl=ro&source=hp&aq=1&aqi
=g4&aql=&oq=community+police+

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