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LEXICAL VARIATION OF ILOILO AND SOUTH COTABATO HILIGAYNON

A Research-Based Paper
Presented to
PROF. ROSSEL AUDENCIAL

In Partial Fulfilment of the


Requirements in
Philippine Linguistics (ENG 124)

by
Buhary Abusama
Cristine Faith Apostol
Ian Jay Baguio
Fernando Natividad Jr.
Jochebeb Toledo

November 2019
Introduction
The Hiligaynon language is the lingua Franca of Iloilo province, which has come
to be spoken throughout the Western Visayas region (Divinagracia n.d). According to
Zorc (2004), Hiligaynon belongs to the family of Bisayan subgroup of the Central
Philippine group of the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian
language family. Additionally, Hiligaynon is most closely related to Romblomanon,
Masbateno, Samar-Leyte and waray bisayan, all co-members of the Bisayan group of
Central Philippine languages.
In 1950’s there was a massive migration of Ilonggos going to Mindanao in hoped
of acquiring jobs and land (Arellano, 2016). Consequently, Hiligaynon or the Ilonggo
language is also spoken in most of the areas in Central Mindanao particularly in South
Cotabato where almost all the early settlers come from Western Visayas.
Moreover, due to the veracity of the early migration, South Cotabato has become
a melting pot of people coming from different regions and tribes. There are over 20
different dialects spoken in the province and most of the South Cotabateños are
multilingual, able to communicate in Hiligaynon and/or Cebuano, as well as in
both Tagalog and English. Other languages spoken are Ilocano and Maguindanao. The
indigenous tribes like the T'boli's and B'laan, in addition, use their own tribal dialects
(South Cotabato News, 2013).
In line with the diverse heritage of South Cotabato, Hiligaynon speakers who
were originally from Western Visayas were involved in contact with other languages
spoken in the province. As a result, their vocabulary and grammar will differ from the
standard dialect (Zorc, 2004).
Furthermore, Anderson (2003) defined morphology, in linguistics, as the study of
the forms of words, and the ways in which words are related to other words of the same
language. He added that formal differences among words serve a variety of purposes,
from the creation of new lexical items to the indication of grammatical structure.
The objectives of this study were to determine the lexical variation of Iloilo and
South Cotabato Hiligaynon, while the goals were to explore and analyze the data
gathered. This study consists of information from the residents of Iloilo specifically in
Iloilo City and South Cotabato specifically in Koronadal City. For this reason,
questionnaires have been the main method of data collection. Fifty dolch English words
used in sentences to determine its function were translated to Hiligaynon by the
respondents from both Iloilo and South Cotabato. The researchers used quota sampling
in selecting samples where such sample was taken from two Hiligaynon speakers from
both provinces of Iloilo and South Cotabato. The study was conducted from November
11-22, 2019.
The aim of this paper is to compare the Hiligaynon in Iloilo and the Hiligaynon
in South Cotabato and to evaluate their lexical variation.
The pursuit of this study is hoped to contribute to the widening research about
the Hiligaynon language. Furthermore, this paper can serve as a precursor for the
future researches.
Discussion
Discussion on the lexical variation of Iloilo and South Cotabato
Hiligaynon focused on the lexicon or the vocabulary of the speakers of Hiligaynon in
Iloilo and South Cotabato.
Results show that 29 out of 50 dolch words are translated to Hiligaynon
differently by the speakers of Hiligaynon in Iloilo and South Cotabato. The table below
shows the summary of the results.

South Cotabato
English Dolch Words Iloilo Hiligaynon
Hiligaynon
said naghambal naghambal, nagsiling
try tilawi sulayi, tistingi
hold kaptan uyatan
picked namuksi ginkuha
carried ginkungkung ginbitbit
mind paminsaron isip
washed ginhinawan ginhugasan
wish nagapangabay nagapangayo
draw nag drawing nag drawing
stop untat pundo
show ipasundayag ipakita
go mapanaw malakat
jumped nagtumbo naglumpat
good maalam maayo
pretty matahum gwapa
done tapos run tapos na
about natuhuy Parti sa
warm paang Gin-ut
because bangud tungud
old daan gulang
small dyutay gamay
together ulupdanay upod
little dyutayan gamay
tomorrow rum-an buwas
kind maalwan buot

opening Pag-bukas Pag-abri


much much kaayo
start maumpisa sugod
think panumdum hunahuna
lighted ginpasiga ginsindutan
asked ginpangabay gin hangyo

said
According to respondent number one from Iloilo, the English word “said” is
translated as "naghambal". Respondent number two translated it as “naghambal” as
well. While, respondent number one from South Cotabato translated the word “said” as
“nagsiling”, however the respondent number two which is from South Cotabato
translated it as "naghambal", the same translation from Iloilo Hiligaynon respondents.
try
The word “try” in English is translated In Iloilo Hiligaynon as "tilawi" by both
the respondent number one and two. On the other hand, South Cotabato translation has
difference where the word “try” is translated as "sulayi" by respondent number one,
while "tistingi" is the translation given by the respondent number two from South
Cotabato. Notably, South Cotabato's "sulayi" or "tistingi" are the same with how it is
uttered in cebuano. This similarity was due to the geographical location of South
Cotabato where its neighboring places speak cebuano language.
hold
The translation given by the respondent number one and two from Iloilo for the
English word “hold” which means an act of grasping something is "kaptan", while
"uyatan" is the translation given by the respondent number one and two from South
Cotabato. "Kaptan" is also uttered in cebuano language which means to hold, this, again
is due to the geographical situations of Cebu and Iloilo and possibly due to the
migration of the people.
pick
In Iloilo hiligaynon, The English word “pick” which means to gather things by
plucking is termed as "namuksi" according to the respondent number one and two from
Iloilo, while "ginkuha" is the term for South Cotabato Hiligaynon according to
respondent number one and two from South Cotabato.

carried
The English word “carried”, is translated as “ginkungkung” by the first and
second respondents from Iloilo, and “ginbitbit” is the translation given by the South
Cotabato respondents both the first and second.
mind
For the English word “mind”, it is translated as "paminsaron" by Iloilo
hiligaynon respondents, while "isip" is the translation given by the respondents from
South Cotabato. In context, mind is also translated as "isip" in tagalog and cebuano. This
similarity is due to language contact. Since migration is happening, there are tendencies
of language interaction, and with this, some terms in one language is borrowed and
utilized in other languages.
wash
The English word “wash” is translated in Iloilo hiligaynon as "ginhinawan"
according to the first and second respondents and "ginhugasan" as translated by the
first and second respondent from South Cotabato.
wish
According to the first and second respondent, the word “wish” in English is
translated as "nagpangabay", while the first and second respondent from South
Cotabato translated it as "nagapangayo". In cebuano, "nagapangayo" also means wish,
this is again due to the geographical location of South Cotabato, which its neighboring
places mostly speak Cebuano.
stop
In Iloilo Hiligaynon, the English word “stop” is translated as “untat” by the first
and second respondents from Iloilo, while it is termed as “pundo” in South Cotabato
Hiligaynon according to the first and second respondents. Both terms are Hiligaynon
and are variants of the same language.
show
According to the first and second respondent the word “show” in English is
translated as “ipasundayag” in Iloilo Hilgaynon, while it is translated as “ipakita” in
South Cotabato Hiligaynon according to the first and second respondent. The
Hiligaynon word “ipasundayag” is originally a Bisaya word. This confirms that
Hiligaynon belongs to the family of Bisayan subgroup of the Central Philippine group
of the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family.
Consequently, “ipakita” is another Hiligaynon term for the same word commonly used
in South Cotabato.
go
The English word “go” is termed as “mapanaw” in Iloilo Hiligaynon according
to the first and second respondents who are from Iloilo, while “malakat” is the
translation given by the first and second respondents from South Cotabato. The word
“mapanaw” is an Aklanon word while “malakat” is originally a Hiligaynon word.
Other than Hiligaynon, Aklanon is another language widely spoken in Western
Visayas. For this reason, it is understood that speakers of Hiligaynon can adapt the term
used by the speakers of Aklanon as a result of language contact.
jumped
The first and second respondent said that the Iloilo Hiligaynon for the English
word “jumped” is “nagtumbo”, while it is termed as “naglumpat” in South Cotabato
Hiligaynon according to the first and second respondents. Both terms are Hiligaynon
and are variants of the same language.
good
According to the respondents from Iloilo, the English term “good” is termed as
“maalam” in Iloilo Hiligaynon, and “maayo” in South Cotabato Hiligaynon which is
the answer given by the first and second respondents from South Cotabato.
pretty
The English word “pretty” is termed as “matahum” in Iloilo Hiligaynon
according to the first and second respondent from Iloilo, while “gwapa” is the
translation given by the South Cotabato Hiligaynon respondents. The word “matahum”
is originally a Hiligaynon word while “gwapa” is originally a Cebuano word. This
implies that speakers of Hiligaynon in South Cotabato have adapt the Cebuano term for
the specific word as a result of language contact.
done
For the English word “done” both Iloilo and South Cotabato Hiligaynon uses the
term “tapos” but they only differ in the tag words “run” and “na” which indicates past
tense. The first and second respondents who are from Iloilo used the term “tapos ron”,
while the respondents who are from South Cotabato used the term “tapos na”.
about
According to the first and second respondents the English word “about” is
translated as “natuhuy” in Iloilo Hiligaynon, while “parti sa” is the translation given by
the first and second respondents from South Cotabato. These words are used in their
conversation especially when they are talking a specific topic.
warm
The translation given by the first and second respondents who are from Iloilo is
“paang” for the English word “warm”, however it was translated as “gin-ot” in South
Cotabato Hiligaynon by both the first and second respondents from South Cotabato.
Both words are variant of the same language.
because
The English word “because” is a conjunction means for the reason that, is
“bangud” if translated to Iloilo Hiligaynon according to the first and second
respondent, and “tungod” if it is translated by the South Cotabato Hiligaynon
according to the first and second respondents. Bangud is originated in Kalibo, Aklan
while “tungod” is a word that is from the influence of the Visayan language. It is
because South Cotabato is a province where languages are diverse.
old
“old” is an English word which means having lived for many years. According
to the firsta and second respondents who are from Iloilo the word is translated as
“daan” in Iloilo Hiligaynon, while it is translated as “gulang” in South Cotabato
Hiligaynon according to the first and second respondents. Same as the term “bangud”,
“daan” is also originated in Kalibo, Aklan and is used to describe the age of a certain
thing.

small
The English word “small” and “little” are translated as “dyutay” or “dyutayan”
in Iloilo Hiligaynon by the first and second respondents, and “gamay” as a translation
given by the first and second respondents who are from South Cotabato. These words
are used by Hiligaynon in their daily conversation.
together
“together” in English is translated as “ulupdanay” according to the respondent
number one and two from Iloilo, while “upod” is the translation given by the
respondents from South Cotabato. Both translations are originated in Iloilo and is used
by the Hiligaynon people in their daily basis, also depending on the context.
tomorrow
According to the first respondent, “Rum-an” is an Iloilo Hiligaynon translation
which is “tomorrow” in English language, and “rum-an” is also is the translation given
by the second respondent from Iloilo. While the word “tomorrow” is translated as
“buwas” by the first respondent from South Cotabato, as well as the second
respondents. The word “rum-an” is originally a Kinaray-a language and is widely
spoken in Western Visayas. It was adapted by the Hiligaynon people which is the result
of language contact and so it is now used in their daily basis. On the other hand,
“buwas” is originated in Iloilo and it is a common and most used term for the word
tomorrow.
kind
In Iloilo Hiligaynon the English word “kind” is translated as “maalwan” by the
first respondent, as well as the second respondent, while in South Cotabato it is
translated as “mabuot” by the first and second respondents. These terms were used by
the Hiligaynon people in their daily basis.
opening
The first and second respondents from Iloilo and the first and second
respondents from South Cotabato Hiligaynon translated the English word “opening” as
“pagbukas” and “pag-abri” respectively. The word “pagbukas” is originated in Iloilo
and in Aklan. “panuguran” is another word for “opening” but “pagbukas” is the first
considered translation and is mostly used by the Ilonggo people in Iloilo in a daily
basis.
start
The English word “start“ which means to begin an activity or undertaking is
“sugod“ according to the respondent number one and two from Iloilo, while “umpisa“
as translated by the respondent number one and two from South Cotabato. Both terms
are originated in Iloilo but most of the Ilonggo in Iloilo uses the term “sugod“. It can
noticed that the word “sugod” have the same meaning with the word “sugod” in
Bisaya language because of the influence of one language to the other. Geographical
location and migration could also be the factors in this situation. On the other hand,
umpisa is the common term being used by the South Cotabateño.
much
“much” is translated as “mayo” in Iloilo Hiligaynon according to respondent
number one and two from Iloilo, and “kayo” in South Cotabato respondents numbers
one and two, which means to a great degree or extent.
think
In Iloilo Hiligaynon respondents number one and two, the English word “think”
is “panumdum”, while the respondents number one and two from South Cotabato
translated it as “hunahuna” which are both originated in Iloilo and in Aklan but
“panumdum” is mostly used in Iloilo while “hunahuna” is a common term being used
in a daily basis in South Cotabato.
lighted
The word “lighted” is translated as “ginpasiga” by the first and second
respondent from Iloilo and “ginsindutan” by South Cotabato respondent numbers one
and two which means to ignite something.
asked
According to respondent number one from Iloilo, the word “asked” was
translated as “ginpangabay”, same translation given by the second respondent from
Iloilo, while the two South Cotabato respondents numbers one and two both answered
“ginhangyo” which means to make a request of.

Conclusion

The major concern of this paper is on the morphological differences of Iloilo and
South Cotabato Hiligaynon specifically on the lexicon or the vocabulary of the speakers
of Hiligaynon in Iloilo and South Cotabato.
From the evaluated results, It has been found out that 29 out of 50 dolch words
have differ in the used of lexicon by the speakers Iloilo and South Cotabato Hiligaynon.
These differences are said to be mainly the result of language contact. Iloilo Hiligaynon
borrows lexicon from its neighboring language such as kinaray-a and Aklanon. On the
other hand, South Cotabato Hiligaynon borrows lexicon from its neighboring language
such as Cebuano which is also widely spoken in the area.