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Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School


Indangan, Buhangin, Davao City

AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS AMONG GRADE 10 STUDENTS IN

TEOFILO V. FERNANDEZ NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

A Thesis

Presented to the Senior High School Department

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for Research in Daily Life 2 (APP 5)

By

Ceridon, Christine Jean E.

Untalan, Kathy

Sadagnot, Maximo

Olinan, John Lloyd

Putao, Aniffer

October 2019
CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Scope

Introduction

Another route of HIV transmission among injection drug users is through sexual

contacts within relatively closed sexual networks, which are characterized by multiple

sex partners, unprotected sexual intercourse, and exchange of sex for money

(Friedman et al., 1995). The inclusion of alcohol and other noninjection substances to

this lethal mixture only increases the HIV/AIDS caseload (Edlin et al., 1994; Grella et al.,

1995). A major risk factor for HIV/AIDS among injection drug users is crack use; one

study found that crack abusers reported more sexual partners in the last 12 months,

more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in their lifetimes, and greater frequency of

paying for sex, exchanging sex for drugs, and having sex with injection drug users

(Word and Bowser, 1997).

Currently, injection drug users represent the largest HIV-infected substance-abusing

population in the United States. HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among injection drug users

vary by geographic region, with the highest rates in surveyed substance abuse

treatment centers in the Northeast, the South, and Puerto Rico. From July 1998 through

June 1999, 23 percent of all AIDS cases reported were among men and women who

reported IDU (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1999b).

Of the many theories and myths about the origin of HIV, the most likely explanation

is that HIV was introduced to humans from monkeys. A recent study (Gao et al., 1999)

identified a subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa as the original


source of HIV-1, the virus responsible for the global AIDS pandemic. The researchers

believe that the virus crossed over from monkeys to humans when hunters became

exposed to infected blood. Monkeys can carry a virus similar to HIV, known as SIV

(simian immunodeficiency virus), and there is strong evidence that HIV and SIV are

closely related (Simon et al., 1998; Zhu et al., 1998).

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks cells that help the body

fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is

spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with HIV, most commonly during

unprotected sex (sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV), or

through sharing injection drug equipment. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the disease

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (HIV.gov July2019).

infections and cancers to thrive. HIV/AIDS infection in the Philippines might be low but

growing. The estimated incidence of HIV/AIDS in the country remains under 0.1% of the

total population in 2015. The Philippines has one of the lowest rates of infection, yet has

one of the fastest growing number of cases worldwide. The Philippines is one of seven

countries with growth in number of cases of over 25%, from 2001 to 2009. Cases are

concentrated among men who have sex with men. HIV cases among men having sex

with men multiplied over 10 times since 2010. HIV cases are getting younger.

(Wikipedia, 2017)

Stigma is a social process, experienced or anticipated, characterized by

exclusion, rejection, blame, or devaluation that results from experience, perception, or

reasonable anticipation of an adverse social judgement about a person or group.

UNAIDS defined HIV stigma as a process of devaluation of people either living with or
associated with HIV infection. PLWH have been stigmatized because the disease is

generally perceived as dangerous, contagious, and associated with behaviors outside of

social norms. HIV stigma may have serious consequences, such as loss of friendship

and family ties, dismissal from school and occupation, and denial from health care. HIV

stigma has been shown to affect multiple HIV-related health behaviors and outcomes

(e.g., accessing treatment and testing services) in people living or associated with HIV

and the general population. Because of HIV stigma, one-third of individuals testing

positive with HIV globally do not disclose their HIV status. (BMC Public Health, 2018)

HIV infections in many countries of this region have been mainly confined to

intravenous drug users (IDUs), and the main transmission route of the virus was sharing

contaminated needles. In fact, most of the quarter of a million adults who became

infected in 2001 were men who were injecting drugs. However, the types of people

being infected by HIV and main transmission routes are quickly changing. Young people

account for most new infections. The rising proportion of women (who are less likely to

be intravenous drug users) infected with the virus suggests that the number of HIV

infections spread by sexual contact is increasing. The increased infection rates of HIV

among new subgroups is fueled by the growth of drug injections, increased sexual

activity among young people, and the growing number of commercial sex workers

(CSWs). From these subgroups, HIV is very likely to move into the general population.

A UNICEF report warns that “HIV/AIDS is the greatest threat to [their] health as it moves

-virtually unchecked- into the mainstream population in a number of countries.”

(UNICEF, 2002) (Kaiser Network, 2001)


HIV/AIDS infection in the Philippines might be low but growing. The estimated

incidence of HIV/AIDS in the country remains under 0.1% of the total population in

2015.[1] The Philippines has one of the lowest rates of infection, yet has one of the

fastest growing number of cases worldwide. The Philippines is one of seven countries

with growth in number of cases of over 25%, from 2001 to 2009. Cases are

concentrated among men who have sex with men. HIV cases among men having sex

with men multiplied over 10 times since 2010. HIV cases are getting younger.

(Wikipedia, 2010)

The Davao City Reproductive Health and Wellness Center (RHWC) recorded a

total of 39 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency

syndrome (HIV-Aids) obtained through sexual intercourse in Davao City for January and

February 2019 alone. Based on the data from the Department of Health (DOH)

Epidemiology Bureau provided by Eddie Batoon, Community Health Outreach Worker

of Aids Society of the Philippines–RHWC, of this figure, 15 were reported in January

while 24 are in February. By gender, 35 are male while four are female. In HIV-Aids

cases by age group, for 15 to 24 age bracket, the health department noted 17

individuals who were tested positive; 19 for age 25 to 34, and three for 35 to 49. For the

mode of transmission, males having sex with males topped the list with 17 individuals,

followed by males having sex with males and females (14), male-female sex only

(seven), and one unknown. (Sunstar, 2017).


This research study focuses on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade

10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School interms of their knowledge,

attitude, and perception. As such, the school (TVFNHS) will benefit from the findings of

the study by proposing and enhancing programs towards HIV/AIDS. By doing so, the

TVFNHS will engage effective HIV/AIDS programs that works towrds UNAIDS’ vision of

zero HIV infection, zero descrimination and zero AIDS related deaths. (UNAIDS, 2011).

Furthermore, the study’s findings will influence students to percieve and be aware about

HIV/AIDS. Lastly, the TVFNHS will, in the long run encounter reduced health and

administration cost if positive changes are made in the measure against.


Review of Related Literature

Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in

both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context

of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic

review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support

and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this

relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of

social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex

workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However,

influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug

users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may

be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific

context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social

networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to

explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV

prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for

various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate

necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the

protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. (Xiaoming Li, 2014)

The HIVlAIDS epidemic in South Africa is developing approximately 10 years behind

the epidemics in East and Central Africa. In 1990 the prevalence in most groups tested

was stili low, typically less than 1%, but it was already known that the doubling time was
about 1 year and it was clear that within the next 5 years prevaJences would reach 10 -

30% in some groups.' The years between 1990 and 1995 were a window of opportunity

during which time the control and management of HIV could have greatly reduced the

future spread of the disease. (C.M Campbell 2010)

The status of older adults in Africa occupies a small but rapidly expanding share of

the global literature on ageing. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has generated a new focus

on the changing role of the elderly in communities that have been affected. In sub-

Saharan Africa, where millions are projected to be infected with HIV and about two

million deaths are recorded annually amongst the traditionally productive adults,

such loss of parents and breadwinners means children and the elderly have had to

take up unusual responsibilities. A literature review on the elderly and HIV and

AIDS provided the data analysed for this article. Access to databases was mainly

via EBSCO (http://www.ebsco.co), which allowed searches in major databases and

search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in

health and health-related academic journals, repositories and archived reports.

Results showed that the AIDS pandemic has direct and indirect effects which have

manifested in a set of interrelated social, economic and psychological dimensions

that could ultimately impact on the health and well-being of the elderly. It is

concluded that more needs to be done to articulate the knowledge base of the

impact of HIV and AIDS in order to inform social, economic and political policies for

the purpose of alleviating the problems that the pandemic is wreaking on the

elderly African population. (School of Health Care Sciences University of Limpopo)


Between 1985 and 1987, examinations for human immune deficiency virus (HIV)

antibody were done on 25,392 prostitutes working in 64 cities throughout the

Philippines. The country-wide zero positivity rate among prostitutes based on this

sample was 0.8/1,000. Of the HIV cases, 85% were working in just two cities whose

prostitute populations comprised 50% of the total sample. The average incidence rate

for the same two cities after 1 year was 2.3/1,000. HIV antibody-positive women were

enrolled in a case-control study to determine demographic and epidemiologic risk

factors. This study involving 34 HIV-positive prostitutes and 61 randomly selected

negative control prostitutes did not reveal any risk factors related to sexual or other

types of behavior. A history of genital warts, a history of abnormal vaginal discharge,

and cytomegalovirus antibody were significantly more frequent in the HIV-positive cases

than in the controls; however, by logistic regression analysis, only an abnormal vaginal

discharge was independently associated with HIV infection. Absence of any evidence of

transmission by blood transfusion or drug abuse suggests that HIV was introduced by

the heterosexual route. (UNAIDS, 2011)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

(AIDS)-related education is seen by many as central to increasing young people's

awareness of, as well as decreasing their vulnerability to, HIV. There is less agreement,

however, on the central goals of HIV- and AIDS-related education and the form it might

best take. This paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding some of the

main approaches to HIV- and AIDS-related education being implemented today,

drawing a distinction between approaches which are ‘scientifically’ informed; those that
draw upon notions of ‘rights’ and those which are overtly ‘moralistic’ in the sense that

they promote conservative moral positions concerning sexuality and sexual acts. In

outlining these three approaches, we examine different ways in which the terms

‘science’, ‘rights’ and ‘moral values’ are conceptualized and some of the key

assumptions underpinning different forms of HIV- and AIDS-related education. Findings

will be useful for those desiring to develop a typology of approaches to HIV- and AIDS-

related education and their potential effects. (Health Education Research,2011)

Globally, HIV- and AIDS-related education programmes set out their objectives

and the process whereby they hope to achieve their goals in quite different ways. Some

initiatives for example seem largely concerned with promoting ‘responsible’ behaviours

(for example, the Expanded Life Planning Education Programme, which is delivered as

part of the formal school curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria. Others place the realization

of young people’s rights at the heart of their agenda, such as for example the

Brazilian Saúde e Prevenção nas Escolas (Health and Prevention in Schools)

programme, which is designed for young people between 13- and 19-year old attending

public secondary schools. Similarly, while agencies such as the United Nations

Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have argued that the development of life skills may be an

effective way of reducing young people’s vulnerability to HIV and AIDS, work such as

that initiated by the Jerusalem AIDS Project (JAIP) stresses the development of young

people’s scientific understanding of HIV as a key determinant of success. Put quite

simply, there exists debate about the forms, ends and means of HIV- and AIDS-related

education that cannot be reduced to concern for narrowly conceived notions of effects

and effectiveness alone. Despite the range and proliferation HIV- and AIDS-related
education programmes, to date there have only been a few attempts to develop a

conceptual framework for understanding and categorizing this large field of work. In one

early framework, Homans and Aggleton [10, 11] identified four models of HIV- and

AIDS-related education, distinguishing between programmes on the basis of their

understanding of disease and health (whether these were seen as dependent on

personal behavior and/or related to structural factors), their goals (changing what were

considered to be behavioral determinants or focusing on young people’s rights) and the

pedagogy employed (for example, formal education or non-formal initiatives). Smith et

al. subsequently put forward a typology of approaches to HIV- and AIDS-related

education based on their work in South East Asia. As well as looking at means and

ends, this focused in large part on identifying whether and how the subject had been

integrated within the formal education system. HIV/AIDS has not yet caused a

widespread epidemic in the Philippines. Rates in all the usual risk groups (sex workers,

men who have sex with men, STD clients, returning overseas workers, etc.) have

remained below 1%, except in a few areas, where they are still only 1-2% in some risk

groups. The low level of HIV may be due in part to the low number of sex worker clients

per night, the relatively low number of full-time sex workers, the low proportion of

injectors among drug users, the early multisectoral response to the epidemic, and the

presence of social hygiene clinics for sex workers. The incidence of STDs, multiple

partners, and injection drug use with needle sharing, however, is increasing, suggesting

that an explosive epidemic could occur if the virus is introduced into the appropriate risk

groups. The Philippine government has confronted the problem of HIV/AIDS

aggressively with an action plan that includes an emphasis on the response of the local
government agencies, involvement and support of nongovernmental organizations

(NGOs), incorporation of HIV/AIDS education into the school curriculum, and laws

forbidding discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS or belonging to risk groups.

Local and international NGOs have been actively involved in prevention of HIV/AIDS

and support of affected individuals. Although the Philippines is currently experiencing

low rates of HIV/AIDS, the country needs to be prepared for the possibility of an

explosive increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam and Indonesia provide examples

of delayed epidemics of HIV/AIDS that could also occur in the Philippines.( AIDS

Education and Prevention, July2004)

According to UNAIDS, the Philippines is one of the seven countries in the world

and the only country in Southeast Asia which reported an increasing trend in the

number of people infected with HIV. Thus, this investigation determined the knowledge

and attitude of college students of the University of the Immaculate Conception on

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

(AIDS). This is a correlation study which examined whether their knowledge on

HIV/AIDS has something to do with their attitude towards it, basing on the premise that

the more informed a person is on matters related to HIV/AIDS, the more appropriate his

or her attitude towards it is formed. A survey using an adapted questionnaire was

conducted to 380 randomly selected college students of the University of the

Immaculate Conception, Davao City, Philippines. Findings of the study revealed a high

level of knowledge on HIV/ AIDS and a moderately positive attitude towards all the

aspects involved in dealing with these health issues. Subjecting the data to Pearson r

analysis, it was found that there is a significant moderate relationship between the
knowledge and attitude on HIV/AIDS from the standpoint of the college students.

(Maribeth Galindo, 2014)

We identified 755 records, screened 699 unique titles and abstracts, and

conducted full text review of 122 full reports of which 51 articles met inclusion criteria.

The majority were cross-sectional studies describing HIV and STI prevalence and risk

factors in samples recruited from the Philippines. Four HIV prevention programs

conducted in the Philippines were identified, all of which reported improvements on HIV

knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Overall, female sex workers (FSWs) constituted

the primary study population, and few studies reported data from men who have sex

with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and youth. No studies reported on

transgender populations. Most studies were focused on examining condom use-related

outcomes and STI history, few had biomarkers for HIV, and none addressed biomedical

HIV prevention strategies. (JeromeGalea,2018)

DAVAO CITY, Philippines – The number of individuals infected with Human

Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) is

alarming, a city health official said. The reported cases of HIV-AIDS in the city is

increasing compared 10 or 11 years ago, Dr. Jordana P. Ramiterre, the Head Physician

of the Reproductive Health and Wellness Center or RHWC of the city health office said

in an interview by davaotoday.com RHWC, in partnership with Southern Philippines

Medical Center (SPMC) and the Alliance against AIDS in Mindanao (ALAGAD-

Mindanao), is a clinic and testing/screening center under the city health office that

serves as an access and service center for persons with HIV-AIDS. According to a
quarterly data released by RHWC, from April to June of this year, 33 cases were

already reported bringing to 295 the total number of persons positive with HIV-AIDS in

Davao city since 1993. Of the 33 cases reported in the stated quarter, 32 of the infected

are males and 1 female. 17 of the said cases are youths, aged 15 to 24, a figure that

according to health authorities describe as disturbing. (davaotoday.com,2018)

ALAGAD-Mindanao, an alliance of non-government organizations, people’s

organizations and individuals involved in the prevention, care and support of people

living with HIV confirmed the statistics given by the city health office. It is believed that

the figure could be higher. In fact, the Department of Health (DOH) Region XI recorded

a higher figure of 403 persons with HIV-AIDS in Davao City, from 1993 until June 2012.

(Alex Lopez, 2012)

The HIV infection rate is lower in the Philippines than would be expected based

on the numbers of people believed to engage in high-risk behaviors. A national

behavioral surveillance system has been implemented to monitor selected behaviors

among vulnerable populations. This paper reports on an interview survey of 360

registered and 360 freelance sex workers in Cebu City, the Philippines, from 1997 to

1999. All of the women had engaged in sexual activity in exchange for money during

the week preceding the interview. The freelance workers reported more sexual

partners than the registered sex workers (p < .00001), assessed themselves as more

at risk for HIV (p < .00001), and were less likely to always use condoms during sex (p <

.00001). The groups were comparable on a measure of knowledge about HIV

transmission. As these women continue to engage in risky behaviors, some form of


intervention will be necessary to prevent the escalating HIV/AIDS rates seen in other

Southeast Asian countries. (Elmira Aguilar, 2001)

The local Reproductive Health and Wellness Center of the City Health Office (CHO)

has recorded a total of 2,525 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and Acquired

Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases in Davao City from January to July this

year alone, with men having sex with men (MSM) still on top of the list of the modes of

transmission. According to the latest data of the RHWC-Davao obtained from the

Epidemiology Bureau of the Department of Health (DOH) in Davao Region, out of the 2,

525 HIV/AIDS cases, males got the highest number of people with HIV infection with 95

percent compared to females with 5 percent only. Male to male sex transmission posed

1,330 cases and people living with HIV (PLHIV) has reached to 1,426 cases, according

to Dr. Jordana Ramiterre, RHWC-Davao physician head during the during the Kapehan

sa Dabaw media forum at SM City Mall annex. Cases are higher among males because

of their riskier sexual behavior than females. (Judlee Vega,. 2011)


Theories/Concept

Obermeyer (2011) stated that he developed a theory to increase our

understanding on the contextual factors and mechanisms that influence HIV disclosure.

This theory is presented as an organized and systematic set of interrelated concepts

that helps to develop laws of general understanding by determining whether, why and

how disclosure takes place and to address what types of support people, families and

communities need The model is believed to guide future research projects on HIV

disclosure, and to facilitate the development and implementation of robust interventions

to reduce stigma and potentially increase the rates of HIV disclosure. We opted for a

grounded theory design to study HIV disclosure processes in vulnerable populations in

Nepal. Grounded theory is generally referred to as an inductive research process that

leads to the systematic development of a theoretical model to explain behavioral

patterns and processes in social settings linked to the phenomenon under study. In our

case, the phenomenon central to our study is the process of HIV disclosure. In

grounded theory, rather than introducing a set of preconceived theoretical ideas or

hypotheses to guide data-collection and analysis, the building blocks for the emerging

theory are generated through a process of simultaneous data collection and analysis.

Data collection and analysis continues until a saturation point is reached and the

developed theory is no longer challenged by new, potentially conflicting data collected.


Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Awareness of

HIV/AIDS
Profile of the

Respondents: • Knowledge

a. Gender • Attitude

b. Age • Perception

Figure 1. Theoretical Framework of the Study

This study was based to the following theories and models. The independent

variable indicates the profile of the respondents in terms of their gender and age. This

variable can stand alone even without the dependent variable. The dependent variable

indicates the awareness of HIV / AIDS in terms of knowledge, attitude, and perception.

This variable cant stand alone without the independent variable. In other words, the

awareness of HIV / AIDS in terms of knowledge, attitude, and perception depends on

the profile of the respondents in terms of their gender and age.

This study identified into two variables. The dependent variable consist the

awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students interms of their knowledge, attitude

and perception. The independent variable consist the profile of the respondents interms

of gender and age.


Statement of the Problem

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

a. Gender,

b. Age?

2. What is the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo

V. Fernandez National High School interms of:

a. Knowledge,

b. Attitude,

c. Perception?

3. Is there a significant difference on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among

Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School when analyzed

according to:

a. Gender,

b. Age?
Hypothesis

The null hypothesis were formulated and tested using 0.05 alpha level of significance.

HO: There is no significant difference on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among

Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School.

HA: There is a significant difference on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among

Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School.

Scope and Delimitation

These are some limitations in this study that are necessary to comment on. The study

was carried out in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School. The study focuses only

the responses perceived by the Grade 10 students of TVFNHS about the awareness of

HIV/AIDS. The respondents were only taken from one curriculum, the Grade 10, which

does not represent the entire student of the said school. The instruments used in this

study was a survey questionnaire and was adopted from the study of Ndakaitei

Chikonzo.
Definition of Terms

Terms used in this study are defined operationally within the usage to avoid

misinterpretation.

1. Awareness: The knowledge of knowing something, knowing that something

exist and is important. An awareness of how to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS.

2. HIV/AIDS: Stands for human immune deficiency virus. It is the virus that causes

AIDS. AIDS, on the other hand, stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency

Syndrome.

3. Student: A person who is studying at a school.

4. Knowledge Based: awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or

situation. Usually require students to identify information in basically in the same

it s presented.

5. Attitude Based: a position of the body proper to or implying an action or mental

state.

6. Perception Based: a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting

something; a mental impression. Measures the perception of respondents to

provide information on how they perceive such matters.


CHAPTER 2

Method

This chapter describes and discusses how the researchers will gather the

necessary data and information that will be use in the entire study. It describes who will

be the respondents and focus of the research. This also shows the procedure of data

collection data analysis and instruments used; these chapters also discuss the type of

research design, and respondents of the study.

Research Design

The research design is a descriptive research. Christinen, Johnson and Turner,

(2011) describe it is the best design that provides a description or picture of a situation

or phenomenon. In this case, the design was adopted to give a clear description of the

level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez

National High School.

Respondents of the Study

The participants of this study were taken from the Grade 10 student of Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School. A survey was conducted including the 182

participants. The participants answered the questionnaire completely including the

demographic profile, knowledge based question, attitude based question and the

perception based question.


Research Instrument

The research instrument use in the gathering of data is a survey questionnaire. But

in any case the instrument used in gathering data was adopted from the study of

Ndakaitei Chikonzo. The survey questionnaire was presented to the teacher in charge

for comments, corrections and changes. The ratings of the respondents by each

question were based on the following Five-point Likert rating scale.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher carried out a survey with the Grade 10 students in Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School. A questionnaire containing a Likert scale was used to

collect data in order to assess the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10

students in TVFNHS basing on their degree of agreement with the provided statements.

The questionnaire consist of four section; demographic profile of the respondents,

knowledge based question, attitude based question and perception based questions.

There were ten items under the knowledge, attitude and perception sections.
Data Analysis

To compute the data we collected, we used the frequency distribution. Frequency

distribution is a representation, either in a graphical or tabular format, that

displays the number of observations within a given interval. The interval size

depends on the data being analyzed and the goals of the analyst. The intervals

must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

𝒇
% x 100
𝑵

Mean is the average of or norm. We use this formula to find the SD or Standard

Deviation.

∑𝒙
̅) =
(𝒙
𝑵

Standard Deviation its measure the dispersion of data set.

SD= √∑(𝑥 − 𝑥 2

Z-test is a statistical test used to determine whether two population means are different

when the variances are known and the sample size is large. Z-test were used to assess

any significant difference on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10

students in TVFNHS when analyzed according to their gender.

𝑥̅ 1− 𝑥̅ 2
Z=
𝜃 1 1
√ +
𝑛1 𝑛2
Chi square is a method used in statistics that calculates the difference between

observed and expected data values. It is used to determine how closely actual data fit

expected data. Chi-square is a method to used any significant difference on the level of

awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students when analyzed according to age.


CHAPTER 3

Results and Discussion

This chapter indicates the results and discussion of the data gathered in this study.

Table 1: Profile of the respondents in terms of Age

Age Frequency Percentage


15-16 154 84%
17-18 25 13%
18 above 5 3%
Total 184 100%

Table 1 shows that 84% of the respondents have the age of 15-16, in frequency of

154respondents; 13% of the respondents have the age of 17-18, in frequency of 25

respondents; 3% of the respondents have the age of 18 above in frequency of 5

respondents.

Table 2: Profile of the respondents in terms of Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage


Male 62 34%
Female 122 66%
Total 184 100%

Table 2 shows that 34% of the respondents are male and 66% are female, a total of

100%. In frequency, there are 62 males and 122 females a total of 184 respondents.
Table 3: Level of Awareness of HIV/AIDS among selected Grade 10 students in

Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School

Indicators Mean Standard Deviation Descriptive


Rating
KnowledgeBased Question 3.51 0.78 Agree
Attitude Based Question 3.04 0.82 Neutral
Perception Based Question 3.38 0.75 Agree
Total 3.31 0.23 Neutral

Legend

Range of Means Descriptive Rating

4:30-5:00 Very High

3:50-4:20 High

2:70-3:40 Moderate

1:90-2:60 Low

1:00-1:80 Very Low

Table 3 shows that the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among selected Grade 10

students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School. In the area of knowledge based

question have the average of 3.51 and standard deviation of 0.78, in descriptive rating,

the respondent has a high knowledge about HIV/AIDS. It also shows that the level of

awareness on the selected Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez in the area of

attitude based question have the average of 3.04 and standard deviation of 0.82 in

descriptive rating, that the respondents has a moderate attitude about HIV/AIDS. It also
shows that the level of awareness on the selected Grade 10 students in TVFNHS in the

area of perception based question have the average 3.38 and standard deviation of

0.75 in descriptive rating, the respondents has a moderate perception about HIV/AIDS.

Overall, the general average has a moderate level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among

Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School.

Table 4: Level of Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School when analyzed according to their Gender

Gender Mean SD CV TV Decision

Male 3.4 0.05

Female 3.28 0.02 1.7 0.3849 Rejected

Total 3.34 0.04

In the profile of the respondents in terms of gender has the overall mean of 3.34 and

the standard deviation of 0.04. The computed value is 1.7 and the tabular value is

0.3849. This shows that there is significant difference on the level of awareness among

Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School because the computed

value is greater than the tabular value. Therefore, the researcher concluded that the

alternative hypothesis is accepted. Based on the table that male and female has a

significant difference on the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students

in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School.


Table 5: Chi Square Table in the Level of Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10

students in TVFNHS when analyzed according to Age

Age MEAN SD CV TV Decision


15-16 3.3 0.68
17-18 3.2 0.73 179.93 11.070 Rejected
18-19 3.5 0.6
Total 3.3 0.67

In this table shows that the null hypothesis is rejected, because the computed value is

greater than the tabular value. Therefore, the researcher concluded that alternative

hypothesis is accepted, so there is significant difference on the level of awareness of

HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School in

terms of age.
CHAPTER 4

Conclusions and Recommendation

Conclusion

The study aimed to establish the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10

students in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School. In the problem statement

number 1 the profile of the respondents in in terms of age shows that 84% of the

respondents age 15-16, in frequency of 154, 13% of the respondents aged 17-18, in

frequency of 25; 3% of the respondents aged 18 above in frequency of 5 respondents.

In the profile of the respondents in terms of gender shows that 34% of the respondents

are male and 66% are female. Overall, there are 62 males and 122 females.

Problem statement number 2 shows that the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among

Grade 10 students in TVFNHS. In the knowledge based question have the average of

3.51 and standard deviation of 0.78, in descriptive rating the respondents has a high

knowledge about HIV/AIDS. In the attitude based question have the average of 3.04

and standard deviation of 0.82, in descriptive rating the respondents has a moderate

attitude about HIV/AIDS. In the perception based question have the average 3.38 and

standard deviation of 0.75. The study found out that the Grade 10 students overall

average has a moderate level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in

TVFNHS. The findings of the study imply that the Teofilo V. Fernandez National High

School is doing well in educating its students as well as in creating an enabling

environment that influences students’ attitudes and perception in a positive way. This

findings may have important implications in the domain of health care and health
education. It may give a sense of harmonization of health care education, that may not

only deeper our knowledge and awareness of students’ sexual behavior but rather an

educational planning program that might influence the mentality of students and general

public only for the positive.

In the problem statement number 3 shows if there’s any significant difference on the

level of awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo V. Fernandez

National High School based on the profile of the respondents in terms of age and

gender.
Recommendation

Based on the finding and conclusion of this study, the following recommendation are

recommended:

● More attention must be given towards programs that focus on behavior considering

that students have a fair level of knowledge, attitudes and perception of HIV/AIDS

programs in TVFNHS.

● It also recommended that ways must be advised to encourage students to translate

their knowledge, attitude and perception into action practice.

● The media should direct more advertisement and campaign towards undergraduate.

● The school should continue to provide adequate HIV/AIDS information to students

with a view to help reduce or eliminate the transmission of the deadly disease towards

HIV/AIDS.

● Parents and guidance should join hands with the school authority in the prevention of

HIV/AIDS among students.

● Government should complement the efforts of the school authority and parents

through media advocacy program on the prevention of HIV/AIDS among students.

● To the teachers they must conduct a symposium/seminar about HIV/AIDS awareness.


Abstract

This study is an Awareness survey that aims to identify and examines the level of

knowledge, attitude and perception of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in TVFNHS.

This research is a descriptive research that involves students only of the Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School in Purok Sta.Cruz Barangay Indangan Consent to

conduct study was sought from all participants. A questionnaire with both closed and

open ended question was used to obtain data from the participants. The questionnaire

was adopted from the study of Ndakaitei Chikonzo and were rated on a Likert Scale.

A survey was conducted to Grade 10 students with 62 Males and 122 females a total of

184 respondents. This study has used the concept of perception to capture students

knowledge, attitude and perception towards HIV /AIDS. The findings of the study show

that many students were knowledgeable and have a moderate attitude and moderate

perception of the HIV/ AIDS in Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School.


Table of Contents

Title Page i

Approval Sheet ii

Acknowledgement iii

Abstract iv

Table of Contents v

CHAPTER

1 The Problem and its Scope

Review of Related Literature

Theories/Concepts

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

Hypothesis

Scope and Delimitation

Definition of Terms

2 Method

Research Design

Respondents of the Study

Research Instrument
Data Gathering Procedure

Data Analysis

3 Results and Discussion

4 Conclusions and Recommendation

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

Appendices

A Survey Questionnaire

B Validation of Instrument

C Reliability Results of the Instruments

Curriculum Vitae
Acknowledgement

This study is made possible by the great providence of God who unconditionally

give his blessings and love that continue to inspire the researchers to write relevant

studies. For the realization of this study, a great amount of help was received from a

member respected persons. Needles to say the author of this study is to be held

responsible for any inexperience sentence.

We want to express my sincerest and warmest gratitude to Mr. Michael Tabares teacher

in charge. He have been guiding, providing valuable advice and supporting us through

this research process. In fact, we are indebted to this person and there is no way to pay

back. We give thanks to the research participants that made the research possible

without them we can’t complete this study.

We also thank the school principal of Teofilo V. Fernandez National High School, Mr.

Charlie B. Pulma for giving us permission to carry out the study in the school. And also

we want to give thanks to all the staff and faculty member of Teofilo V. Fernandez

National High School for their support. To our family and friends we are very grateful for

their love1 and support through out the time of our research. This study can’t be

possible and completed without the effort and cooperation from our group member;

John Lloyd Olinan, Maximo Sadagnot, Kathy Untalan, Anifer Putao especially to our

group leader Christine Jean Ceredon.


References

Castor, K,. (2010) Article in Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

https://www.academia.edu/33980097/Conceptual_Theoretical_Framework_A_Conceptu

al_Theoretical_Framework

Lazaro, J., (2012) Comprehensive Knowledge of the Respondents on HIV/AIDS

Transmission

https://www-researchgate-

net.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/www.researchgate.net/figure/Comprehensive-knowledge-of-

the-respondents-on-HIV-AIDS-transmission.

Goodenow, Maureen Ph,.D (2011) A Study of Awareness about HIV/AIDS Among

Senior High School

https://www-researchgate-

net.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/www.researchgate.net/publication/38054930_A_Study_of_A

wareness_about_HIVAIDS_Among_Senior_Secondary_School_Children_of_Delhi

Benido, Allan (2010) HIV. Gov July 2019 HIV Test Philippines Article

http://hivtestphilippines.org/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwz8bsBRC6ARIsAEyNnvqkEroXbLPPTXM

NV4cF1oagZJvzvxpKSSI2akYOImPutB8q6NWsyXcaAjcHEALw_wcB
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https://www.mindanews.com/top-stories/2015/03/25-found-positive-of-hiv-in-surigao-

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Tutas, Rey,. (2017) The Provincial Health Office (PHO)

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Private Institution Uganda

https://www.academia.edu/5058738/IMPLEMENTATION_OF_WORKPLACE_HIV_AID

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Andres de Francisco, (2002) Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Staff of an International

Organization in Bangladesh

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Judlee Vega., (2011) Article about HIV/AIDS RISING 95 % of sick Dabawenyos are

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APPENDICES

Table 4: Level of Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10 students in Teofilo V.

Fernandez National High School when analyzed according to:

Formula:

𝑥̅ 1− 𝑥̅ 2 3.4− 3.28
𝒵= 𝜃 1 1
𝒵= 0.23 1 1
√ + √ +
𝑛2 𝑛2
61 123

0.12
Given: 𝒵 = 0.23 𝒵 = 1.7
√0.02+0.008

𝑋̅1= 3.4

0.12
𝑋̅2= 3.28 𝒵= 0.23 TV: +_0.4554
√0.02+0.008

N1= 61

0.12
N2= 123 𝒵=
(0.23)(0.037)

0.12
𝜃 = 0.23 𝒵= 0.07
Table 5: Chi Square Table in the Level of Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Grade 10

students in TVFNHS when analyzed according to Age

Age Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Total


Agree Disagree
15-16 840 1,273 1,134 690 489 4,426
17-1 144 191 168 107 113 723
18-19 42 51 52 27 3 172
Total 1,026 1,515 1,354 824 605 5,321