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AN010

CT’s specification guidelines


for Thytronic protections , Extended and Smart
line devices

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AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018
‡‡ Symbols
DT Definite Time characteristic
IT Inverse Time characteristic
f Rated frequency [Hz]
 = 2f Angular frequency [rad/s]
X/R Reactance/resistance ratio
T= X/(R) Time constant of the fault current asymmetrical component
Ipn CT primary rated current. The normalized values ​​are 10-12,5-15-20-25-30-40-
50-60-75 and their decimal multiples or fractions.
In Relay rated current (1 A or 5 A)
Isn CT secondary rated current (1 A or 5 A)
Iset Amperometric threshold setting of the protection relay [A primary]
tset Operate time setting of the protection relay [s]
Ikomax Maximum single-phase earth fault current detected by the protection [A primary]
Ikmax Maximum current detected by the protection [A primari].
The greater of three-phase fault or single-phase ground fault is considered.
Iktmax Maximum current passing through the differential protection zone [A primary].
The greater of three-phase fault or single-phase ground fault is considered.
Inref Rated current on the reference side of the differential protection [A primary]
 Resistivity of the connecting leads, conservatively considered at 75 °C
(0.0216 mm2/m for copper) [mm2/m]
L Length (one way) of the conductor connecting CT to the protection relay [m]
S Cable cross-section of the CT connection to the relay protection [mm2]
Rct CT secondary winding resistance at 75°C [].
If not available, can be conservatively overstimated with the following empirical formu-
las:
Rct = 0.84(Ipn /1000)0.925 if Isn = 5 A
Rct = 8.4(Ipn /1000)0.925 if Isn = 1 A
VA n CT rated burden [VA]. The normalized values ​​are 2,5-5-10-15-30 VA.
Rbn = VA n /Isn CT resistive rated burden []
2

Rr Input resistance of the protection relay []


Rrp Phase input resistance of the protection relay [].
For THYTRONIC Pro-N, Pro-NExtended and Smart-Line protection relays, Rrp = 0.0016
 if Isn = 5 A and Rrp = 0.002  if Isn = 1 A.
Rrg Residual input resistance of the protection relay [].
For THYTRONIC Pro-N, Pro-NExtended and Smart-Line protection relays, Rrg = 0.0048
 if Isn =5 A and rg = 0.006  if Isn =1 A.
RL = L/S Resistance of each conductor connecting the CT to protection relay, considered
conservatively at 75 °C [].
Rb = RL+Rr Resistive burden connected to the CT [].
P accuracy class: designation of a protection current transformer.
Two classes of normalized precision, 5P and 10P, are defined inside the IEC 60044-1
standard with their limits of ratio, angle and composite error.
PX accuracy class: designation of a low leakage reactance current transformer,
for which knowledge of the secondary excitation characteristic, secondary winding
resistance, secondary burden resistance and turns ratio is sufficient to assess its per-
formance in relation to the protective relay system with which it is to be used.
The Class PX CTs are used primarily for high-impedance differential protection, but
they can also be used for the most common protective functions.
F’ Effective accuracy limit factor (for class P CTs).
With burden applied (Rb), is the ratio between the primary current up to which the CT
has complied with the composite error relative
​​ to the corresponding accuracy class
and the rated primary current.
F Accuracy limit factor (for class P CTs).
With rated burden applied (Rbn), is the ratio of the rated accuracy limit primary current
to the rated primary current. The normalized values ​​are 5-10-15-20-30.
Vk CT rated knee point e.m.f. [V] for class PX CTs.
Is the minimum sinusoidal e.m.f. at rated power frequency when applied to the sec-
ondary terminals of the transformer, all other terminals being open-circuited, which
when increased by 10% causes the r.m.s. exciting current to increase by no more than
2 AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018
50%.
‡‡ ANSI codes for protective functions
49 Thermal image
50 Instantaneous overcurrent
51 Time delayed overcurrent
50N Instantaneous residual overcurrent
51N Time delayed residual overcurrent
64REF Restricted earth fault
67 Phase directional overcurrent
67N Directional earth fault
87T Differential for transformer
87G Differential for generator
87TG Differential for transformer-generator
87M Differential for motor
87NHIZ High impedande differential restricted earth fault

‡‡ Preface
This document provides guidelines useful for defining the technical characteristics of the inductive
current transformers (CTs) conforming to IEC 60044-1 and CEI EN 60044-1 standards, for the proper
functioning of the most commonly used protective functions of THYTRONIC Pro-N-line, Pro-NExtend-
ed and Smart relays.
These protective functions are also used along with other special functions in the line, transformer,
generator, motor, condenser multifunction relay; in any case the necessary characteristics for CT are
determined by these most common protective functions (except for special cases which refer to the
instruction manual of protective relays).
For most of the protective functions class P or PX CTs should be used; in special cases, however,
measurement CTs may be needed for protection functions.
If :
• measuring functions as well as protective functions are enabled, or
• protective functions requiring measuring CTs are used (eg generator protection of reverse active
power - 32R) together with protective functions requiring protection CTs,
for the same secondary circuit a double accuracy class (for measure and protection) can be specified.
Of the two accuracy classes for the normalized class P CTs (5P and 10P), hereafter we will refer in
particular to one class 5P as it is now more widespread than 10P and it have lower measurement er-
rors (ratio, composite and phase error).
In general, however, the 10P accuracy class is also used, accepting more measurement errors.
As for the CT, the most influence on operation of electrical protection is the linearity range, ie the
range of variability of the primary current within which the CT should ensure that measurement errors
are contained within the limits to its corresponding accuracy class to ensure proper functioning of
the protection element (start / trip in the time set in cases where is required, no start / no trip in the
remaining cases).
The correct operation of the protection would certainly be guaranteed if the CT were sized so that
its linear range extends up to the maximum primary current (also considering the undirectional com-
ponent as well as symmetric). In some cases the application of this criterion, however, leads to an
over-dimensioning of the CT, in others the thermal and / or dynamics stability of the relay itself may be
compromised, due to the high current linearly transferred from the CT secondary circuit in response
to high short circuit primary currents.
With the measurement techniques implemented in digital relays of the Pro-Line, Pro-NExtended line
and Smart-N line this criterion is not necessary, since the correct operation is still guaranteed with
waveform more or less distorted - depending on the protection function - from CT magnetic satura-
tion.
For the class P the range of linearity is expressed by the nominal accuracy limit factor F, which rep-
resents the multiple of the CT primary rated current up to Ipn which, applied to the secondary with
burden equal to the nominal burden, the composite error lies within the specified limit (5% for the 5P
class, 10% for the 10P class).
Thanks to the very low absorption of current inputs of the line Pro-Line, Pro-NExtended line and Smart-
N digital protection relays (0,04 VA for In = 5 A - 0,002 VA for In = 1 A residual current input 0,12 VA for In
= 5 A - 0,006 VA for In = 1 A), the burden actually applied to the CT secondary is generally much lower
than the CT’s rated burden.
Under real operating conditions therefore, the actual accuracy limit factor F ’ is greater than the nomi-
nal accuracy limit factor F and for primary current larger than F ’∙ Ipn , the CT saturates.
Similarly, for the CT for measuring instruments accuracy class, the range of linearity is expressed
by the safety nominal factor to the nominal burden and the actual safety factor applied to the real
burden.
The range of linearity required for the class 5P CTs for all the protective functions, is thus explained in
the table below using the actual accuracy limit factor F ’.
After the F ’ calculation as shown in the table then, for the CT’s specification, the nominal accuracy
limit factor F must be calculated.
For this purpose the relationship applies:
F = F ’ (Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn)
The relationship is valid also for the safety factor for the measuring CT accuracy class.
The range of linearity required of Class PX CTs is instead specified by the knee point rated voltage Vk ,
which basically identifies the point on the magnetization characteristic, beyond which the CT satura-

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018 3
tion arises.
If inside an individual protection relays more protective functions are active than those listed in the
table below, or on different protective relays connected on the same secondary circuit, the highest
value for F ’ or Vk must be chosen.

Please note that Vk for PX class CTs can be expressed in terms of F for 5P-10P class CTs through
relationships:
Vk = F ∙(Rct+Rbn)Isn /1.15 (F rated limit factor of 5P class CTs)
Vk =F ∙(Rct+Rbn)Isn /1.3 (F rated limit factor of 10P class CTs)
In this guide, for simplicity and as a precautionary measure, the factor 1.15 is reduced to 1 for which:
Vk ~F ∙(Rct+Rbn)Isn (F rated limit factor of 5P class CTs).
In some cases, especially with low-CT transformation ratio and high fault currents, it must not exceed
more than is necessary in choosing the precision limit factor / safety or the knee point voltage in order
to limit the current values ​​for secondary which the protection relay thermal and dynamics stability is
guaranteed with the max primary overcurrent fault. To this purpose the thermal and dynamic overload
limit of input phase and residual current for the line Pro-Line, Pro-NExtended line and Smart N pro-
tection relays (valid for both rated 1 A and 5 A) must be considered:
Thermal limit: 500 A (secondary) per 1 s
Dynamic limit : 1250 A (secondary – half cycle)
The CT’s rated primary current Ipn is generally chosen to a normalized value between 1 and 2 times the
rated or normal current of the protected electrical component. If there are reasons why this criterion
can not be applied, for example for reasons of CTs short-circuit withstand or the CT linear response,
factors can be considered highest to 2 (after verifying that the required setting lies within the adjust-
ment range of protection relay).
The values ​​of rated secondary current Isn compatible with THYTRONIC relay are 1 A and 5 A, with
preference to the value of 1 A for very long links (at the same resistance value of the secondary circuit,
the burden in VA at the rated current of 1 A is 25 times lower than the nominal current of 5 A).
The CT’s rated burden VAn (for class P CTs) of balance toroidal CTs or on the neutral ground, used to
measure the earth fault current, need not be defined in relation to the burden actually applied to the
rated secondary current because the current in the secondary circuit is null in the absence of ground
fault: this case is sufficient to establish the value of rated burden that F ’ the conditions required in the
following table is satisfies.
For phase CTs rated burden but must satisfy:
VAn ≥ Rb Isn2
where Rb = RL + Rr
Rb includes the sum of the resistances of the connecting leads and the sum of the resistances of all
current inputs connected to the protection relays secondary circuit.
When correction CTs on the secondary of main CTs are used, in the calculation of Rb must be added
also the internal resistance of these correction CTs.

The following cases can occur:


• No 3 CTs connected to the 3-phases relay, each via conductor return (total 6 wires). It is considered
Rb = 2RL + Rrp.
• No 3 CTs connected to the 3-phases relay, via 4-pole relay wires total (no. 3 phases + 1 common
return). It is considered Rb = RL + Rrp.
• No 3 CTs connected to the 3-phases relay and residual current input on the common return (Hol-
mgreen). For the selection of CTs with respect to the proper functioning of the phase overcurrent
protection is considered Rb = RL + Rrp, the choice of TA with respect to the proper functioning of the
residual overcurrent protection is considered Rb = 2RL + Rrp + Rrg
• No 2 CTs connected to the 2-phases relay. It is considered Rb = 2RL + Rrp.
• No 2 CTs connected to the 3-phases relay. It is considered Rb = 2RL + 2Rrp.

Among the CTs technical features in accordance with IEC 60044-1 standard also the voltage level,
current short-term thermal current (Ith) and the dynamic current rating (Idyn) must be considered, for
whose definition the rules of electrical design must be followed.

4 AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018
Protections Class 5P CTs Class PX CTs Notes

51-50 (DT) F’ ≥ 2Iset/Ipn Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) It is intended that IT is less than the DT threshold. With more DT thresholds activated in the protection relay, Iset is the
largest of these.
If Iset is not known the selection criteria must be modified as follows:
F’ ≥ Ikmax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ Ikmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
If the second harmonic restraint must be activated, the criterion is modified as follows:
49 or 51 (IT) e 51-50 (DT) F’ ≥ 2Iset /Ipn Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) • F’ ≥ Ikmax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ Ikmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) for delayed protections
(is equivalent to to prevent CT saturation with maximum symmetrical current Ikmax)
• F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]Ikmax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]IIkmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) for instantaneous protections
(is equivalent to to prevent CT saturation for a period not less than the operate time setting tset).

F’ ≥ minimo tra Vk ≥ minimo tra


49 or 51 (IT)
20Iset /Ipn e Ikmax /Ipn 20Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) e Ikmax /Ipn

The protection should be delayed, so that the phase error of CT during the transient fault (or in general surges result-
ing power-up transformers, motors, etc.) do not cause nuisance tripping in the opposite direction to that expected for
protection.
67 (DT) F’ ≥ 0,5Ikmax /Ipn Vk ≥ 0,5Ikmax (Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) If trip is required during transients, which has the maximum time constant T of the unidirectional component, the
criterion is modified as follows:
F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]Ikmax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]Ikmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
(is equivalent to to prevent CT saturation for a period not less than the operate time setting tset).

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018
5
6
Protections Class 5P CTs Class PX CTs Notes

With more DT thresholds activated, Iset is the largest of these.


If Iset is not known the selection criteria must be modified as follows:
51N-50N (DT) F’ ≥ Ikomax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ Ikomax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
with balance transformer F’ ≥ 2Iset /Ipn Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) If the earth fault current that should be detected by the protection is much less than Ipn the class 5P CT Ipn accuracy
or CT on the neutral ground may be not adequate: in such cases class 1.0 CTs if placed on the neutral ground, or balance transformer T200P
T110P THYTRONIC must be used.
In compensated neutral grid a current balance transformer THYTRONIC T110P-T200P. must be used.

If the earth fault current that should be detected by the protection is much less than Ipn the class 5P CT Ipn accuracy
51N (IT)
F’ ≥ minimum from Vk ≥ minimo tra may be not adequate: in such cases class 1.0 CTs if placed on the neutral ground, or balance transformer T200P
with balance transformer
20Iset/Ipn and Ikomax /Ipn 20Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) e Ikomax /Ipn T110P THYTRONIC must be used.
or CT on the neutral ground
In compensated neutral grid a current balance transformer THYTRONIC T110P-T200P. must be used.

It is intended that IT is less than the DT threshold and Iset is the largest of these.
If Iset is not known the selection criteria must be modified as follows:
51N (IT) e 51N-50N (DT) F’ ≥ Ikomax /Ipn ; Vk ≥ Ikomax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
with balance transformer F’ ≥ 2Iset /Ipn Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) If the earth fault current that should be detected by the protection is much less than Ipn the class 5P CT Ipn accuracy
or CT on the neutral ground may be not adequate: in such cases class 1.0 CTs if placed on the neutral ground, or balance transformer T200P
T110P THYTRONIC must be used.
In compensated neutral grid a current balance transformer THYTRONIC T110P-T200P. must be used.

The protection should be delayed, so that the phase error of CT during the transient earth fault do not cause nui-
sance tripping in the opposite direction to that expected for protection.
If trip is required during transients, the criterion is modified as follows:
67N (DT)
F’ ≥ Ikomax /Ipn Vk ≥ Ikomax (Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) • F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]Ikomax /Ipn
with balance transformer
• Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-tset/T)X/R]Ikomax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
that is equivalent to to prevent CT saturation for a period not less than the operate time setting tset.
In compensated neutral grid a current balance transformer THYTRONIC T110P-T200P. must be used.

To prevent unwanted tripping the threshold must be set to not less than 10% of the rated current of phase CTs and

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018
51N (IT) e/o 51N-50N (DT) the trip must be delayed because the different CT saturation during transient multi-phase fault (or in general surges
and/or 67N (DT) on com- resulting power-up transformers, motors, etc.) or CT errors at the end of multi-phase faults transition cause a false
F’ ≥ Ikmax /Ipn Vk ≥ Ikmax (Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
mon return of phase CT residual current.
(Holmgreen) If protection can not be delayed or the setting range does not guarantee adequate sensitivity adjustment, insert a
stabilization resistor in series to the protection must be provided, or use a current balance transformer.
Protections Class 5P CTs Class PX CTs Notes
This criterion for CTs selection is given with reference to the following settings of the differential protec-
tion:
• Detector saturation disabled
• Id> = 0.20 Inref
• K1 = 30%
• K2 = 70%
• Q = 1.60 Inref
• Id>> higher than the inrush current and less than the minimum internal fault current
(for transformer fed from one side only the fault on the feeder is considered, for transformer powered
on both sides the side of the transformer fed from the source with the largest short circuit current is
considered).
87T or 87TG
F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-0.04/T)X/R]Iktmax /Ipn Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-0.04/T)X/R]Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) Intransformer ≤ Ipn ≤ 2,5 Intransformer
(low impedance)
The greater Rb value of the links between the two sides must be considered.
The criterion is equivalent to avoid CT saturation for at least the operate time of the protection (40 ms)
with the maximum current through a fault. Thus the second harmonic restraint does not block or delay
the trip of the internal fault protection (on the non-powered transformer fed from one side only, on the
power from the source with the lowest short circuit current transformer fed to both sides). For an inter-
nal fault on the power, transformer fed from one side, or side with the most power from the source short
circuit, transformer powered both sides, the saturation of the CT may lead to activation of the second
harmonic restraint: in this case the trip of the protection is still given by the threshold Id>>
(no second harmonic restraint).
Other calculation criteria of Vk are possible (i.e. - for small size transformer) enabling saturation detector
function (Please contact Thytronic’s Technical Service)
This criterion for CTs selection is given with reference to the following settings of the differential protec-
tion:
• Detector saturation disabled
• Id> = 0.10 Inref
• K1 = 30%
• K2 = 100%
• Q = 1.00 Inref
87G or 87M o 87L • Id>> higher than Iktnax
F’ ≥ 5Iktmax /Ipn Vk ≥ 5Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
(low impedance) Ingenerator/transformer/line ≤ Ipn ≤ 2,5 Ingenerator/transformer/line

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018
The greater Rb value of the links between the two sides must be considered.
Use two sets of CTs of the same characteristics and the same manufacturer, with coils evenly distrib-
uted, making it the most the same burden possible, applied to two sets of CTs.
If the correct operation of protection for less than the nominal frequency f is required, multiply
F’ and Vk for f /fmin.
Other calculation criteria of Vk are possible (i.e. - for small size generator) enabling saturation detector
function (Please contact Thytronic’s Technical Service)
87NHIZ Rb includes the resistance of the connections between the protection relays and the farthest CT from the
F’ ≥ 2Iktmax /Ipn Vk ≥ 2Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)
(high impedance) relay (round trip resistance). Resistance of the length of twin cable used.
64REF Rb includes the resistance of the connections between the protection relays and the farthest CT from the
F’ ≥ Iktmax /Ipn Vk ≥ Iktmax (Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn)

7
(low impedance) relay (round trip resistance).
F and Vk calculation example of three phase CTs for overcurrent protection 51 (IT) and 51-50 (TD) on the MV side
of a transformer

f = 50 Hz
Ikmax = 10 kA
NA10
L=3 m
3x
S=2.5 mm2
100/5 A
50 51 51
5 VA
Rct = 0.08 Ω
51 (IT) I> = 55 A primary, t> = 5 s, IEC curve type B
51 (DT) I>> = 110 A primary, t>> = 0,8 s
51 (DT) I>>> = 1200 A primary, t>> = 0,03 s
2000 kVA Rrp = 0,0016 Ω
20/0,4 kV
Vcc=6% Iset = 1200 A
Dyn11 Rbn = VAn/Isn2 = 5/52=0,2 Ω
Int = 57.74 A rif. 20 kV RL = L/S=0,0216∙3/2,5=0,0260 Ω
Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,0260+0,0016 = 0,0276 Ω
F’ ≥ 2Iset/Ipn →F’ ≥ 2∙1200/100 → F’ ≥ 24
F = F’(Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn) → F ≥ 24(0,1+0,0276)/(0,1+0,2) → F ≥ 9,22 → F = 10
Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) → Vk ≥ 2∙1200(0,08+0,0276)/(100/5) → Vk ≥ 12,9 V

Current [A]
30000
Primary current (10 kA, T=0,04 s)

25000 Secondary current


(referred to the primary)

20000 Threshold I>>>


(referred to the primary)

15000

Relay current measurement


10000 (referred to the primary)

5000

0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20
-5000

-10000

-15000
Time [s]

TRIP I>>>
1

0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20
Time [s]
160

140
Second harmonic/
fundamental [%]
120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20

Time [s]

8 AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018
F and Vk calculation example of CT for transformer differential protection 87T

f = 50 Hz
Ikmax = 10 kA
NT10
3x L=3m
100/1 A S = 2.5 mm2
5 VA
Rct = 0.8 Ω
Id> = 0.20 Inref = 20 A primary (ref. 132 kV)
16 MVA K1 = 30%
Iktmax = 562 A rif. 132 kV 132/15 kV K2 = 70% 87T
Iktmax = 4945 A rif. 15 kV Vcc=13% Q = 1.60 Inref = 160 A primary (ref. 132 kV)
X/R = 20 Dd0 Id>> = 8.00 Inref = 800 A primary (ref. 132 kV)
T = X/(R) = 0,064 s Int = 69.98 A ref 132 kV Saturation detector enabled
Int = 615.84 A ref 15 kV with 0,02 s reset time delay

Rrp=0,002 Ω
L = 60 m
3x
S = 2.5 mm2
1000/1 A
10 VA
Rct = 6 Ω

132 kV side
Rbn = VAn/Isn2 = 5/12 = 5 Ω
RL = L/S = 0,0216∙3/2,5 = 0,0260 Ω
Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,0260+0,002 = 0,028 Ω

F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/T)X/R]Iktmax/Ipn → F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/0,064)20]562/100 → F’≥10.29 ∙ 562/100 → F’≥ 58


F = F’ (Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn) → F ≥ 58(0,8+0,028)/(0,8+5) → F≥8.28 → F = 10

Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/T)X/R]Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) → Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/0,064)20]562(0,8+0,028)/(100/1) → Vk ≥ 48 V

15 kV side
Rbn = VAn/Isn2 = 10/12 = 10 Ω
RL = L/S = 0,0216∙60/2,5 = 0,52 Ω
Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,52+0,002 = 0,522 Ω

F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/T)X/R]Iktmax/Ipn → F’ ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/0,064)20]4945/1000 → F’≥10.29 ∙ 4945/1000 → F’≥ 51


F = F’ (Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn) → F ≥ 51(6+0,522)/(6+10) → F ≥ 20 → F = 20

Vk ≥ [1+(1-e-0,04/T)X/R]Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) → Vk≥[1+(1-e-0,04/0,064)20]4945(6+0,522)/(1000/1) → Vk ≥ 332 V

The diagrams are shown on next page

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018 9
External fault
Current [A] Current [A]
3000
2500 CT's HV side secondary current 17000 CT's HV side secondary current
(referred to the primary) (referred to the primary) Primary current
2000 12000
Primary current 4945 A, T=0,064 s)
1500 562 A, T=0,064 s)
1000 7000

500 2000
0
-3000
- 500
- 1000 -8000
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250

Time [s] Time [s]

Differential current
Current [A] (primary Amp)
3000 900
2500
Biasing current 800
(referred to the primary)
2000 700
87T tripping
1500 Differential current 600 characteristic
(referred to the primary) 500
1000
400
500
300
0
Relay measurements locus
200
- 500
100
- 1000 0
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Time [s] Biasing current [primary Amps]

Internal fault 15 kV side


3000 1,00
CT's 0,90
2500 CT's HV
HV side
side secondary
secondary current
current
(referred 0,80
2000 (referred to
to the
the primary)
primary)
0,70
1500 0,60
Primary current
1000 562 A, T=0,064 s) 0,50
500 0,40 CT's HV side secondary current
0,30 (referred to the primary)
0
0,20
Primary current
-500 0,10
-1000 0,00
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250

Time [s] Time [s]


Differential current
(primary Amp)
3000 900
Biasing current 800
2500
(referred to the primary) 700
2000 87T tripping
1500 Differential current 600 TRIP characteristic
(referred to the primary) 500
1000 NO T RIP
400
500 300
Relay measurements locus
0 200
-500 100
-1000 0
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

87T Biasing current [primary Amps]


Circuit breaker Time [s]
operating time opening time (60 ms)
(40 ms)

Internal fault 132 kV side


1,00
45000 CT's HV side secondary current 0,90
35000 (referred to the primary) 0,80
0,70
25000 Primary current 0,60
10 KA, T=0,064 s) 0,50
15000
0,40 CT's HV side secondary current
5000 0,30 (referred to the primary)
0,20 Primary current
- 5000
0,10
- 15000 0,00
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250
Time [s] Time [s]
Differential current
(primary Amp)
900
28000
800
23000 Differential current
700
(referred to the primary) 87T tripping
18000 Biasing current 600 TRIP characteristic
13000 (referred to the primary) 500
NO T RIP
8000 400
3000 300
Relay measurements locus
- 2000 200
- 7000 100
- 12000 0
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

87T Biasing current [primary Amps]


Circuit breaker Time [s]
operating time opening time (60 ms)
(40 ms)

10 AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018
F and Vk calculation example of three phase CTs for multifunction protection of motor

f = 50 Hz
Ikmax = 8 kA
NM10

L=3 m
3x
S=2.5 mm2
75/5 A
46 49 50 51LR
5 VA
Rct = 0.07 Ω
46 I2> = 6 A primary, t2> = 2 s, IEC curve type B
49 I> = 66 A primary, T+ = 10 min
51LR (DT) ILR> = 120 A primary, tLR> = 4 s
50 (DT) I>> = 840 A primary, t>> = 0,03 s
Rrp = 0,0016 Ω
500 kW
6 kV
Inm = 60 A
M
Iavviamento = 5 Inm
Iset = 420 A
Rbn = VAn/Isn2 = 5/52=0,2 Ω
RL = L/S=0,0216∙3/2,5=0,0260 Ω
Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,0260+0,0016 = 0,0276 Ω
F’ ≥ 2Iset/Ipn →F’ ≥ 2∙840/75 → F’ ≥ 22,4
F = F’(Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn) → F ≥ 22.4(0,07 + 0,0276)/(0,07+0,2) → F ≥ 8,1 → F = 10
Vk ≥ 2Iset(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) → Vk ≥ 2∙840(0,07+0,0276)/(75/5) → Vk ≥ 11 V

Current [A]
20000
Primary current
8 kA, T=0,02 s) Secondary current
(referred to the primary)
15000

10000
Relay current measurement
(referred to the primary)
5000 Threshold I>>>
(referred to the primary)

0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20

-5000

-10000

-15000
Time [s]

TRIP I>>
1

0
0,00 0,02 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20

Time [s]

AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05- 2018 11
F and Vk calculation example of CT for generator differential protection 87G

L = 30 m NG10
3x
S = 6 mm2
500/1 A
5 VA
Rct = 2 Ω Id>=0.10 Inref = 50 A primary 87G
12 MVA K1 = 30%
Iktmax = 4000 A 15 kV K2 = 100%
X/R = 20 G InG = 462 A Q = 1.00 Inref = 500 A primary
T=X/(R) = 0,046 s x”d = 12% Id>> = 12.00 Inref = 6000 A primary
R = 0,6% Saturation detector enabled
with 0,02 s reset time delay
L = 10 m
3x Rrp=0,002 Ω
S = 2.5 mm2
500/1 A
5 VA
Rct = 2 Ω

Star side Line side


RL = L/S = 0,0216∙30/6 = 0,108 Ω RL = L/S = 0,0216∙10/2,5 = 0,0864 Ω
Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,108+0,002 = 0,11 Ω Rb = RL+Rrp = 0,0864+0,002 = 0,0884 Ω
F and Vk choiche for both sides:
F’ ≥ 5Iktmax/Ipn → F’ ≥ 5∙4000/500 → F’ ≥ 40
F = F’ (Rct+Rb)/(Rct+Rbn) → F ≥ 40(2+0,11)/(2+5) → F ≥ 12,05 → F = 15
Vk ≥ 5Iktmax(Rct+Rb)/(Ipn/Isn) → Vk ≥ 5∙4000(2+0,11)/(500/1) → Vk ≥ 84,4 V

External fault
14000 CT's Star side secondary current 14000 CT's Line side secondary current
12000 (referred to the primary) 12000 (referred to the primary)
10000 Primary current 10000 Primary current
8000 4000 A, T=0,046 s) 8000 4000 A, T=0,046 s)
6000 6000
4000 4000
2000 2000
0 0
-2000 -2000
-4000 -4000
-6000 -6000
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250
Time [s] Time [s]
Differential current
(primary Amp)
6000
18000 Biasing current
(referred to the primary) 5000
87G tripping
13000
Differential current 4000 characteristic
8000 (referred to the primary) TRIP
3000 NO T RIP
3000 2000 Relay measurements locus
-2000 1000

-7000 0
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Time [s] Biasing current [primary Amps]

Internal fault
CT's Star side secondary current
14000 1,00
(referred to the primary)
12000 0,90
10000 0,80
8000 Primary current 0,70
6000 (4 kA, T=0,046 s) 0,60
4000 0,50
2000 0,40
0 0,30 CT's Line side secondary current
-2000 0,20 Primary current
(referred to the primary)
-4000 0,10
-6000 0,00
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250 0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250
Time [s] Time [s]

14000 Differential current 6000


12000 (referred to the primary) Relay measurements locus
10000 5000
8000 Biasing current
(referred to the primary) 4000 TRIP
6000
4000 3000 NO T RIP
2000
0 2000 87G tripping
-2000 characteristic
1000
-4000
-6000 0
0,000 0,050 0,100 0,150 0,200 0,250
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
87T Circuit breaker Time [s] Biasing current [primary Amps]
operating time opening time (60 ms)
(40 ms)

12 AN010 - CT’s specification guidelines for Pro-N, Pro-NX & Smart - 05 - 2018