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AA/MKG2 1 987 710 XXX/200XXX 64.00.

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Bosch tips
Injectors: Recognizing and
remedying problems

Injectors: An essential engine component


Identifying faulty injectors
Ensuring optimum Electrical faults Mechanical faults
performance Electrical faults in injectors mostly Mechanical faults are difficult to detect
lead to cylinder failure. at first glance. They mostly lead to
Injectors play an essential role in
modern engines, ensuring performance, rough engine running, poor throttle
Causes are: response and, ultimately, cylinder
economical running and low emissions.
ff Faulty ignition coil failure. Furthermore, they can result
Malfunctions can lead to serious engine in increased exhaust emissions.
ff Short circuit or open circuit in the
damage – which is why faulty injectors
wiring harness Causes are:
have to be recognized and replaced as
quickly as possible. ff Corroded connections or loose ff Leaky injector
contacts
Prerequisite for injector diagnosis: ff Incorrect injection pattern
ff Varying flow rates through injectors
ff The engine mechanics (e.g. compression)
and the ignition system must be in
good working order
ff The intake system must be leakproof
and must not draw in any unfiltered air
Electrical faults can be Photo, top:
read out from the fault Correctly functioning
memory using the dia- injectors
gnostic tester or viewed Photo, bottom:
using the oscilloscope. Faulty injectors

Detecting mechanical faults quickly and reliably


Checking for leaks Checking the injection pattern and flow rate

Symptoms: Symptoms:
ff Cold-start problems ff Misfiring
ff Hot-start problems ff Rough running
ff Increased fuel consumption ff Loss of power
ff Increased exhaust emissions
ff Catalytic-converter damage The rough-running analysis (see diagram) provides information
ff Major engine damage about the cylinders that are the origin of the problem. The white
due to diluted oil line indicates the tolerance threshold. In the example shown here,
cylinders 2 and 4 are above the tolerance threshold.

If the injector isn`t leaking, the HC value drops during the HC mea-
surement ➊ and stabilizes between 80 and 220 ppm (see diagram).
If the injector is leaking, the HC value falls during measurement until
a drop of fuel escapes. After that, it quickly rises again ➋.

Injectors must be tested for leaks while installed, and the test Checking vehicles when a rough-running analysis is not Checking vehicles when a rough-running analysis is
must be performed for all cylinders. possible. possible.

Test steps: Test steps: Test steps:

Step 1: Remove the spark plug Step 1: Carry out a comparative test of cylinders with the Step 1: Perform a rough-running analysis with the
engine tester diagnostic tester or engine tester
Step 2: Insert the emissions-tester hose in the cylinder - High efficiency is indicated by a drop in speed of
50 bis 150 min-1 Step 2: Identify the faulty cylinder
Step 3: Observe the hydrocarbon (HC) value, duration approx. - Low efficiency is indicated by a drop in speed of
5 minutes per cylinder (prerequisite: inlet valve open) <50 min-1 Step 3: Check ignition components and compression

Step 4: If the HC value in the cylinder rises, the injector is leaky Step 2: Identify the faulty cylinder (low efficiency) Step 4: If ignition components and compression are in
perfect order, the injector is faulty
Step 5: Replace faulty injectors with new ones Step 3: Check ignition components and compression

Step 4: If ignition components and compression are in Step 5: Replace injector with a new one
perfect order, the injector is faulty

Step 5: Replace injector with a new one

Don’t compromise: replace, don’t clean


Many injector testers have a cleaning The dangers of cleaning: Dirty spray-orifice disk of an Spray-orifice disk after cleaning: Clean spray-orifice disk of a
injector before cleaning. Not all deposits were removed. new injector.
function. This can eliminate some
ff Failure of the injector due to thermal
deposits. But for both multipoint and
damage to the solenoid as a result
high-pressure injectors, the following
of incorrect triggering currents
applies:
ff Aggressive additives in the cleaning
Cleaning helps to conceal danger. fluid can attack the injector. This
can lead to injector failure
Therefore, Bosch urgently advises
against cleaning injectors. ff Warranty claims cannot be
accepted for cleaned injectors!