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NEW TRENDS IN ENVIRONMENT

MANAGEMENT

CREATED BY:- AYUSH ANAND


ROLL NO:-34
CLASS:- FY BMS
DIV:- E

TOPIC:- GLOBAL WARMING


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GLOBAL WARMING
INTRODUCTION:-
Global warming is the long-term rise in the average
temperature of the Earth's climate system, an aspect of
current climate change shown by temperature
measurements and by multiple effects of the warming.
The term commonly refers to the mainly human-
caused increase in global surface temperatures and its
projected continuation. In this context, the terms
global warming and climate change are often used
interchangeably, but climate change includes both
global warming and its effects, such as changes in
precipitation and impacts that differ by region. There
were prehistoric periods of global warming, but
observed changes since the mid-20th century have
been much greater than those seen in previous records
covering decades to thousands of years. In 2013, the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is extremely
likely that human influence has been the dominant
cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th
century. The largest human influence has been the
emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide,
methane, and nitrous oxide

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EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING:-
1] PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT:-
Arctic sea ice decline, sea level rise, retreat of
glaciers: Global warming has led to decades of
shrinking and thinning of the Arctic sea ice, making it
vulnerable to atmospheric anomalies.Projections of
declines in Arctic sea ice vary. Recent projections
suggest that Arctic summers could be ice-free
(defined as an ice extent of less than 1 million square
km) as early as 2025–2030

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2] BIOSPHERE:-
In terrestrial ecosystems, the earlier timing of spring
events, as well as poleward and upward shifts in plant
and animal ranges, have been linked with high
confidence to recent warming. It is expected that most
ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric
CO2 levels and higher global temperatures.
3] HUMANS:-
The effects of climate change on human systems,
mostly due to warming and shifts in precipitation,
have been detected worldwide. The future social
impacts of climate change will be uneven across the
world. All regions are at risk of experiencing negative

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impacts,with low-latitude, less developed areas facing
the greatest risk.
4] FOOD AND WATER:-
Crop production will probably be negatively affected
in low-latitude countries, while effects at northern
latitudes may be positive or negative. Global warming
of around 4 °C relative to late 20th century levels
could pose a large risk to global and regional food
security. The impact of climate change on crop
productivity for the four major crops was negative for
wheat and maize, and neutral for soy and rice, in the
years 1960–2013.
5] HEALTH AND SECURITY:-
Generally, impacts on public health will be more
negative than positive. Impacts include the direct
effects of extreme weather, leading to injury and loss
of life; and indirect effects, such as undernutrition
brought on by crop failures. There has been a shift
from cold- to heat-related mortality in some regions
as a result of warming. Temperature rise has been
connected to increased numbers of suicides. Climate
change has been linked to an increase in violent
conflict by amplifying poverty and economic shocks,
which are well-documented drivers of these conflicts

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6] LIVELIHOODS, INDUSTRY, AND
INFRASTRUCTURE:-
In small islands and mega deltas, inundation from sea
level rise is expected to threaten vital infrastructure
and human settlements. This could lead to
homelessness in countries with low-lying areas such
as Bangladesh, as well as statelessness for populations
in island nations, such as the Maldives and Tuvalu.
Climate change can be an important driver of
migration, both within and between countries

RESPONSES:-
Mitigation of and adaptation to climate change are
two complementary responses to global warming.
Successful adaptation is easier if there are substantial
emission reductions. Many of the countries that have
contributed least to global greenhouse gas emissions
are among the most vulnerable to climate change,
which raises questions about justice and fairness with
regard to mitigation and adaptation.
1] MITIGATION:-
Climate change can be mitigated through the
reduction of greenhouse gas emissions or the
enhancement of the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb
greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. There is a
large potential for future reductions in emissions by a
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combination of activities, including energy
conservation and increased energy efficiency; the use
of low-carbon energy technologies, such as renewable
energy, nuclear energy, and carbon capture and
storage; decarbonizing buildings and transport; and
enhancing carbon sinks through, for example,
reforestation and preventing deforestation.
2] DRIVERS OF GREENHOUSE GAS
EMISSIONS:-
Over the last three decades of the twentieth century,
gross domestic product per capita and population
growth were the main drivers of increases in
greenhouse gas emissions.CO2 emissions are
continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels
and land-use change. Emissions can be attributed to
different regions. The attribution of emissions from

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land-use change is subject to considerable uncertainty.

3] ADAPTATION:-
Climate change adaptation is the process of adjusting
to actual or expected climate change and its effects.
Humans can strive to moderate or avoid harm due to
climate change and exploit opportunities. Examples of

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adaptation are improved coastline protection, better
disaster management, and the development of more
resistant crops. The adaptation may be planned, either
in reaction to or anticipation of global warming, or
spontaneous, i.e. without government intervention.

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CONCLUSION:-
The ‘Conclusion’ confirms that global warming is the
major challenge for our global society. There is very
little doubt that global warming will change our
climate in the next century. So what are the solutions
to global warming? First, there must be an
international political solution. Second, funding for
developing cheap and clean energy production must
be increased, as all economic development is based on
increasing energy usage. We must not pin all our
hopes on global politics and clean energy technology,
so we must prepare for the worst and adapt. If
implemented now, a lot of the costs and damage that
could be caused by changing climate can be
mitigated. The phenomenon of greenhouse warming is
complex, and so are the possible responses to it. First,
the extent, timing, and variation of future warming
and its likely impacts need to be assessed. Second,
both the cost and the effectiveness of options to slow
greenhouse warming must be estimated and compared
to the costs of postponing action. Third, the possible
advantages and disadvantages of these actions need to
be evaluated in light of the extent to which people,
plants, and animals are likely to adjust by themselves
or with assistance to changes in the climate. Fourth,
the policymaker needs to evaluate these actions in
comparison to other ways resources might be used.

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