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IS 1886 ( Part 36 ) : 1993

IEC Pub 60 ( 411) ( 1973 )

( Reaffirmed 2004 )
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Indian Standard
ELECTROTECHNICALVOCABULARY
PART 35 ROTATING MACHINES

( First Revision )

UDC 621.313-13 : 001.4

0 BIS 1993

/ BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS


MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

Price Group 13
Basic Electrotechnical Standards Sectional Committee, ET 01

NATIONAL FOREWORD

This Indian Standard ( Part 35 ) ( First Revision ) which is identical with IEC Pub 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )
‘International electrotechnical vocabulary - Chapter 411 : Rotating Machines’, issued by the Inter-
national Electrotechnical Commission ( IEC ), was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards on
the recommendation of the Basic Electrotechnical Standards Sectional Committee and approval of
the Electrotechnical Division Council.
This Indian Standard (Part 35 ) was first published in 1973. This first revision has been undertaken to
align with the international practice.
Only the English text given in the IEC Publication has been retained while adopting as Indian
Standard, and as such the page numbers given here are not same as in IEC Publication.

E
.
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) (1973 )

Indian Standard
ELECTROTECHNICAL VOCABULARY
PART 35 ROTATING MACHINES

( First Revision )
Sections 411-M to 411-06 -Machines
SECTION 411-01 A GENERAL

411-01-01 411-01-08
Double-fed asynchronous machine:
(Electrical) rotating machine:
An electrical apparatus depending on electromagnetic An asynchronous machine of which the stator winding
induction for its operatioh and having components and the rotor winding are fed by supply frequencies
capable of relative rotary movement and intended for each of which may be either constant or variable.
converting energy. 411-01-09
Note. -This term also applies to electrical apparatus operat- Induction machine:
ing on the same principle and similar in construction
and intended for other purposes, e.g., regulation, and An asynchronous machine comprising a magnetic cir-
is not intended to cover electrostatic machines. cuit interlinked with two or more electric circuits
moving relative to one another and in which power is
411-01-02 transferred from the stationary to the moving part, or
vice-versa,by electromagnetic induction.
Homopolar machine:
Note. --In many countries this term is prackally
A machine in which the magnetic flux passes in the synonymous tii th asynchronous machine, whereas
same direction from one member to the other over the some others recognize only the. term “asyndxonous
whole of a single air gap area. machi’ne” for both concepts.
411-01-03 411-01-10
Acyclic machine: Alternating current commkator machine:
A direct current homopolar machine. An induction machine having an armature winding
connected to a commutator.
411-01-04
411-01-11
Heteropolar machine:
Inductor machine:
A machine having successive physical or effective
poles of opposite polarity. Asynchronous machine in which one member, usually
stationary, carries main and exciting windirigs effec-
411-01-05 tively disposed relative to each other, and in which the
Direct current commutator machine: .~ other member, usually rotating, is withoutwindings but
carries a number of regular projections. Permanent
A direct current machine incorporating an armature magnets may be used instead of the exciting winding.
winding connected to a commutator and magnetic
poles which are excited from a direct current source or 411-01-12
which are permanent magnets.
Single-phase machine:
411-01-06 . A machine which generates or utilizes. single-phase
Synchronous machine: alternating current.
Au alternating current machine in which the frequency 411-01-13
of the generated voltage and the speed of the machine Polyphase machine:
are in a constant ratio.
A machine which generates or utilizes polyphase alter-
411-01-07 nating current.
Asyncdronous-machine: 411-01-14
An alternating current machine in which the speed on Salient pole machine:
load and the frequency of the system to which it is
A machine in which the field poles project from the
connected are not in a constant ratio.
frame yoke or hub towards the air-gap.
IS ‘l&5 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-01-15 411-01-16
Cylindrical rotor machine: Conical rotor machine:
A machine having a cylindrically-&aped rotor the
pe@ery of which may be provided with slots which Amachine inwhich the rotor is in the shape of a frustum
accommodate the coil sides of a winding. of a cone.

SECTION 411-02 --GENERATORS

411-02-01 structure but not necessarily connected electrically


Generator: either within or outside the Machine.
A machine -which converts mechanical power into 411-02-07
electrical powei. Induction generator:
411-02-02 An induction machine working as an alternating cur-
Direct current generator: rent generator.
A generator for the production of direct current and 411-02-08
voyage. Inductor generator:
411-02-03 An inductor machine for use as a generator.
. Alternating curr@nt generator: 411-02-09
A generatdr for the production of alternating current Permanent magnet generator:
and voltage.
A generator in which the field system consists of one
411-02-04 or more permanent magnets.
Sykhronous generator: 411-02-10
A synchronous machine for use as a generator. Exciter:
411-02-05 A generator which supplies all or part of the power
Turbine-type alternating current generator: required for the excitation of an electrical machine.
Note.. --Exciters may be d.c. or a.c. machines.
An alternating current generator designed for high-
speed operation .and having an exciting winding 411*02-11
embedded in the sl6ts of a cylirrdrica! steel rotor. Main exciter:
Note. -l In English usage, turbogenerator (turbo-alternator An exciter which supplies all or part of the power
deprecated) would designate’the complete turbine required for the excitation of the principal electrical
and generator set.
machine or machines.
411-02-06 411-02-12
Double wound synchronous generator: Pilot exciter:
A synchronous generator which has two similar An exciter .which supplies all or part of the power
primary windihgs mounted on the same magnetic required for the excitation of another exciter.

‘SECTION 411-03 - MOTORS

411-03-01 or single phase altemati,ng current of normal supply


frequencies.
Motor:
A ma$&e which converts electrical power into 411-03:03
mechamcai ‘power. Dipct current motor:
A motor for operation by direct current.
Classification of motors according tothe methods of
supply, excitation and the arrangement of the. 411-03-04 .
magnetic circuit Alternating wrrent motor:
A motor for operation by alternating current.
411-03-02
411-03-05
Universal motok Synchronous motor: ’
Amotor which can be opera&d by either direct current A synchronous machine for use as a motor.

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IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) (1973 )

411-03-06 411-03-16
Solid pole synchronous motor: Wound-rotor induction motor:

A salient pole synchronous motor having solid steel An induction motor in which a primary winding on one
_ pole shoes. member, usually the stator, is connected to the power
source, and a secondary polyphase coil-winding on the
411-03-07 other member, usually the rotor, carries induced
Cage synchronous motor: current.
A salient pole synchronous motor having a cage wind- Note. --The terminal leads of the rotor windings can be
ing embedded in the pole shoes. short-circuited for the running condition. Unless
otherwise specified, this motor will usually have
411-03-08 collector rings.
Synchronous induction motor: .
L411-03-17
A cylindrical rotor synchronous motor having a secon-
Induction motor with collector rings
dary coil winding similar to that of a wound rotor
induction motor. This winding is used for both starting A wound-rotor induction motor in which the terminal
and excitation purposes. leads of the rotor winding are connected to collector
411-03-09 rings.
Salient pole synchronous induction motor: Note. - According to the note to 411-03-16, the French term
should be translated into English by “wound-rotor
Asalient pole synchronous motor having a coil winding
induction motor”.
for starting purposes embedded in the pole shoes. The
terminal leads of this coil winding are connected to 411-03-18
collector rings. Brushiess wound-rotor induction motor:
411-03-10 A wound-rotor induction motor in which the ends of
Inductor type synchronous motor: the secondary winding are directly connected with an
incorporated starting device.
An inductor machine running as a motor, the torque
being produced by forces between the stationary poles 411-03-19
and salient rotor teeth. Hysteresis motor:
411-03-11 A synchronous motor with a smooth cylindrical rotor
Permanent magnet synchronous motor: of magnetic material, preferably of hard retentivity and
without direct current excitation, which starts by virtue
Asynchronous motor in which the field system consists
of the hysteresis losses induced in its secondary mem-
of one or more permanent magnets.
ber by the rotating field of the primary member and
411-03-12 operates normally at synchronous speed due to the
Reluctance motor: retentivity of the secondary core.
Asynchronous motor in which the secondary member has 411-03-20
projections acting as salient poles without an excitation
Shaded pole motor:
winding or permanent magnets. It is normally provided
with a cage winding for starting as an induction motor. A single-phase induction motor having one or more
auxiliary short-circuited windings displaced in mag-
411-03-13 netic position from the main winding, all these wind-
Subsynchronous reluctance motor: ings being on the primary core, usually the stator.
A reluctance motor in which the number of projections 411-03-21
acting as salient poles is greater than the number of the
poles formed by the primary winding, this causing the Split phase motor:
motor to operate at a constant average speed which is A single-phase induction motor having an auxiliary
a submultiple of its apparent synchronous speed. primary winding, displaced in magnetic position from
411-03-14 and connected in parallel with the main primary wind-
ing. There is a phase displacement between the currents
Induction motor:
in these two windings.
An induction machincfor use as a motor. Note. -Unless otherwise specified, the auxiliary circuit is
411-03-H assumed to be opened when the motor has attained
an appropriate speed.
Cage induction motor (UK); Squirrel cage
induction motor (USA): 411-03-22
An induction motor in which a primary winding on one Resistance start split phase motor: c
member, usually the stator, is connected to the power
source, and a secondary cage-winding on the other A split phase. motor in which the auxiliary primary
member, usually the rotor, carries induced current. winding is connected in series with a resistor or
provides itself the necessary resistance.

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IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IECPUIJ 50 (411) (1973)
Note. -The auxiliary circuit is opened when the motor has 411-03-31
attained an appropriate speed. Deri motor:
411-03-23 A repulsion motor having two sets of brushes of which
Reactor start split phase motor: one set is fixed and the other movable.
Asplit phase motor designed for starting with a reactor 411-03-32
normally in series with the main primary winding. Compensated repulsion motor:
Note.-The auxiliary primary circuit is opened and the
Arepulsion motor in which the primary winding on the
reactor is short-circuited or otherwise made ineEfec-
tive when the ‘motor has attained an appropriate stator is connected in series with the rotor winding via
speed. a second set of brushes on the commutator in order to
improve the power factor and commutation.
411-03-24
411-03-33
Capacitor motor:
Repulsinn start induction motor:
Asplit phase motor with a capacitor normally in series
with the auxiliary primary winding. A repulsion motor in which the commutator bars
are short-circuited or otherwise connected at an ap-
411-03-25 propriate speed to give the equivalenr of a cage wind-
Capacitor start motor: ing.
Acapacitor motor in which the auxiliary primary wind- 411-03-34
ing connected in series with a capacitor is in circuit only
during the starting period. Repulsion induction motor:
A repulsion motor with an additional rotor cage
411-03-26
winding.
Capacitor start and run motor (UK); Permanent
Classification of motors according to their applica-
split capacitor motor (USA):
tion and variability of speed
Acapacitor motor in which the auxiliary primary wind-
ing andseries connected capacitor remain in circuit for 411-03-35
both starting and running. General purpose motor:
411-03-27 Aq motor designed, listed and offer&d in standard
ratings with operating characteristics and mechanical
Two-value capacitor motor:
construction suitable for use under usual service con-
A’capacitor motor using different values of capacitance ditions without restrictions to a particular application
for starting and running. or type of applicatioti.
411-03-28 411-03-36
Alternating current commutator motor: Definite purpose motor:
An alternating current motor having an armature wind- A motor designed, listed and offered in standard ratings
ing connected to its commutator and included in an with operating characteristics and mechanical construc-
alternating current circuit. tion suitable for use on a particular type of application.
411-03-29 411-03-37
Schrage motor: Special purpose motor:
A polyphase commutator motor with shunt charac- A motor with special operating characteristics or spe-
teristic, in which the rotor carries two windings, one of cial mechanical construction, or both, designed for a
the windings receiving current from the supply by particular application and not failing within the defini-
tneans of collector rings while the otheF is connected to tions of general purpose or definite purpose motors.
the commutator. The commutator carries two adjus-
table se& of brushes and supplies each of the separate 411-03-3s
phases on the stator with adjustable voltages, in order Standard dimensioned motor:
to obtain a variation of speed and of the ieactive power
taken from the supply. A general or definite purpose motor so dimensioned
that it is mechanically interchangeable as a whole with
411-03-30 any other motor of the same frame size and complying
with the same standard specification.
Repulsion motor:
Asingle phase induction motor with a primary winding, 411-03-39
on the stator, connected to the power source, and secon- Fractional horsepower motor:
dary winding, on the rotor, connected to a commutator
the brushes ofwhichareshort-circuited and canoccupy A motor having a cotitinuous rating not exceeding 1 HP
different positions. per 1 000 revjmin.

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IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411 ) (1973)

411-03-40 411-03-4s
Multi-varying speed motor:
Small-power motor:
A motor having a continuous rating not exceeding a A multi-speed motor whose two or more definite
provisionally accepted limit of 1.1 kW per 1 500 speeds, when once adjusted for a given load will vary
rev/mm. appreciably with change in load; e.g., a wound-rotor
induction motor with contactor rotor resistance.
411-03-41 411-03-46
Constant speed. motor: Adjustable-speed motor:
A motor the speed of which is constant or substan- A motor the speed of which for a given load can be
tially constant over its normal range of loads : e.g.. adjusted to any value in a specified range.
a synchronous motor, an induction motor with small 411-03-47
slip or a direct current shunt motor with constant Adjustable constant speed motor:
excitation.
An adjustable-speed motor which behaves at all speed
411-03-42 settings as a constant-speed motor: e.g., a direct current
shunt motor with field resistance control designed for
Varying speed motor:
a specified range of speed adjustment.
A motor the speed of which varies appreciably with the
411-03-48
load, ordinarily decreasing when the load increases;
e.g., a series or repulsion motor. Adjustable varying speed motor:
An adjustable-speed motor which behaves at all speed
411-03-43
settings as a varying-speed motor: e.g., a direct current
series motor with armature voltage control or wound
Multi-speed motor:
rotor induction motor with continuously variable rotor
A motor which can be operated at any one of two or resistance control.
more definite speeds at a given load; e.g., a change pole
411-03-49
induction motor a d.c. shunt motor with pre-set speed
adjustment. Toryue motor:
A machine designed to exert torque through a limited
411-03-44 movement or in a stalled position.
Multi-constant speed motor: . 411-03-50
Starting motor:
A multi-speed motor whose two or more detinite
speeds arc constant or subst;lntiillly constant over its An auxiliary motor used to facilitate the starting and
normal range of loads; c.g., an induction motor with accelerating of a main machine to which it is mechani-
windings capablr ol’\~arious pole groupings. , cally connected.

SECTION 411-04 - SPECIAL MACHINES

411-04-01 411-04-04
Electrical dynamometer: Direct current balahcer:
An electrical generator or motor equipped with means A combination of two or more mechanically coupled
for indicating torque. When used for determining similar direct current machines used to equalize auto-
power input (output) of a driving (driven) machine matically the voltages between the circuits of a multiple
means for indicating speed is also provided. circuit direct-current system.
411-04-02 411-04-0s
Booster:
Synchronous condenser;
A machine comtected in a circuit so that its voltage
Synchronous compensator:
either adds to or substracts from the voltage furnished
by another source. A synchronous machine running without mechanical
load and supplying or absorbing reactive power.
411-04-03
411-04-06
Dynamotor:
A direct-current machine having a single field system, Phase advancer:
and two separate armature windings which canoperate A machine which supplies reactive power to the secon-
simultaneously, one as in a motor and the other as in a dary of a wound rotor induction motor to improve the
generator. power factor of the latter.

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IS 1885 ( Pst-t 35 ) : 1993
1EC Pub 50 (411 ) ( 1973)

411-04-07 411-04-16
Motor generator set: Phase convertor:
A set which consists of one or more tttotors mechatti- A machine for cottvcrting the power of an alternating
tally coupled to one or more generators. current system having a given number of phases into in
a system having another number of phases but of the
411-04-08 same frequency.
Convertor:
411-04-17
A machine for converting one form of electrical power
to a different form of electrical power. Electric coupling:
A machine which transtnits torque from one shaft to
411-04-09 another by electrical or magnetic tneans or in which the
Rot-_, y convertor: torque is controlled by electrical or magnetic means.
A cor‘rertor with a single armature having a com-
411-04-18
mutator and collector rings and used for converting
alternating current into direct current or vice versn. Induction coupling:
An electric coupling in which torque is transmitted by
411-04-10 the interaction of the magnetic I‘icld produced by mag-
Motor convertor: ttetic poises on one rotating tttetttber and induced cur-
The combination of an induction motor with a rotary rents itt the other rotating member.
convertor on a common shaft systeni, the current Notes I - The magnetic ~CIIC\ may be produed by
produced in the rotor of the motor flowing through the direct currenl excitation, permanent magnet
annature of the rotary convertor. excitation, or alternating current excitation,
2 -- The induced currents may be carried in a cage
411-04-11
or insulated winding, or may be present as
Frequeucy convertor: eddy currents.
A machine which converts the power of an alternating 3 - Couplings utilizing a wound secondary wind-
current system from one frequency to another. ing or a cage winding arc known as slip or
mugnetic couplings. Couplings utilizing eddy
411-U4-12 current effects arc known as erl& current
(‘ommutator type frequency convertor: couplings.

A polyphase machine, the rotor 0fwhic.h has one or hvo 411-04-19


windings connected to collector rings and to a cotn- Synchronous coupling:
mutator. By feeding one set of tertninals with a voltage
An electric coupling in which torque is transmitted by
of given frequency, a voltage of another frequency may
attraction between magnetic poles on both the driving
be obtained from the other set of terminals.
and driven members which rotate at the same speed.
411-04-13 Note. -The magnetic poles may be produced by direct or
alternating current excitation,or by permanent mag-
Frequency chauger set: nets. The poles on one rotating memlwr may be
A motor generator set which changes the power of an produced hy varying the rcluciance.
alternating current system from one frequency to another.
411-04-20
4Ll-04-I4
Hysteresis coupling:
Induction frequency couvertor: An electric coupling in which torque is transmitted by
A wound-rotor induction machine in which the Cre- forces arising from the resistance to reorientation of
quency conversion is obtained by induction between a established tttagnetic fields within a ferromagnetic
primary windingand a secondary windingrotatittgwith material.
respect IO each other. The secondary winding delivers
power at a frequency proportional to the relative speed 411-04-21
of the primary tttagnetic field and the member carrying Magnetic frictiou clutch:
the secondary winding.
A friction clutch in which magnetic dcviccs are used to
411-04-15 engage or disengage the t‘rictton surfaces.
Inducts frequency convertor: 411-04-22
A convertor having a stationary input alternating cttr- Maguetic particle coupling:
rrnt winding, which supplies the excitation, and a sta-
tionary output winding of a different number of poles AII electric coupling which transmits torque through
in which the generated voltage at the output frequency the medium of particles of a magnetic material which
is induced through change in field reluctance by means conglomerate in a magnetic field between coupling
of a toothed rotor. nicnibcrs.

6
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
TEC Pub 50 ( 411) (1973 )

SECTION 411-05 - MACHINES FOR CONTROL, SYS’IXMS

Ward-Lthstrd system: 411-05-07


A nlcthod of controlling the speed and direction of Kraemer system:
rotation of a direct currcut motor by varying and if Asystem of speed contmi below synchronous speed for
ueccssary reversing its armature voltage by the control wound-rotor induction motors giving constant power
of the lieid current of a direct curreut generator suppiy- output over the speed range. Slip power is recovered
ing the motor armature. through the medium of an independently mounted
411-05-02 rotary convertor electrically connected between the
secondary winding of the induction motor and a direct
Ward-L,&u-d generator set:
current auxiliary motor which is directly coupled to the
A set consisting of one or more Ward-donard gen- induction motor shaft.
erators and one or more driving motors.
411-05-08
411-0.5-03
Modified Kraemer system:
l&tier generator set:
A systcnl ol‘spced control bciow synchronous speed
A Ward-L&ard generator set which includes a for wound-rotor induction motors. Slip power is
flywheel to reduce the peak power input to the driving recovered through the medium of a converting
nioior or motors. device electrically connected between the secondary
of the induction motor and a direct current auxiliary
411-05-04
motor. The auxiliary motor may be directly coupled
Ilgler system: to the induction motor shaft or may form part of a
A Ward-donard system using an Iigner generator set. motor generator set which can return slip power to
the supply system.
411-05-05
411-05-09
Slip regulator:
Static Kraemer system:
A device arranged to produce a reduction in speed
below synchronous speed greater than would be ob- A systcnl of speed control below synchronous speed
taiucd inhcrcntiy. Such a device is usually in the form for wound-rotor induction motors. Slip power is
01‘ a variable inlpcdancc comectcd in the secondary recovered through the medium of a static convertor
circuit of a wound-rotor induction motor. equipment eicctricaiiy connected between the secon-
dary winding of the inductiotl motor and a power
dll-05-w
systc111.
Sciirrhius machine:
411-05-10
A p~~iyphasc aiterllating current commutator machine
capable of gcncrator or motor action intended for Rotary amplifier:
conncctiou in the secondary circuit of a wound-rotor
A machine which is used to product a power output by
induction-motor aud used for speed and power factor
i~Illpii~yiIlg aI input SigIlill.
~i,Iltroi. ?'itc ulaguctic part of the Geld system is
ialllinated and ol’the salient pole type and it has com- 411-05-11
uluI;ttitlg poles and a series connected armature reac-
tiou ~ollri~cllsatiug winding. The control field winding (:ontml exciter:
may 1~ scparateiy or shunt excited with or without an An cxcitcr which XIS as a rotary anlpiificr in a closed
atiditiorlai scrics excited field winding. loop circuit.

SECTION 411-06 - QUAIJI~YING TERMS

411 -Oc;-Ol 411-06-03


Sei~~rateiy excited: Compositely excited:
Applied IO a ulachinc to denote that the excitation is Appiicd to a machine to dcnotc that part of the cxcita-
obtained from a source other than the machine itscif. tion is supplied by the machine itself, and part is
obtained from a source other than the machine.
411-06-02
411-06-04
Self-excited: Shunt:
Applied to a machine IO dcmtc that the excitation is Applied tc? a machine to denote that it is excited by a
supplied by the machiuc itscif. shunt winding.
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-06-05 411-06-13
Series: Stabilized shunt (motor):
Applied to a machine to denote that it is excited by a Applied to a compound motor with a series field wind-
series winding. ing of such proportion and polarity so as to cause a
small reduction in speed with increasing load.
411-06-06
411-06-14
Compound:
Self-regulated:
Applied to a machine to denote that it is excited by at
least two windings, one of which is a series winding. Applied to a machine having a single magnetic core
structure and inherently controlling its own charac-
411-06-07 teristics such as voltage, power factor, speed, without
the use of external apparatus.
Cumulative compounded:
Applied to a compound machine to denote that the 411-06-15
magnetomotive forces of the series and shunt windings Compensated regulated:
are in the same direction. Applied to a machine which, in conjunction with a
411-06-08 separate source of excitation, can inherently regulate its
own characteristics such as voltage, power factor, speed.
Differential compounded:
411-06-16
Applied to a compound machine to denote that the
Automatically regulated:
magnetomotive forces of the series winding is opposed
to that of the shunt winding. Applied to a machine which can regulate its own char-
acteristics when associated with other apparatus in a
411-06-09 suitable closed loop circuit.
Over-compounded: 411-06-17
Applied to a compound generator to denote that the Brushless:
series winding is so proportioned that the terminal
Applied to a machine in which the conventional brush-
voltage at rated load is greater than at no load.
gear is eliminated.
411-06-10 411-06-18
Level compounded (UK and USA); ’ Turbine type:
Flat compounded (USA):
Applied to synchronous machines designed for high-
Applied to a compound generator to denote that the speed operation and having an excitation winding
series winding is so proportioned that the tenninal embedded in slots in a cylindrical steel rotor made from
voltage at rated load is the same as at no load. forgings or thick discs.
411-06-11 411-06-19
Under-compounded: nrbo-machine:
Applied to a compound generator to denote that the A machine of special design intended for high-speed
series winding is so proportioned that the tenninal operation.
voltage at rated load is less than it no load. 411-06-20
411-06-12 Inverted:
Applied to a machine in which the usual functions of the
Stabilized shunt (generator):
stationary and revolving member are interchanged; e.g.,
Applied to an under-compounded generator providing an induction motor in which the primary windings is on
a voltage drop with load such that machines may be the rotor and is colmected to the supply through collector
operated in parallel without equalisers. rings and the secondary winding is on the stator.

8
IS 1885 ( Fart 35) : 1993
.
IEC PUi> 50 ( 411) (1973 )

Sections 411-07 to 411-ll- Windings, Magnetic and Electrical Parts

SECTION 411-07 -WINDING ARFL4NGEMENTS

411-07-01 411-07-13
Winding: Damping winding (UK);
An assen~bly of coils forming a circuit or part of a Damper winding (USA);
circuit in a nlachine. Antortissenr windittg (USA):
411-07-02 Awindingwhichis usually short-circuited and in the form
Primary series circuit: of a cage, or can be short-circuited, the purpose of which
is to suppress rapid changes in the flux linking it.
A circuit carrying the load current and comprising at
least one winding in a machine. 411-07-14
Startittg winding:
411-07-03
Yrintary circuit (IJSA): A winding, the purpose of which is to start a machine.
Nnic. -The term “starting” is defined in 411-22-01.
A circuit carryittg the load current and comprising at
least one winding in an induction tnechine. 411-07-1s
411-07-04 Auxiliary starting winding:
Awinding of a single-phase induction machine carried
l’rintary windittg:
by the same core as the main winding and which in
The principal winding in the pritnary series circuit. conjunction with the main winding is provided Ihr
starting purposes.
4 I l-07-05
I’ritttary circuit wittditi~ :
Note. --This windingmay be used for startinga synchronous
A winding in a primary circuit. motor.
411-07-06 411-07-16
Secoudary wittding:
Excitatiott windittg:
Atty winding which is no1 a pritnary winding.
A winding for the production of a magnetic field.
411-07-07
Secondary circuit wittding Note. -Fora salientpolemachine,itconsistsofseveral field
coils with their interconnections. For a non-salient
A winding in an induction tnachine which does not
pole machine, it consists of several interconnected
form part of the primary circuit. coils constituting a distributed winding.
411-07-08 411-07-17
Main winding: Field winding:
The primary winding of a single phase induction An excitation winding usually carrying direct current,
machine. whose sole purpose is the production of the main tnag-
netic field of the machine.
411-07-09
411-07-18
Stator winding:
A winding on the stator of H machine. Compettsatittg winding:
A winding that carries the load current, or a current
411-07-10 proportional thereto, and is so disposed as to oppose
Rotor winding: distortion of the magneCc field by the load current
circulating in other windings.
A winding on the rotor of a machine.
411-07-11 Note. --In d.c. and generally salient-pole machines with an
armature, this winding is distributed in slots in the
Armature winding (USA): pole shoes.
A winding on the artuature of a machine.
411-07-19
Note. -See term 411-13-03 : Armature(USA).
411-07-12 Contnttttating windittg:
An excitation winding, which in a machine having a
Armature winding (UK):
CotntnuIaIor carries the load current, o; a current
A winding on the armature of a machine. proportional thereto, and is so disposed as to assist the
Note..---See term 411-13-04 : Armature(UK). reversal of current in the coils undergoing cotntnutation.

9
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-07-20 411-07-29
Control wiuding: Lap winding:
An excitation winding which carries an adjustable A usually nlultipole, distributed winding whose se-
current controlling the performance of a machine. quence of connections is such that it completes all its
turns under one pair of main poles before proceeding
411-07-21 to the next pair of main poles.
Shunt winding:
411-07-30
An excitation winding consisting of coils which are
connected across the whole or part ofthe primary series Wave winding:
circuit of a machine. A distributed winding whose sequence of connections
Foff~ --The use of tllis term is cxtendcd to a.c. machines is such that it progresses in one direction around a
where the excitation winding carries a current machine by passing successively under each main pole
proportional to the primary voltage. of the machine.

411-07-22 411-07-31
Series winding: Ikog leg winding:
An excitation winding comisliug of coils which are A composite winding consisting of one lap winding
connected in the prin:ary series circuit and carrying and one wave winding, lilaced in the same slots and
either the whole or a proportion of the load current. councrkd IO the sa.111~coniniu!ator.
Note. --The use rrf this term is exlended to a.c. machines 411-07-32
where the excitatton current IS proportional to the Sillgle layer winding:
load current.
A winding in which lhcrc is only one coil side in the
411-07-23 dcplh of the slot.
Distributed winding:
41J.-07-33
A winding the coils of which occupy several slots per Two-layer winding:
pole,
Awindillg in which there arc two coil sides in Ihe depth
411-07-24 ol’thc slot.
Concentrated winding: 411-07-34
A winding of a field system with salient poles or a Preformed winding:
winding the coil sides of which occupy one slot per
pole. A winding consisting of coils which are given their
shape before being assembled in the machine,.
411-07-25
41 l-07-35
Cage winding (IJK);
Squirrel cage winding (USA):
I’ilrtly prt!fornied winding:

A winding consisting of a number of conducting bars A winding consisting of coils which arc given their
having their extremities connected by metal rings or shape before being assembled in the machine, except
plates at each end. for one end winding which is shaped, and joints made
to complete each coil after assembly.
411-07-26
411-07-36
Split throw winding: Random winding:
A distributed two-layer winding wherein the conduc- Awinding in which the individual conductors of a coil
tors which constitute one complete coil side in one slot side occupy random positions in the slot.
do not all appear together in another slot.
411-07-37
411-07-27
ITed-in winding:
Concentric winding: A winding in which the individual conductors of a coil
A distributed winding in which the individual coils 01 side arc fed into Ihe slot through the slot opening.
each phase group per pole are concentric and have
411-07-38
diUerent coil spans.
Push-througll winding:
Nore. -An excitation winding may be considered as a
single-phase winding for this puqxlse. A wiuding in which the coil sides are pushed axially
into the slots.
411-07-28
411-07-39
Diamond winding:
Pull-through winding:
A distributed winding in which the individual coils Awinding assembled II\, pulling the conducto’rs axially
have the same shape and coil span.
through the slots.

10
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC I’& 50 ( 411) (1973 )

41 l-07-40 411-07-45
Multiplex wave winding:
Simplex lap winding:
A lap winding in which the number of parallel circuits A wave winding in which the number of parallel cir-
is equal to the number of poles. cuits is equal to a multiple of two, whatever the number
of poles.
411-07-41
411-07-46
Simplex wave winding:
Integral slot windink:
A wave winding in which the number of parallel
circuits is two, whatever the number of poles. A distributed winding in which the number of slots per
pole per phase is an integer and is the same for all poles.
411-07-42
411-07-47
Duplex lap winding: Fractional slot winding:
A lap winding in which the number of parallel circuits A distributed winding in which neither the average
is equal to twice the number of poles. number of slots per pole pair per phase nor the average
number of slots per pole per phase are integers: 35 slots
411-07-43
per pole per phase.
Duplex wave winding:
411-07-48
A wave winding in which the number of parallel Symmetrical fractional slot winding:
circuits is four, whatever the number of poles.
A distributed winding in which the average number of
411-07-44 slots per pole pair per phase is an odd integer (that is
the average number of slots per pole per phase is not an
Multiplex lap winding:
integer), and having the slots per phase symmetrical on
A lap winding in which the number of parallel circuits all pole pairs; c.g., 3f slots per pole per phase, which
is equal to a multiple of the number of poles.
is 7 slots per pole pair per phase.

SECTION 411-08 - CONSTHIJCTION OF WINDIN(;S

411-08-01 411-08-05

Turn: Half-coil:
The basic coil clement which forms a single conducting Either of two parts which wheu connected together
loop comprising one insulated conductor. would l’orul a complcte coil and which con~prise a coil
Note. -The conductor may consist oT it number of strands side and appropriate cud winding.
or laminations. Each strand or lamination is in the 411-08-06
form ofwire,rod,stripor bar,dependingonitscross-
section, and may be either uninsulated or insulated Coil side:
for the sole purpose of reducing eddy currents. Either of the two, normally straight, parts of a coil
411-08-02 which lie in the axial dircr.tion of the core of the
machine.
Coil section:
411-08-07
The basic clectriral element of a winding comprising
an assembly of one or more turns insulated from one End winding:
another. Either of the two parts of a single coil which comiect
411-08-03 the coil sides.

Coil: 411-08-08

A physical assembly of one or more eleclrical coil Winding overhang:


sections generally surrounded by common insula- That portion of a winding extending beyond the ends
tion. of the core.
411-08-04 411-08-09
Multi-section coil: Embedded coil side:
Acoil consisting of two or more coil sections or a group
of turns, each section or group being individually insu- That part of a coil side which lies in a slot between the
lated. ends of the core.

11
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC I'd, 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )

411-08-10 411-0X-20
Open-ended coil: Front span:
A partly preformed coil the turus of which are left open The coil spau at the connection end of a winding.
at one end to facilitate their assembly into the machine.
411-08-21
411-08-11
Back span:
Hairpiu coil:
The coil span at the non-connection end of a winding.
Aparticular form of open-ended coil intended forpush-
ing through semi-closed or closed slots. 411-08-22
Pole pitch:
411-08-12
Field coil:
The peripheral distance between points in correspond-
ing positions on two consecutive poles; also expressed
The component 01‘a roucentrated exci&tion winding as a number of tooth pitches.
which is carried ou a single salient pole.
411-0X-23
No/e.- The COIII~CIIXI~~ (11.il distributed excitation winding
is best defined by the type of winding used.
Wiuding pitch:
411-08-13 The ratio of the coil span to the total number of tooth
Tier: pitches per pole, usually expressed as a percentage.
A concentric winding is said to have one, two or more 411-0X-24
tiers according to whethcrthe peripheral extreniities of Full pitch winding:
the end windings of groups of coils a~ each end of the A winding in which the winding pitch is 100%.
machine form oue, two or more solids of revolution
around the axis of the nlachine. 411-W-25
411-08-14 Short pitch wind@:
Cranked coil: A winding in which the winding pitch is less than
1OIY%.
Acoi! having specially shaped winding overhangs to allow
both Its end windings IOcross from one tier to the other. 411-0X-26
411-08-15 Long pitch winding:
EqIlalizer: A winding in which the winding pitch is greater than
100%.
A connection ulade between points 011 iI winding to
mininlizc any undesirable potential difference between 411-08-27
thcsc points. Conunutator pitch:
411-08-16 The number of coumutator segments between the cor-
Duniniy coil: responding start and finish of a single coil section.
A coil which is not required electrically in a winding, 411-08-2X
but which is installed for mechanical reasons and left
‘li-ansposition:
unronnccted.
Nore. -When such dunmy coils can ix connected at a later An arrangement of the strands or laminations of a
date, this should Oc stated, e.g., the third phase of a conductor orof the conductors comprising a turn or coil
machine initially connected as a single-phase whereby they take different relative positions in a slot
tmchinc. for the purpose of reducing eddy current losses.
411-0x-17 411-08-29
Tap: Spread factor (IfK);
A connection made at some intermediate point in a
Distribution fzzctor (ITSA):
winding.
A factor related to a distributed winding, taking into
411-08-18 account the spatial distribution of the slots in which the
Tooth pitch: winding considered is laid, i.e., the decrease in the
The peripheral distance between fixed points in cor- genemted voltage, as a result of a geometrical addition
responding positions on two consecutive teeth. of the corresponding representative vectors.
411-08-19 411-08-30
Coil spau (1JK);
Pitch factor:
Coil pitch (USA):
A factor relating to a distributed winding, taking into
The number oftooth pitches which separate the slots in account a deviationof the coil span from the pole pitch,
which the two sides of a coil are placed. which results in a decrease of the pole flux linkage with

12
IS 1885 ( rm-t 35 ) : 1993
IEC: Pub 50 ( 411 ) (1973 )

the winding considered, and consequently a decrease 411-08-32


in the rorre&onding generated voltage. .
Effective turns per phase:
411-08-31
The product of the number of series turns of each coil
Winding factors:
by the number of coils connected in series per phase
The product of the spread factor and the pitch factor. and the winding factor.

SCTION 411-09 -INSULATION

411-09-01 411-09-10
Conductor insulation: Slot liner:
The insulation ou a conductor or between adjacent Separate insulation between an embedded coil side and
conductors. the slot which can provide tnechattical attd electrical
Note. -See note to 411-08-01. protection. “*

411-09-02 411-09-11
Strand or lamination insulation: Overhang packing:

The insulation on a strand or lamination or between Insulation inserted in the winding overhang to provide
adjacent strands or laminations which comprise a con- spacing and bracing.
ductor. 411-09-12
411-09-03 Comb-like support:
Turn insulation:
A part of an overhang packing in the shape of a comb.
The insulatiott surrounding a turn.
411-09-13
411-09-04
Belt insulation:
Intertut-it insulation:
A form of overhang packing inserted circurnferentially
The insulationbetweenadjacentturns, often iu the form
bctweett adjacent layers in the winding overhang.
of strips.
411-09-14
411-09-05
Coil (bar) insulation: Phase coil insulation:
The main insulation, to earth or between phases, sur- Additional insulation between adjacent coils which are
rounding a coil (bar), additiottal to any conductor or in different phases.
turn insulation. 41 l-09-15
411-09-06 Banding insulation:

Corona shielding: Insulation between the windittg overhang and the bittd-
ittg bands.
A means adopted to reduce potential gradients along
the surface of coils. 411-09-16
411-09-07 Winding overhang support:
A structure for the support of a winding overhang.
Resistance grading (of corona shielding):
Note.-- This structure may be ofinsulatmg material or may
A forttt of corona shieldiug etnbodying high resistance carry winding overhang support insulation.
material on the surface of the coil.
411-09-17
411:09-08
Winding overhang support insulation:
Coil side separator:
Insulation between the winding overhang and an
Additional insulation used lo separate embedded coil uninsulated winding overhang support.
sides.
411-09-18
411-09-09
Field spool:
Slot packing:
A structure for the support of a field coil.
Additional insulation used to packetnbedded coil sides Nofr. -This structure may be of insulating material or may
to ensure a tight fit in the slots. carry field spool insulation.

13
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IIN: Pub 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )

411-09-19 411-09-21
Field spool insulation: Field coil flange:

Insulation between an uninsulated field spool and the Insulationbetweenthefieldcoilandthepoleshoeorbetween


field coil. the field coil and the member carrying the pole body.

411-09-20 411-09-22
Up-shaft insulation (UK);
Pole body insulation: Bore-hole lead insulation (lJSA):
Insulation between the pole body and the field Special insulation surrounding connections which pass
coil. through a hollow shaft.

SECTION 411-lo- MAGNETIC PARTS

411-10-01 411-10-10
(:ot-e: Pole face:
That part of a magnetic circuit of a machine on or The surface of the pole shoe forming one boundary of
around which windings are usually placed. the air gap.
411-10-02 411-10-11
Laminated core: Pole face level:
A core consisting of lalniuations. That portion of the pole shoe which is bevelled so as to
increase the length of the radial air gap.
4 I I-1 O-03
(Iore end plate: 411-10-12
,Z plate or structure at the cud of a laminated core to Pole face shaping:
umintain axial pressure ou the lanGnations. That portion of the pole shoe which is shaped other than
by being bevelled, so as to increase the radial length of
411-10-04
the air gap.
Field pole:
That part of a core which carries or in, which is em- 411-10-13
bedded an excitation winding or is constituted by a Pole end plate:
perinanent niagnet. A plate or structure at the end of a laminated pole to
maintain axial pressure on the lanG.iations.
411-10-05
Non-salient pole: 411-10-14
That part of a cylindrical core which acts as a pole by Frame yoke:
virtue of excitation of a distributed winding. The annular support for the poles of a salient pole
machine. It may be laminated or of solid metal and
411-10-06
forms part of the magnetic circuit.
Salient pole:
A type of field pole which projects from the yoke or 411-10-15
hub towards 1he air gap. Air gap:
A gap in the ferromagnetic portion of a magnetic circuit.
411-10-07
411-10-16
Pole body:
Radial air gap (minimum):
That part of a salient pole around which a field coil is
fitted. The minimum radial distance between the relatively
moving parts of the magnetic structure.
411-10-08
411-10-17
Pole shoe:
Slot:
That part of a salient pole facing the air gap.
The rcccss in a metal core in which the conductors of
. 411-10-09 a wiudiug are laid.
Pole tips:
411-10-18
Tooth:
The extremities of the pole shoe in the circumferential
direction. That part of a cnre included between two consecutive
slots.

14
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
LEC Pub 50 ( 411) (1973 )

411-10-19 411-10-20
Tiuth support: Duct spacer:
That part of the structure of each end of a core which A space between adjacent packets of laminations to
applies axial pressure to the tooth. provide a radial ventilation duct.

SECTION 411-11.- BRUSHGEAR, COJLECTORS, COMMUTATORS, TERMINALS

411-11-01 411-11-09
Brush: Flash barrier:
Aconductingpart, generally stationary, which provides Ascreen of fire resistant material to prevent the forma-
electrical connection through sliding contact with a part tion of an arc or to minimize the damage caused there-
moving relatively to it. by.
41t -11-02 411-11-10
Ib-usb holder: Collector ring:
A structure which supports a brush and which enables A conducting ring against which brushes bear, used to
it to be trtaintained in contact under pressure with the enable current to flow from one part of a circuit to
sliding surlce. another by sliding contact.
411-U-03 411-U-11
Brush box: Commutator:
That part of a brush holder which contains a brush. An assembly of conducting members insulated
from one another, in the radial-axial plane, against
411-U-04 which brushes bear, used to enable current to flow
Brush spriugr front one part of a circuit to another by sliding
That portion of a brush holder which exerts pressure on contact.
the brush to hold it in contact with the sliding surface. 411-H-12
411-U-05 Commutator segment:
Brush holder support: A conducting member of a commutator, which is con-
The intermediate member between the brush holder or nected to the common end of two consecutive sections
holders and the supporting structure. This may be in the of a winding.
form of plates, spindles, studs or anus. 411-11-13
411-H-06 Commutator V-ring:
Brush rocker: The V-section ring used to clamp the commutator seg-
A structure from which the brush holders are sup- ments into a rigid assembly.
ported and fixed relative to each other and so ar- 411-U-14
ranged that the whole assembly may be moved
Commutator V-ring insulation:
rircumfereutially.
The insulation between the V-ring and the commutator
411-11-07 segments.
Brush yoke:
411-11-1s
Astructure on which the brush rocker is mounted when
Commutator segment insulation:
the rocker is not supported by the frame or pedestal of
the machine itself. The insulation between commutator segnicnt3. _-J--
411-11-0s 411-11-16
Brush rucktir gear: Commutator riser:
The worm wheel or other gear by means of which the A conducting element for connecting a commutator
position of the brush rocker may be adjusted. segment to coil.

15
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-11-17 411-11-26
Opeu tertiinal box:’
Termin&
A terminal box which is normally open only to the
A conducting element of a winding intended for con-
interior of the machine.
nection to an external electrical conductor.
411-11-27
411-11-M
Pressure relief terminal box:
Termination:
A ternlinal box so designed that the products of an
The arrangement provided for making the connections electrical breakdown within the box are relieved
between the machine tcnninals and the external con- throu&h a pressure relief diaphragm.
ductor.
411-11-28
411-11-19 Pressure containing terminal box:
Stud terminals: A ternlinal box so designed that the products of an
A form of termination in which the terminals are studs electrical breakdown within the box are completely
mounted integral with the machine frame or assembly. contained inside the box.

411-U-20 411-U-29
Flamepmof terminal box:
Strip terminals:
A terminal box so designed that it may fortn part of a
A form of termination in which the terminals are strips
flameproof enclosure.
mounted integral with the machine frame or assembly.
411-U-30
411-11-21
Air insulated terminal box:
, Earth terminal: A tenninal box so designed that the protection of phase
A terlninal connected to the accessible inetal parts of a conductors against electrical failure within the terminal
machine, liable to be energized by accident, and which box is by adequately spacing bare conductors with
is designed for the connection of an earth conductor. appropriate i&ulated supports.
411-U-22 411-U-31
Loose leads: Phase insulated terminal box:
Afoml of temtination in whichthe terminals are loose leads. A terminal box so designed that the protection of phase
conductors against electrical failure within the temtinal
411-U-23
box is mainly by solid insulation.
Terminal box:
411-11-32
A form of termination in which the terminals are con- Phase separated terminal box:
nected to the incoming supply leads inside a box which
virtually encloses the connections, and isof a minimum A tenninal box so designed that the protectioli of phase
size consistent with adequate access and with clearance conductors against electrical failure within the single
and creepage distance requirements. The box is compartment terminal box is mainly by solid insula-
provided with a removable cover plate for access. tion, and additionally by earthed metal so as to restrict
any electrical breakdown to an earth fault.
411-H-24
411-U-33
Separate terminal enclosure: Phase segregated terminal box:
A form of termination in which the terminals are con- A terminal box so designed that the protection of phase
nected to the incoming supply leads inside a chamber conductors agaimt electrical failure within the terminal
which need not be fully enclosed and may be fonned box is mainly by solid insulation, and additionally by
by the foundations beneath the machine. earthed metallic barriers forming completely distinct
411-11-25 individual phase compartments so as to restrict any
electrical breakdown to an earth fault.
Cable coupler:
A form of termination in which the terminals are con- 411-11-34
nected to the. supply leads by means of a pjug and socket Terminal board:
device. A board on which terminals are niounted.

16
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) (1973 )

Section 411-12 to 411-15 - Mechanical Parts: Types of Enclosu’res


Note. - When a definitibn in sections 12 to 15 mentions the term “air”, this term can be
replaced, where gppropriate, by the name of another gas (e.g., hydrogen). Similar-
ly, the term “wa!er” can be repraced by the name of another liquid.

SECTION 411.12-BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION

411-12-01 411-12-11
Bearing: Pad type bearing:
A structure intended to support a rotating shaft and if A journal or thrust type bearing in which the bearing
necessary to limit its axial movement. surface is not continuous but consisti of separate pads.
411-12-02 411-12-12
Journal bearing: Tilting pad bearing:
A cylindrical or partly cylindrical bearing which sup- A pad type bearing in which the pads are capable of
ports the journal of a shaft. moving in such a manner as to improve the flow of
lubricating fluid between the bearing and the shaft
411-12-03 journal or collar.
Ball bearing:
411-12-13
Abearing incorporating a peripheral assembly of balls.
Self-lubricating bearing:
411-12-04 A bearing lined with a material containing its own
Roller bearing: lubricant such that little or no additional lubricating
A bearing incorporating a peripheral assembly of fluid need be added subsequently to ensure satisfactory
rollers, lubrication of the bearing.

411-12-05 411-12-14
Thrust bearing: Oil ring lubricated bearing:
A bearing arranged to resist an axial movement of a A bearing in which a ring, encircling the journal and
shaft and to carry axial load. rotated by it, raises oil to lubricate the bearing from a
reservoir into which the ring dips.
411-12-06
Guide bearing: 411-12-M
Disk and wiper lubricated bearing:
Abearing arranged to limit the transverse movement of
a vertical shaft. A bearing in which a disk mounted on and concentric
with the shaft dips into a reservoir of oil. As the shaft
411-12-07 rotates, the oil is diverted from the surface of the disk
Sleeve bearing: by a scraper action into the bearing.
A journal bearing having a complete bearing sleeve. 411-12-16
411-12-08 Wick lubricated bearing:
Split ‘sleeve bearing : Abearing in which a supply of lubricant is provided by
A journal bearing having a bearing sleeve which is the capillary action of a wick dipping into an oil reser-
split for assembly. voir.

411-12-09 411-12-17
Flood lubricated bearing:
Location bearing:
A bearing in which a continuous flow of lubricant is
A bearing arranged to limit the axial movement of a poured over the top of the bearing or journal at about
horizontal shaft but which is not intended to carry any normal atmospheric pressure.
continuous thrust load. It may be combined with the
load carrying bearing. 411-12-18
Forced lubricated bearing:
411-12-10
A bearing in which a continuous flow of lubricant is
Spring loaded bearing: forced over the bearing or journal.
A ball bearing provided with a spring to ensure com-
411-12-19
plete angular contact between the balls and inner and
outer races, thereby removing the effect of diametral Pressure lubricated bearing:
clearance in both bearings of a machine provided with A bearing in which a continuous flow of lubricant is
ball bearings at each end. forced under the shaft journal in the bearing.

17
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )

411-12-20 411-12-28
Oil-jacked bearing: Gas seal:
A journal bearing in which high pressure oil is forced Asealing arrangement in a bearing assembly intended
under the shaft journal to establish a lubricating film. to minimize the leakage of gas to or from the machine
through a bearing.
411-12-21
Straight seated bearing: 411-12-29
Dust seal:
A journal bearing in which the bearing liner is con-
strained about a fixed axis determined by the support- Asealing arrangement intended to prevent the entry of
ing structure. a specified dust into a bearing.

411-12-22 411-12-30
Spherically seated bearing: Bearing lining:
A journal bearing in which the bearing liner is sup- That element of the journal bearing assembly in which
ported in such a manner as to permit’the axis of the the journal rotates.
journal to be moved through an appreciable circular
411-12-31
angle.
Bearing shell:
411-12-23
That element of the journal bearing assembly which
Ctirtiridge type bearing: supports the bearing lining.
A complete ball or roller bearing assembly consisting 411-12-32
of a ball or roller bearing and bearing housing which is Bearing liner:
intended to be inserted into a machine endshield.
The assembly of a bearing shell together with its lining.
411-12-24
411-12-33
Plug-in type bearing:
A complete journal bearing assembly, consisting of a Bearing housing:
bearing liner and bearing housing and any supporting A structure supporting the actual bearing liner or ball
structure which is intended to be inserted into a or roller bearing in a bearing assembly.
machine endshield.
411-12-34
411-12-25 Oil grooves:
Pedestal bearing: Grooves cut in the surface of the bearing lining or
A complete assembly of a bearing with its supporting sometimes in the journal to help to distribute the oil
pedestal. over the bearing surface.
411-12-26 411-12-35
Oil thrower: Bearing clearance:
A peripheral ring or ridge on a shaft adjacent to the The difference in diameter between the journal and the
journal and which is intended to break any flow of oil bea ring lining.
along the shaft.
411-12-36
411-12-27
Bearing pressure:
Oil seal:
The load carried by the bearing per unit of projected
A sealing arrangement in a bearing assembly intended
area; this latter being the product of the length and
to prevent leakage of oil from the bearing.
diatneter of the journal.

SECTION 411-13 -MECHANICAL, STRUCTURE

411-13-01 411-13-03
Armature (USA):
Stator:
That portion of a commutator or synchronous machine
The portion of a machine which includes the stationary in which a voltage is generated and which carries the
magnetic parts with their associated windings. load current.
411-13-02 411-13-04
Armature(UK):
Rotor:
A rotor which carries a winding connected to a com-
The rotating portion of a machine.
mutator.

18
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-13-16
Spider:
411-13-05 A structure supporting the core or poles of a rotor from
Field system: the shaft, and typically consisting of a hub, spokes and
rim, or some modified arrangement of these.
That portion of a J.c. or synchronous machine which
produces the excitation flui. 411-13-17
411-13-06 Segmental rim motor:
Shaft: A rotor in which the rim is composed of interleaved
segmental plates bolted together.
That part of rotor which carries other rotating members
and which is supported by bearing in which it can 41J -13-18
rotate. Retaining ring:
411-13-07 A mechanical structure surrounding parts of rotor to
Jourual (of a shaft): restrain radial movement due to centrifugal action.
That part of a shaft which is intended to rotate inside a 411-13-19
bearing. Rotor end-winding retaining ring:
411-13-0s A retaining ring surrounding the end winding of a high
Shaft extension: speed rotor, usually in the form of a steel cylinder.
That part of a shaft which extends beyond a bearing and 411-13-20
away from the rotor. End plate (of a rotor):
411-13-09 An annular disk fitted at the outer end of the retailing ring.
Shaft end: 411-13-21
The end of a shaft which is used to transmit torque. Binding band:
411-13-10 A wire or a band of a material having high tensile
Jack shaft: strength, encircling the rotor, generally placed on the
end windings to restrain the windings against move-
A separate shaft carried in its own bearing and
ment due to centrifugal action.
mechanically coupled to the shaft of a machine.
411-13-22
411-13-H
Slot wedge:
Stub shaft:
A strip of material inserted in the slot space above the
A separate shaft not carried in its own bearings and
winding and which, by its keying or locking action,
mechanically coupled to the shaft of a machine.
restrains the winding against movement due to
411-13-12 centrifugal or electromagnetic action.
Dumb-bell shaft (UK); 411-13-23
Spacer shaft (USA): Bearing pedestal:
A separate shaft mechanically coupling the shafts of A structure mounted from baseplate or foundations of
two machines. a machine to support a bearing.
411-13-13 411-13-24
Torque shaft: Insulated bearing pedestal:
A thin shaft used for increasing the flexibility between Abearing pedestal which is electrically insulated from
two coupled shafts. its supporting structure to prevent the circulation of
shaft currents.
411-13-14
411-13-25
Quill shaft: Insulated bearing housing:
A hollow shaft in which can be mounted and to which A bearing housing which is electrically insulated from
can be connected a solid shaft for increased its supporting structure to prevent the circulation of
flexibility. shaft currents.
411-13-15 411-13-26
Key: End bracket (UK);
A bar which by being inserted in the recesses of two Bearing bracket (XJSA):
adjacent members serves to transmit a torque from one A beam or bracket attached to Ihe frame of a machine
to the other. and intended to support a bearing.

19
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973)

411-13-27 411-13-31
End shield: Skeleton frame:
A stator frame consisting of a simple structure which
A solid or skeletal structure attached to a stator frame
clamps the core but does not enclose it.
and which serves to protect the windings and into
which a bearing may be fitted. 411-13-32
411-13-28 Laminated frame:
A stator frame formed from laminations clamped,
End-winding cover:
bolted or riveted together with or without additional
strengthening plates.
A cover to protect an end winding against mechanical
damage or to prevent inadvertent contact with the end 411-13-33
winding, or both. Rotatable frame:
411-13-29 Astator frame which can be rotated by a limited amount
about the axis of the machine shaft.
Stator frame:
411-13-34
End-shift frame:
The supporting structure holding the stator core or core
assembly. Astator frame so constructed that it can be moved along
the axis of the machine shaft for purposes of inspection.
411-13-30
411-13-3s
Box frame: Barring gear (UK);
Turning gear (USA):
Astator frame in the form of a box with ends and sides A manual or motor-operated device intended to rotate
and which encloses the stator core. the rotor of a machine at low speed.

SECTION 411-14 - COOLING CIRCUIT

411-14-01 411-14-05
Open circuit cooling: Independent circulating circuit component:
Amethod of cooling in which the coolant is drawn from A sepamte component in the coolant circulating circuit
the medium surrounding the machine, passes through which is independent of the operation of the main machine.
the machine and then returns to the surrounding
411-14-06
medium.
Integral circulating circuit component:
411-14-02
A component in the coolant circulating circuit which
Closed circuit cooling: forms part of the machine and which can only be
replaced by partially dismantling the main machine.
A method of cooling in which a primary coolant is
circulated in a closed circuit through the machine and 411-14-07
if necessary a heat exchanger. Heat is transferred from Machine mounted circulating circuit component:
the primary coolant to the secondary coolant through
the structural parts or in the heat exchanger. Acomponent in the coolant circulating circuit which is
mounted on the machine and forms part of it, but which
411-14-03 can be replaced without disturbing the main machine.
Standby or emergency cooling: 411-14-08
Acooling system which is provided in addition to the Separately mounted circulating circuit component:
nortnal cooling system and which is intended to be Acomponent in the coolant circulating circuit which is
used when the normal cooling system is not avail- associated with a machine, but which is not mounted
able. on or integral with the machine.
411-14-04 411-14-09
Dependent circulating circuit component: Fan housing:
Aseparate component in the coolant circulating circuit The structure surrounding a fan and which forms the
which is dependent for its operation on the operation outer boundary of the coolant gas passing through the
of the main machine. fan.

20
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-14-10 411-14-14
Fan shroud:
Air pipe:
The structure foonning the periphery of a fan and which
Any separate structure designed for attaching to a
restricts radial leakage of coolant gas past the fan blades.
nlachine to guide the inlet cooling air to the lnachine or
411-14-U the exhaust air away front the machine.
Core duct:
411-14-15
The space between or through core lanGnations provided
to pennit the radial or axial flow of coolant gas.
Air duct (UK):
411-14-12
Any passage provided beneath a lnachine as an integral
Air guide: part of the rnachinc or its foundations to guide the inlet
Any structure provided to control the direction of flow cooling air to the nlachinc or the exhaust air away front
of cooling air and so ilnprove the efficiency of the the nlachine.
cooling system.
411-14-13 411-14-16
Air trucking: Air duct (USA);
Any separate structure niounted on a nlachine to guide
cooling air to or front a heat exchanger, filter, fan or Ventilating duct (USA):
other device lnounted on the niachine. Any passage designed to guide ventilating air.

SECTION 411-15-MACHINE ENCLOSIJRES

NOIC.- Those terms and definitions which deal with protrction of machines against
ingress of solid foreign bodies and harmful ingress of water do not correspond
with “short designations” and “definitions” in IEC Publication 34-5, Rotating
electrical machines, Part 5: Degress of protection hy enclosures for rotating
machinery.

As a matterof fact, those terms are stilllo bc found in technicat literature and it
was therefore deemed advisable to mention them in the I E V. hut, in view of their
looseness, they are deprecated and should be from now substituted by the standard
degrees of protection, in the form of the designations specified in the ahove-
mentioned document.

The same applies to those terms dealing with methods of cooling for which
symbols are given in IEC Publication 34-6, Rotating electrical machines, Part 6:
Methods of cooling rotating machinery.

411-15-01 411-15-04
Open: c’ Drip-proof:
Applied td a nlachine in which no mechanical protec- Applied to a nlachine so constructed that liquid or solid
tion as such is etnbodied and there is no restriction IO particles falling vertically or at a specified sniall angle
ventilation other than that necessitated by good on it cannot cause interference with satisfactory opera-
lnechanical construction. tion.
411-15-02 411-15-05
Protected: Splash-proof:
Applied to a niachine in which the inlernal nloving Applied to a machine so constructed that liquid or
parts and live parts are protected nlechanically front solid particles coming towards it at any angle
accidental or inadvertent contact, while ventilation is between the vertical and a specified angle frown that
not nlaterially inlpeded. direction cannot cause interference with satisfactory
411-15-03 operation.
Screen-protected: 411-15-06
Applied to a machine in which the internal moving
Enclosed-ventilated:
parts and live parts are protcctcd niechanically against
danger of contact by nieans of screens of wire mesh, Applied to a niachine with a substantially conlplete
expanded metal, perforated nletal or other suitable enclosure in which openings are provided for ventila-
covers. 1ion only.

21
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 (411) ( 1973)

411-15-07 enclosed air has no deliberate connection with the


Pipe-ventilated: external air.
Applied to a machine which is so conslrucled that its Note. -The term, to he explicit, must he used in conjunction
with another term, e.g., “closed air-circuit aircooled
coolingaircanbeconveyed IO orfronlit throughpiping
machine”.
connected to the side or top of the macpine.
411-15-16
411-15-08
Closed air-circuit fan-ventilated air-cooled:
Duct-ventilated:
Applied to a closed air-circuit machine having an air-
Applied to a machine which is constructed so that its
to-air heat exchanger in the internal six-circuit, the
cooling air can be conveyed to or from it through
external air being blown through the heat exchanger by
durting below the niachine.
a fan mechauically driven by the machine shaft.
411-15-09
411-15-17
Totally-enclosed:
Closed air-circuit separately fan-ventilated air-
Applied to a niachine with an integral enclosure which cooled:
is constructed so that while it is not necessarily air-tight
Applied to a closed air-circuit machine having an air-
the enclosed air has no deliberate connection with the
to-air heat exchanger in the interual air-circuit, the
external air except for Ihe provision for draining and
external air being blown through the heat exchanger by
breathing.
a separately driven fan.
411-15-10
411-15-1x
Totally-enclosed fan-ventilated:
Closed air-circuit water-cooled:
Applied to a totally-enclosed machine with cooling
Applied to a closed air-circuit machine having an air-to
augmented by mea16 of a fan, mounted on the niachine
water heat exchanger in the internal air circuit.
shaft, blowing external air over external cooling sur-
faces which are integral with the machine. 411-15-19
411-15-11 Sealed:
A niachine provided with special seals to minilnize the
Totally-enclosed separately fan-ventilated:
leakage of either the internal coolant odt of the
Applied to a lotally-enclosed machine with cooling enclosure or the leakage of medium surrounding the
augmented by nleans ofa separately driven fancausing enclosure into the machine.
external air lo flow over external cooling surfaces
which are integral with the machiue. 411-15-20
Gas or vapour-proofi
411-15-12
Applied to a machine so constructed that the entry of a
Totally-enclosed fan-ventilated air-cooled: specified gas or vapour under prescribed conditions
Applied lo a totally-enclosed machine having an air-to- cannot interfere with satisfactory operation of the
air heal exchanger in the internal aircircuit, the external ma chi nc
air being blown through the heat exchanger by a fan 411-15-21
mechanically driven by the machine shaft.
Hoseproof:
411-15-13 Applied to a machine so c.onsstructed that water directed
Totally-enclosed separately fan-ventilated air- on it from a hose under prescribed conditions cannot
cooled: cause interference with satisfactory operation.
Applied to a totally-enclosed machine having an air-to- 411-15-22
air heat exchanger in the internal air-circuit, the exter- Watertight:
nal air being blown through the heat exchanger by a
Applied to a machine so constructed that it will exclude
separately driven fa*r
water under prescribed conditions, which include a
411-15-14 limited period of immersion.

Totally-enclosed water-cooled: 411-15-23


Applied to a totaly-enclosed machine having an air-to- Dust-proof:
water heat exchanger in the internal air circuit. A* .,lled to a machine so constructed that the entry of
Just of specified fineness or nature cannot cause inter-
411-15-15
ference with satisfactory operation of the machine.
Closed air-circuit:
A tern1 referring lo a pipe or duct ventilated nlachine Note.-Such a machine is not necessarily flameproof or
used in conjunction with external components so con- suitable for use in atmospheres containing dustofan
structed that while it is not necessarily air-tight the explosive nature.

22
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-15-24 rating of the machine (and recognized overloads, ifany,


associated therewith); and will prevent the transmis-
sion of flanle such as will ignite the prescribed Slam-
Applied to a machine which has an enclosure that will mable gas which may be present in the surrounding
withstand, without injury, any explosion of the atmosphere.
prescribed iuflanunable gas that may occur within it Note.- A flameproof enclosure is not necessarily gas-proof,
under practical conditions of operation within the vapour-proof or watertight.

Supplementary qualifying terms


Thefollowing terms must be used in conjunction with another Corm of enclosure to be
explicit, e.g.. “vermin-proof closed-circuit air-cooled machine”.

411-15-25 is kept at a higher pressure than the surrounding


Vermin-proof: medium.
Applied to a machine so constructed as to prevent 411-15-29
ingress of specified vermin to parts where they might Submersible:
cause damage to, or interference with, the ntachine
Applied to a machine so constructed that it is capable
sufficienily to impair its satisfactory operation.
of operation when submerged under specified condi-
411-15-26 tions for an indefinitely long period.
Weatherproof: 411-15-30
Applied to a machine suitable for operation under
specified weather conditions. Encapsulated:
Applied to a machine in which one or more of the
411-15-27 winding< arc conlpletely encased and sealed by
Air (gas) (water) (liquid) tilled: moulded 1n\tllation.
Applied to a sealed machine in which the internal 411-15-31
coolant is air (gas) (water) (liquid).
Canned:
411-15-28
Applied to a machine of which specified parts are
Pressurized:
completely enclosed and sealed against a fluid by a
Applied to a sealed machine in which the internal coolant natal sheath.

23
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
TEC Pub 50 (411) ( 1973)

Sections 411-16 to 411-21- Machine Characteristics


SECITON 411-16 - PARAMETERS

411-16-01 2. Of a distributed winding, the average ampere c.onduc-


tom of the winding per unit length of the air-gap surface.
Ampere-conductors (of a distributed winding):
The product of the number of conductors round the 411-16-04
periphery of the winding aud the current iu amperes Magnetic loading:
circulating in these conductors. The avenge flux per unit area ofthe air-gap surface.
411-16-02 411-16-05
Ampere-turns: Synchronous speed:
The products of the nunlber of turns of a coil or a The speed of rotation which results from the frequency
winding, distributed or cqncentrated, and the current in of the systen~ to which the machine is connected and
amperes circulating in these turns. tither the number of poles or the number of projections
in the machine.
411-16-W
411-16-06
Electric loading:
Slip:
1. Ofa machine. The average ampere.conductors ofthe The differcuce between the synchronous speed and the
primary winding per unit length of the air-gap actual speed of a r&or expressed as per unit oi percent-
periphery. age of the synchronous speed.

SECTION 411-17 - CHAI~ACTERISTICS


Now- In this section, the term “characteristics” means the graphical or mathematical
relationship between certain quantities used in the study of electrical machines.

411-17-01 411-17-06
Locked-rotor impedance characteristic (of an
Saturation characteristic:
asynchronous machine):
The relalionship bclwccn the voltage of the primary
winding and the excitation or magnetizing current The relationship between the primary winding current
under specified conditions of load, sperd, elc. and the prinlary winding voltage with the rotor held
stationary and with the secondary winding short-
411-17-02 circuited.
Characteristic of magnetism: 411-17-07
The relationship between the flux and the magnetizing Zero power-factor characteristic:
current. The load characteristic of a machine supplying constant
411-17-03 current with a power-factor in Ihe neighbourhood of
zero.
Open-circuit characteristic;
411-17-08
No-load characteristic: Voltage regulation characteristic:
The saturation characteristic of a machine with an The relationship between the primary voltage and the
open-circuited primary winding. load of a generator under specified conditions.
411-17-04 411-17-09
Load characteristic: Speed regulation characteristic:
The saturation characteristic of a machine on a The relationship betweenspeed and the load of a motor
specified constant load. uudcr specified conditions.

411-17-05 411-17-10
V-curve cbarxteristic:
Short-circuit characteristic:
The characteristic of a synchronous machine giving the
The relationship between the current in the short-
relationship between the primary winding current and
circuited primary winding and the excitation current
the excitation current for constant values of active load
at a specified speed.
and primary winding voltage.

24
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50.( 411) ( 1973 )

411-17-11 machine giving the relationship between the active and


Load angle characteristic: reactive components of the primary winding current
under specified conditions.
The characteristic of a synchronous machine giving the
relationship between the rotor displacement angle and 411-17-13
the active load for constant values of primary winding Frequency response characteristic (of an a.c.
voltage and excitation current. machine):
411-17-12 The relationship between complex admittance, or its
reciprocal, complex impedance, or components there-
Circle diagram:
of, and rotor current frequency usually expressed as
The characteristic of a synchronous or asynchronous slip.

SECTION 411-18 - CHAP~CTERISTI(: QLJANTITIES AND VALUES

lyote - These values may be obtained from tests.

411-18-01 pull-out torque (breakdown torque) when the motor is


Rated load torque: supplied at the rated voltage and frequency.
The shaft torque of a motor corresponding to rated Note. -‘This definition does not apply to motors of which
the torque continually decreases with increase in
output and speed.
Sped.

411-18-02
411-18-08
Locked-rotor torque:
Pull-in torque:
The minimum measured torque which the motor will
The maximum torque against which a synchronous
develop with the rotor locked and rated voltage applied
motor will pull its connected load into synchronism it
at rated frequency.
rated voltage and frequency, when the field excitation,
411-18-03 if used, is applied.
Specified breakaway torque:
The torque which a motor is required to develop to Note.-The pull-in torque depends on the total inertia of
rotating parts.
breakaway its load from rest to rotation.
411-18-09
411-18-04
Breakaway torque of an a.?. motor: Nominal pull-in torque:
The smallest torque developed by the motor when at The torque of a synchronous motor develops as an
rest, and when it is supplied at the rated voltage and induction motor when running at 95% of synchronous
frequency. speed with rated voltage applied at rated frequency, the
Note. --This breakaway torque is a design value, transient excitation winding being short-circuited.
phenomena being ignored.
411-18-10
411-18-05 Pull-out torque (of an a.c. motor) (IJK);
Starting torque:
Breakdown torque (IJSA):
The electromagnetic torque exerted by a motor during
the starting period. The highest torque that the motor can develop while
rmming at rated voltage and frequency.
Note. -This torque is not a single value and the complete
torque-speed curye of the motor is needed to express 411-18-11
it.
Synchronous pull-out torque (UK);
411-18-06
Accelerating torque: Pull-out torque (IJSA):
The difference between the electromagnetic starting The maximum torque that a synchronous machine can
torque and the total load torque, available for accelerat- develop without loss of synchronism while operating
ing the rotating parts. at rated voltage, frequency and excitation.

411-18-07 411-18-12
Pull-up torque (of an a.c.motor): Braking torque:
The smallest torque developed by the motor between Any torque exerted by a motor, in the same direction
zero speed and the speed which’ corresponds to the as the load torque, so as to reduce its speed.
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 (411) ( 1973)

411-18-13 411-18-21
Stored-energy constant: Peak-switching current:
The quotient of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor The maximum peak transient current attained follow-
when rumting at rated speed and the apparent power, ing a switching operation on a machine.
or the product of rated voltage and current for d.c.
411-18-22
machines.
Steady short-circuit current:
411-18-14
The steady-state current in the primary winding when
Stored-energy constant of a set: short- circuited.
The quotient of the kinetic energy stored in the rotors
411-18-23
of all the coupled machines comprising the set and the
rated apparent power of a specified machine in the set. Initial symmetrical short-circuit current:
The root mean square value of the current in the
411-18-15
primary winding immediately after the winding has
Inertia constaiit: been suddenly short-circuited the aperiodic com-
That constant, independent of the rated speed of the ponent of current, if any, being excluded.
machine which relates the torque and the angular ac-
celeration oFa rotating electrical machine expressed in 411-18-24
a per unit system. Aperiodic component of short-circuit current:
Note. -It can be related to the stored-energy constant by the The component of current in the primary winding im-
system frequency and a numerical constant. mediately after it has been suddenly short-circuited, all
components of fundamental and higher frequencies
411-18-16 being excluded.
Nominal acceleration time: 411-18-25
The time which would be required to bring the rotating Maximum asymmetric short-circuit current:
parts .of a machine from rest to rated speed if the
The peak value reached by the current in the primary
accelerating torque were constant and equal to the
winding within a half of a cycle after the winding has
quotient of rated active power and rated angular
been suddenly short-circuited, when conditions are
velocity.
such that the initial value of any aperiodic component
411-18-17 of current is a maximum.
Locked-rotor current: 411-M-26
The measured steady-state root mean square current Transient current:
taken from the line with the motor at rest, with rated The current flowing at rated voltage through a primary
voltage and frequency applied. winding having a value of reactance equal to the tran-
411-18-M sient reactance of the machine.

Locked-rotor current of a motor and starter: 411-18-27


Sub-transient current:
The steady-state root mean square current taken from
the line with the rotor locked with the starter in its initial The current flowing at rated voltage through a primary
starting position, and with rated voltage and frequency winding having a value of reactance equal to the sub-
applied. transient reactance of the machine.

411-M-19 411-18-28
Aperiodic time constant:
Starting current:
The time constant of an aperiodic component when it
The root means square current drawn.by the motor is practically exponential or of the exponential which
during the starting period. envelops it when it shows an appreciable periodicity.
Note. -This current is not a single value and the complete
current-speed curve of the motor is needed to ex- 411-18-29
press it. Direct-axis transient open-circuit time constant:
411-18-20 The time required for the slowly changing component
of the open-circuit primary voltage, which is due to
Breakaway starting current (of an 8.c. motor): direct-axis flux, following a sudden change in operat-
The highest root mean square current absorbed by the ing condition, to decrease to l/e, i.e., 0.368 of its initial
motor when at rest, and when it is supplied at the rated value, the machine running at rated speed.
voltage and frequency.
411-18-30
Note. -This is a design value and transient phenomena are
ignored. Direct-axis transient short-circuit time constant:
The time required for the slowly changing component
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

of direct-axis short-circuit primary current following a 411-18-37


sudden change in operating conditions, to decrease to Quadrature-axis sub-transient short-circuit time
l/e, i.e., 0.368 of its initial value, the machine running constant:
at rated speed.
The time required for the rapidly changing component,
411-18-31 present during the first few cycles in the quadrature-
Direct-axis sub-transient open-circiit time axis short-circuit primary winding current, following a
constant: sudden change in operating conditions, to decrease to
l/e , i.e., 0.368 of its initial value, the machine running
The time required for the rapidly changing component at rated speed.
present during the first few cycles of the open-circuit
primary winding voltage which is due to direct-axis 411-18-38
flux, following a sudden change in operating condi- Critical build-up resistance:
tions, to decrease to l/e, i.e., 0.368 of its initial value,
The highest resistance of the shunt winding circuit
the machine rumling at rated speed.
supplied from the primary winding, for which the
411-18-32 machine voltage builds up under specified conditions.
Direct-axis sub-transient short-circuit time 411-H-39
constant:
Critical build-up speed:
The time required for the rapidly changing component,
The lowest speed at which the machine voltage builds
present during the first few cycles in the direct-axis
up under specified conditions.
short-circuit primary current, following a sudden
change in operating conditions, to decrease to l/e, i.e., 411-18-40
0.368 its initial value, the machine running at rated Ceiling voltage:
speed.
The maximum voltage that a generator, under operating
411-l 8-33 conditions, is required to supply at its terminals for a
Short-circuit time constant of primary windings: limited time.
The time’required for the d.c. component present in the 411-18-41
short-circtk primary winding current, following a sud- Nominal excitation system ceiling voltage:
den change in operating conditions, to decrease to l/e.,
i.e., 0.36X of its initial value, the machine running at The ceiling voltage of the excitation system loaded
rated speed. with a resistor having an ohmic value equal to the
resistance of the field winding to be excited, with this
411-18-34 field winding at its maximum specified operating
Quadrature-axis transient open-circuit time temperature.
constant: 411-18-42
The time required for the slowly changing component Excitation response:
of the open-circuit primary winding voltage which is
due to quadrature-axis flux, following a sudden change The rate of increase or decrease of the excitation system
in operating conditions, to decrease to l/e., i.e., 0.368 voltage when a chauge in this voltage is demanded.
of its initial value, the machine running at rated speed. Note. -This rate can also be expressed by its relative value
in relation to the excitation voltage for the rated
411-18-35 conditions of’ the main machine.

Quadrature-axis transient short-circuit time 411-18-43


collstant: Initial excitation system response:
The time required for the slowly changing component The initial rate of increase in the excitation system
of quadrature-axis short-circuit primary winding cur- voltage when a sudden transition is made from the
rent, following a sudden change in operating condi- excitation voltage at the rated conditions of the main
tions, to decrease to l/e , i.e., 0.368 of its initial value, machine to the conditions which enable the excitation
the machine nnming at rdted speed. ceiling voltage to be attained in the shortest possible
411-18-36 time.
Note. -This rate can also be expressed by its relative value
Quadrature-axis sub-transient open-circuit time in relation to the excitation voltage for the rated
constant: conditions of the main machine.
The time required for the rapidly changing com- 411-18-44
ponent of the open-circuit primary winding voltage
which is due to quadrature-axis flux, following a Excitation response ratio:
sudden change in operating conditions, to decrease The relative excitation response calculated by replac-
to l/e, i.e., 0.368 of its initial value, the machine ing the actual change in excitation voltage by a linear
running at rated speed. variation leading to the samt mean value during the
first half-second.
27

F-
^ -
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEG Pub 50 (411) ( 1973)

411-18-45 measure, of the pole axes, from their on-load to their


Excitation-system stability: no-load position, with frequency remaining constant.
The capability of the excitation system during steady- 411-18-47
load conditions or following a change to a new steady- Critical whirling speeds:
load condition to control the excitation voltage of the
The speeds at which the amplitudes of the vibrations of
principal electrical machine so that transient changes
a machine rotor due to shaft whirling vibration reach
in the regulated voltage are effectively suppressed, or
their maximum values.
sustained oscillations in the regulated voltage are not
produced. s 411-18-48
411-18-46 Critical.torsional speeds:
The speeds at which the amplitudes of the vibrations of
Angular variation in synchronous generators:
a machine rotor due to shaft torsional vibration reach
The angular displacement, expressedin electrical angle their maximum values.

SECTION 411-19 -ANALYTICALQUANTITIES


No/r:- These quantities are required in machine analysis.

411-19-01 411-19-07
Armature reaction: Direct-axis component of synchronous generated
The magnetomotive force set up by the current(s) in the voltage:
primary winding or in a wider sense, the resulting That component of the synchronous generated voltage
alteration in the air-gap flux. induced by the flux due to the quadrature-axis com-
Note. -This term, although derived for d.c. machines may ponent of the magnetomotive force of the synchronous
also be used for synchronous machines. machine.
411-19-02 411-19-08
Synchronous generated voltage:
Quadrature-axis component of synchronous
The voltage which would be generated in the primary generated voltage:
windings on open-circuit, in the absence of saturation,
by the excitatidn current for the conditions under con- That component of the synchronous generated voltage
induced by the flux due to the direct-axis component
sideration.
of the magnetomotive force of the synchronous
411-19-03 machine.
Direct-axis component of magnetomotive force: 411-19-09
That component of a magnetomotive force which is Direct-axis component of voltage:
directed along the axis of the poles.
The potential difference resulting from the vectorial
411-19-04 addition of the direct-axis component of the
Quadrature-axis component of magnetomotive synchronous generated voltage and the voltage drop in
force: the direct axis.
That component of a magnetomotive ftirce, which is 411-19-10
directed along an axis in quadrature with the axis of the
poles. Quadrature-axis component of voltage:
The potential difference resulting from the vectorial
411-19-05 addition of the quadrature-axis component of the
Direct-axis component of current: synchronous generated voltage and the voltage drop in
That component of a current which produces the direct- the quadrature axis.
axis component of the magnetomotive force of the
411-19-11
armature reaction (see note to 411-19-01).
Direct-axis sub-transient voltage:
411-19-06
The direct-axis component of the terminal voltage
Quadrature-axis component of current:
which appears immediately after the sudden opening
That component of a current which produces the quad- of the external circuit when the machine is running at
rature-axis component of the magnetomotive force of a specified load, before any flux variation in the excitaa
the annature reaction (see note to 411-19-01). tion and damping circuits has taken place.

28
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

411-19-12 of the external circuit when t%e machine is rumiing at


Quadrature-axis sub-transient voltage: a specified load, if no account is taken of the com-
ponents with very rapid damping which may exist
The quadrature-axis component of the terminal voltage
during the first periods.
which appears immediately after; the sudden opening
of the external circuit when the machine is running at 411-19-14
a specified load, bcfbre any flux variatio!l in the excita- Quadrature-axis transient voltage:
tion and damping circuits has taken place.
The quadrature-axis component ofthe terminal voltage
411-19-43 which appears immediately after thz sudden opening
Dire&axis transient voltage: of the external circuit when the mac’hine is running at
a specified load, if no account is taken of the COIII-
The direct-axis component of the terminal voltage
ponents with very rapid damping which may exist
which appears immediately after the sudden opening
during Ihe first periods.

SECTION 411-20 - RBTIOS OF QUANTITIES

411-20-01 machine rotating out of synchronism, and the average


Synchronous impedance: current component at the same frequency.
The quotient of (a) the value of the vector difference 411-20-06
between the generated synchronous voltage and the IWective synchronous reactance:
terminal voltage of a synchronous machine and (b) the
An assulned value of synchronous reactance used to
current, in a steady-state condition.
represent a machine in a system study calculatio,u fOT a
Note. - This definition is of rigorgus application to turbine particular operating condition.
type machines only, but it gives a good degree of
approximation for salientpole machines. 411-20-07
411-20-02 Direct-his synchronous reactance:

Asynchronous imfiedance: The quotient of the sustained value of that fundaniental


a.c. component of primary voltage, which is produced
The quotient of the sinusoidal voltage ofa phase wind-
by the total direct-axis primary flux due to direct-axis
ing on a balanced system connected to a synchronous
primary current, and the value of the fundamental a.c.
machine out of synchronism and the same frequency
component of this current, the machine running at rated
component of the current in that phase winding.
speed.
Note.-lIhevalueofthisimpedancedependsontheslip,and
on the rotor angle of a machine with asymmetrical 411-20-08
rotor. Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance:
411-20-03 The quotient of the sustained value of the fundamental
Negative phase-sequence impedance: a.~. component of p&nary voltage, which is produced
by the total quadrature-axis primary flux due to quad-
The quotient of the negative phase-sequence com-
rature-axis primary current, and the value of the fun-
ponent of the voltage, assumed to be sinusoidal, at the damental a.c. component of this current, the machine
terminals of a machine rotating in synchronism, and the running at rated speed.
negative-sequence component of the current at the
same frequency. 411-20-09
No/e. -It is equal to the asynchronous impedance for a slip Direct-axis transient reactance:
equal to 2. The quotient of the intial value of a sudden change in
411-20-04 that fundamental a.c. component of primary voltage,
Zero phase-sequence impedance:
which is produced by the total direct-axis primary flux,
and the value of the simultaneous change in fundamen-
The quotient of the zero phase-sequence component of tal a.c. component of direct-axis primary current, the
the voltage, assumed to be sinusoidal, supplied to a machine running at rated speed and the high decrement
synchronous machine, and the zero phase-sequence components during the first cycles being excluded.
component of the current at the same frequency.
411-20-10
411-20-05
Quadrature-axis transient reactance:
Asynchronous reactance:
The quotient of the intial value of a sudden change in
The quotient of the reactive component of the average tha; fundamental a.c. component of primary volt-
voltage at rated frequency, assumed to be sinusoidal ag:c.which is produced by the total quadrature-axis
and balanced, applied to the primary winding of a primary winding flux, and the value of the
29
1S 1885 (Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 (411) ( 1973)

~itttultatteous change in futtdattiettt;tlil.C. cc~~;~porlc~ll419 -20-17


(11.

quadratulcE-axis primary current, the tttachinc ruttttittg Asyuchronous resistance:


iI1 rated speed and thr high dcrrrntettt cc\~ttl)~~~t~tt~~
during the first cycles being cxcludcd. The quotient of (a) the active component of the average
voltage at rated frequency assumed to be sinusoidal and
411-20-11 balanced, applied to the primary winding of a machine
Direct-axis sub-transient reactance: * rotating out of synchronism, and (b) the average current
component at Ihe Sante frequency.
The quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in 9
that fundamental a.c. component of primary voltage, 411-20-M
which is produced by Ihe total direct-axis primary flux, Positive phase-sequence resistance:
and the valtte of the sintultan~ous change in fundamen-
The quotient of (a) Ihe in-phase component of positive
ral a.c. component of direct-axis primary current, the
phase-sequence primary voltage corresponding to los-
machine running at rated speed.
scs in the pritttary winding, and stray load losses due to
411-20-12 sinusoidal positive phase-sequence primary current,
Quadrature-axis sub-transient reactknce: and (b) the value of this current the machine running at
rated speed.
The,quotient of the initial value of a sudden change in
that fundantental a.c. component of primary voltage, 411-20-19
which is produced by the total quadrature-axis primary Negative phase-sequence resistance:
flux and the value of the simultaneous change in fun-
The quotient of (a) the in-phase fundamental corn--
damental a.~. componcnl of quadrature-axis printaty
portent of negalivc phase-sequence primary voltage,
current? the machine running at rated speed.
due to sinusoidal negative phase-sequence primary
411-20-13 current of rated frequency, and (b) the value of this
currettt, the machine running at rated speed.
Potier reactance:
An equivalent reactance used in place of the primary 411-20-20
lcakagc reactance to calculate the excitatign on load by Zero phase-sequence resistance:
means of the Potier method. The quotient of (a) the in-phase fundamental com-
Note. --It takes into accnunt the additional leakage of the ponent of zero phase-sequence primary voltage, due to
excitation winding on load and in the over-excited the presence of fundamental zero phase-sequence
region and is accordingly greater than the real value primary current of rated frequency, and (b) the value of
of the primary leakage reactance. this current, the machine running at rated speed.
411-m-14 411-20-21
Positive phase-sequence reactance: Short-circuit mtio:
The quotient of (a) the reactive fundamental corn- The ratio of the excitation current for rated primary
ponent of the positive phase-sequence primary voltage voltage on open-circuit to the excitalion current for
due to the sinusoidal positive phase-sequence primary raled primary current on sustained symmetrical short-
current of rated Crequency, and (b) the value of this circuit, both with the machine running at r;ltb.d speed.
current, the machine running at rated speed. 411-20-22
411-20-1s ’ Saturation factor:
Negative phase-sequence reactance: The ratio of the saturated value under specified condi-
tions of a quantity to its unsaturated value.
The quotient of (a) the reactive fundsmental, com-
ponent of negative phase-sequence primary voltage 411-20-23
due to sinusoidal negative phase-sequence primary Synchronizing coefficient:
current of rated frequency,* and (b) the value of this
The quotient of the shaft power and the angular dis-
current, the machine running at rated speed.
placement of the rotor,
411-20-16 No&.- It is expressed in kilowatts per electrical radian.
Unless otherwise stated, the value will be for rated
Zero phase-sequence reactance: voltage, load,‘power factor and frequency.
The quotient of (a) the reactive fundamental com-
ponent of zero phase-sequence primary voltage, due to 41:-20-24
the presence of fundamental zero phase-sequence Synchronizing power coefficient:
primary current of rated frequency, and, (b) this com- THe quoticuc of the change in electrical power and the
ponent of current, the machine running at rated speed. variation of the rotor angular displacement.

30
IS 1885 ( Pat-t 35 ) : 1993
IEC POI) 50 ( 411) ( 1973)

SECTION 411-21 -LOAD, DUTY, RATING

411-21-01 starting and electric breaking, and the duration of the


Load: duty cycle. expressed as a percentage.
All the numerical values of the electricat aud niechani- 411-21-H
cal quantities that signify the demand to be made at a Intermittent duty:
given instant on a rotating machine by an electric
Aduty in which Ihe load changes regularly or irregular-
circuit or a mechanism.
ly with time.
411-21-02
411-21-12
No-load:
Periodic duty:
The state of a machine rotating at normal speed under
A type of intermittent duty in which the duty cycle is
rated conditions, but when no output is required of it.
repeated at regular intervals.
411-21-03
411-21-13
Rest and de-enerfiized:
Duty-type:
The complete absenrc of all movement and of all
A continuous or a conventional periodic duty consist-
electrical or mechanical supply.
ing of one or more sets of loads remaining constant for
411-21-04 I he durations specified.
output: 411-21-14
1. Of a generator: the useful active electrical power (Yontinuons running duty-type:
measured at its terminals. 2. Of a motor: the useful
Operation at constant load of sufficient duration for
mechanical power measured at its shaft.
thermal equilibrium to be reached.
411-21-05
411-21-15
Rated &put:
The value of the output included in the rating. Short-time duty-type:
Operation at constant load during a given time, less
411-21-06 than that required to reach thenal equilibrium, fol-
Input: lowed by a rest and de-energized period of sufficient
To a generator: the mechanical power transmitted to its duration to re-establish equality oftenlperaturc with the
shaft. -To a motor : the active electrical power sup- coolant.
plied to its terminals. 411-21-16
411-21-07 Intermittent periodic duty-type:
Duty: Asequence of identical cycles, each including a period
Sl;l~t:luenl of the lmds, inclucting no-load and rest and of operatiou at constant load and a rest and de-ener-
dc-cucrgized periods to which the machine is subjected, gized period, these periods being too short to attain
including their duralion and sequence in time. therlnal equilibrium during one duty cycle, and in
which the starting current does not significantly affect
411-21-08 the temperature-rise.
Duty cycle:
411-21-17
Avariation of load with time which may or tllay not be
repealed, and in which the cycle time is too short for Intermittent periodic duty-type with starting:
thernlal equilibrium to be attained. Asequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consist-
411-21-09 ing of a period of starting, a period of operation at
constant load, and rest and de-energized period, these
Thermal equilibrium: periods being too short to attain thermal equilibrium
The state reached when the observed temperature-rises during WC duty-cycle.
of the several parts of the machine do not vary any
longer. 411-21-1X
Note.---In practice, equilibrium is assumed to be reached Intermittent periodic duty-type with electric
when the temperature does not vary over a period braking:
of one hour by more than a specified amount,
e.g., 2’C. Asequence of identical duty cycles, each cycle consist-
ing of a period of starting, a period of operation at
411-21-10 constant load, a period of rapid electric breaking and a
Cyclic duration factor: rest and de-energized period, these periods being too
short to attain thermal equilibrium during one duty
The ratio between the period of loading including
cycle.

31
1s 18x5 ( h-t 35 ,I : 1993
50 ( 4: 9 ) ( 1973)
IE(‘ 1’111)

Jll-21-19 stated on the rating plate, the machine complying with


Continuous operation duty-type:, the specified conditions.
Asequcnce of identical duty cycles, each cycle consist- Note. -Theduration may be indicated by a qualitiying term.
ing of a period of operation at constant load, and a 411-21-23
period of operation at no-load, these periods being too
Rated value:
short to attain thermal equilibrium during one duty
cycle. The numerical value of a quantity included in the
rating.
411-21-20
411-21-24
Continuous operatiori duty-type with electric
braking: Maximum continuous rating:

Ascquenrc of identical duty cycles, each cycle consist- The statement of the load and conditions assigned to
ing of a period of starting, and a period of operation at the machine by the manufacturer at which the machine
constant load and a period of electric braking, the may be operated for an unlimited period.
period of operation being too short to attain therma 411-21-25
equilibrium during one duty cycle.
Short-time rating: .
411-21-21 The statement of the load time and conditions assigned
Continuous Operation duty-type with related to the machine by the manufacturer at which the
load/speed changes: machine may be operated for a limited and short period,
starting at the ambient temperature.
Ascquence ofidentical duty cycles, each cycle consist-
ing of a period ofaccelcration, and a period of operation 411-21-26
at constant load, corresponding to a pre-determined Equivalent continuous rating:
speed of rotation, followed by one or more periods of
The statcmcnt of the load and conditions assigned to
operation at other constant loads corresponding to dif-
the machine for test purposes, by the manufacturer at
ferent, speeds of rotation, each period of operation being
which the machine may be operated until thermal equi-
too short TOattain thermal equilibrium during one duty
librium is reached and which is considered to be
cycle.
equivalent to the duty or duty-type.
411-21-22
411-21-27
Rating: Duty-cycle rating:
The whole 01.1hc numerical values of the electrical and The statement of the loads and conditions assigned to
mcchanica t ‘ttli1utitcs with their duration and sequen- the machine by the manufacturer, at which the machine
ces, assigned IO the machine by the mamlfacturer and may be operated on specified duty cycles.

32
IS 1885 ( I’art 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973)

Sections 411-22 and 411-23 -Operation and testing

SECTION 411-22 - OPERATION

411-22-01 411-22-10
Starting: Synchronous operation:
The process of bringing a machine up To speed from Operation of a macllinr where the speed of the rotor is
rest. the same as the syn;.hrouous speed.
No/e. -This includes energizing, breaking away, accelerat- 411-22-11
ing and, iP necessary synchronizing with thesupply.
Asynchronous operation:
411-22-02 Operatioa of a machine where the speed of the rotor is
Breakaway: other than synchronous speed.
The condition of a machine at the instant of change 411-22-12
from rest of rotation.
Pulling into synchronism:
411-22-03 The process of attaining synchrouistu by changing
Accelerating: from asynchronous speed to synchronous speed.
The process of running a machine up.to speed after 411-22-13
breakaway.
Pulling out of synchronism:
411-22-04 The process of losing synchronianl IV changing from
Synchronizing: synchronous speed 10 a lower asy~~c~l~r~~~~oos
speed.
The process or sequence of processes whereby a 411-22-14
synchronous machine, after accelerating, is brought
into synchronism with another synchronous machine Rising out of synchronism:
or a system. The process of losing synchronism by changing from
synchronous speed to a higher asynchronous speed.
411-22-W
Ideal synchronizing: 411-22-M
Synchronizing a machine by adjusting the voltage, I’aralleling:
frequency and phase angle, such that the conditions of The process by which a generator is adjusted and
that machine are as close as possible to those of the conneclcd to run in parallel with another generator or
machine or system with which it is being synchronized. systc111.
Note. -This term is depreolted for synchronous generators.
411-22-M
Random synchronizing: 411-22-16
Synchronizing a machine by adjusting its voltage to be Ideal paralleling:
of the same order as that of another machine or system, Paralleling by arranging that the conditions of a
but without adjusting the frequency and phase angle 01 machine are as close as possible to those of the machine
the incoming machine to be as close as possible to those or system with which it is being paralleled.
of the machine or system with which it is being
synchronized. 411-22-17
411-22-07 Random paralleling:
Motor synchronizing: Paralleling by arranging that the conditions of a
Synchronizing a machine by applying excitation to il machine are of the same order as, but not necessarily
atIer it has been accelerated to near synchronous speed as close as possible to, those of the nlachine or systeni
and after it has been connected to the supply. with which it is being paralleled.
411-22-N 411-22-18
Coarse synchronizing:
Direct-on-line starting (UK);
Synchronizing a machine by applying excitation to it Acmss -the-line starting (USA):
after it has been accelerated to near-synchronous speed
but before it has been connected to the supply. The process ofstarting a motorby connec!ing it directly
to the supply at rdted voltage.
411-22-09
411-22-19
Reluctance synchronizing:
Star-delta starting:
Synchronizing by bringing the speed of a salient pole
synchronous machine to near-synchronous speed bul The process ofstarting a three-phase niotor by connect-
without applying excitation to it. ing it to the supply with the primary winding initially

33
IS 18X5 ( Part 35) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )

411-22-28
Series connected starting-motor starting:

411-22-20 The process of startiug a motor by comectiug its


primary winding to the supply in series with the
Auto-transformer starting:
primary windings of a starting motor, this latter being
The process ofslarting an a.~‘.motor at reduced voltage short-circuited for the running condition.
by connrcting the primary winding initially to an auto-
tmnsfortuer and re-connecting the winding directly IO 411-22-29
the supply at rated voltage fk the running couditians. Cyclic irregularity:

411-22-21 The periodic fluctuation of speed caused by irregularity


of the prime n~over torque.
Open transitiou auto-transformer startiug (IJK);
Opeii circuit trausitiou suto-tnriisforiner startiug 411-22-30
(CJS.4): Hunting:
The process of il~~to-tr;l~~slbr~~Icrstarting whereby the A fluctuation of speed about a state of uniform rotation.
motor is disconnected from the supply dbring the tran-
sition from reduced to rated voltage. 411-22-31
Phase swinging:
411-22-22
A form of hunting in which tht> lluctua~i~u arc pcriodir
Clused transitiou iruto-traasfoi-lller starting (IJK);
variations inthespeed ofa synchronous machincabovc
(Iosed circuit transition ;luto-tnresfornier starting
aud below the normal speed.
(USA):
The process of aulo-trlrl~sli,nuer starting whereby the 411-22-32
motor remains counccted to the supply during the tran- Exciter response:
sition from rcduccd to raled voltage. The rate of increase or decrease of the cxcitrr voltage
41 l-22-23 when a change in this voltage is drmndcd.
Reactor starting: 411-22-33
The process of slartiug a motor at reduced voltage by Voltage build-up:
connecting it initiallv in series with a reactor (inductor) The inherent cstablishrncnt of 111~ cxcitatiou aud
which is short-cirruitcd li)r the run&g condition. generated intcrnal voltage of a gcncr;t~t~r.
411-22-24 411-22-34
Notor resistance startiiig: Impedance drop:
The process of starting a wound rotor induction motor The product of the current and the iuterna1 in?pedancc;
or synchronous inductiou motor by connecting the this is the vectorial difference between the generated
rotor secondary winding initially in serjes with starting iuteraal vohage and the tenuiual voltage of a machine.
resistors which arc short-circuited for the running cou-
dition. 411-22-35
<b-rent pulsation:
411-22-25
Stator resistance starting: The difference between maximum and nGnimutn
amplitude of the motor current during a single cycle
The process of starting a motor at reduced voltage by corresponding to out revolution of the driven load
couuecting the prinulrv wiuding initially in series with expressed as a percentage of the average value of the
startiug resistors which are short-circuited for the current during the cycle.
running condition.
Nope.-For a.~. n7010rs,all currents in this definition are
411-22-21 r.m.s. currents.
Series-parallel starting: 411-22-36
The process of starting a motor by connecting it to the Regulatiou (of a geeerator):
supply with the circuits ofeach primary winding phase
The change in voltage resulting from a load change.
initially conuertcd in series, and changing them to a
parallel comection for the running condition.
No/e. -The change in voltage is often considered between
411-22-27 rated load and no-load operation.
Part-winding starting: 411-22-37
The process of starting a motor by connecting it to the Regulation (of a motor):
supply with one circuit of each primary winding phase
initially rounccted and for the ruuuing condition The change in speed resultiug from a load change.
c’hangiug over to all circuits or each phase connected NO/C.-The change in speed is often considered between
111parallel. rated load and no-load operation.

34
IS 1885 ( Part 35) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 (411 ) ( 1973 )

411-22-38 411-22-48
Inherent regulation (of a generator): Electroniagnetic braking:
The change in voltage resulting from a load change, the A sys~cm in which a brake is applied to or removed
speed being maintained constant, ;tnd due solely to the from a machine hy nleans of an electromagnet.
fundamental characteristics of the generator itself.
411-22-49
411-22-39 ISlertric braking:
Inherent regulation (of a motor): A sys~cm in which a braking action is applied to a
The change in speed resulting fronl a load change the machine by causing it to produce clectriral energy
supply voltage and frequency being maintained con- which is either dissipated or returned to the supply
stant, and due solely to the ft~nndanmHaI characteristics sys1c111.
of the motor itself.
411-22-50
411-22-40 I~ynaniic In-akiiig:

Conipouiiding characteristics: A system of electric braking in which the excited


The relationship between the voltage or speed or machine is disconnected from the supply system and
power-factor, and the load current or a machine with connerled as a generator, the energy being dissipated
compound excitation. in the winding and, if necessary, in a separate resistor.
411-22-41 411-22-51
Neutral zone: Capacitor braking:
The zone of an armature, I(~<~atedmidway between two Dynamic brakiu~ lor induction machines in which a
consecutive poles, in whi<.ll I hc tlux is sensibly zero or, capacitor is usul IO III;I~II~;I~II magnetizingcurrentthere-
by extension, the zone 01 the corumutator in which, by enabling the nlachinc to act as a generator when
when the machine is running at no-load, the voltage discounectcd from the supply.
between two consecutive bars is sensibly zero.
411-22-52
411-22-42 IMI. injection braking (17K);
Black ba~xl: DC braking (IJSA):
Of a conmutating machine. The range of variation of Dynaniic braking for induction machines in which a
commutating field strength, over which the ronunuta- separate d.r. supply provides magnetizing current
tion is practically sparkless for a specified range of thereby enabling the machine to act as a generatorwhen
loads with a fixed brush setting. disconnected from the supply.
411-22-43 411-22-53
Pole slipping: Regenerative braking:
The process of the secondary luernher of a synchronous Electric braking in which cncrgy is returned to the
machine slipping one pole pitch with respect to the supply system
primary magnetic flux.
411-22-54
411-22-44 Regenerative braking (of a d.c. machine);
Single-phasing: Counter-current braking (deprecated):
The abnormal operation of a polyphase machine when Regenerative braking in which the main current of a
its supply is effectively single-phase. d.c. machine is reversed.
411-22-45 411-22-55
Inching: Over-synchronous braking:
Electrically actuated angular movement or slow rota- Regenerative braking for induction motors in which the
tion of a machine. rotor is forced to rotate with over-synchronous speed.
411-22-46 411-22-56
Crawling: Plug braking;
Stable hut abnormal running of a synchronous or Plugging (deprecated):
asynchronous machine at a speed near IO a submultiple Electric braking of au induction motor by reversing the
of the synchronous speed. phase scqucncc of its supply.
411-22-47 411-22-57
Creeping (of a d.c. motor) Eddy-current braking:
The undesired running at slow speed of a d.c. motor due Electric braking in which the energy to he dissipated is
to residual magnetism. converted into heat by eddy currents produced in a
metallic mass.

35
IS 18X5 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
11x: Pub 50 ( 411 ) ( lY73 )

SECTION 411-23 -TESTING

411-23-01 411-23-12
Performauce tests: Calculation of efllciency from total loss:
The tests required to determine the characteristics of a Indirect calculation of efticiency from the direct
machine and to show that the machine complies with measurement of total loss.
its specification.
411-23-13
411-23-02 Calculation of efficiency from summation of losses:
Type-tests: indirect calculation of the efficiency from the summa-
The performance tests taken on one of the first tion of the component losses measured separately.
machines of each type of design.
411-23-14
411-23-03 Bt-nking test(CTK);
Duplicate tests: Brake test (IJSA):
The tests applied to a machine of the same design and A test in which the mechanical power output of a
construction as a machine previously subjected to type- machine acting as a motor is determined by the
tests, with the objcrt of demonstrating that the machine measurement of the shaft torque, by means of a brake
is in accordanrr with the original design. or dynamometer, together with the rotational speed.
Alternatively, a test performed on a machine acting as
411-23-04
a generator, by means of a dynamometer to determine
Routine check tests: the mechanical power input.
The tests applied to a machine to show that it is able to
withstand the appropriate high-voltage tests, and is in 411-23-H
correct working order both electrically and nechani- Dynamometer test:
rally.
A braking test in which an electrical dynamometer is
411-23-05 used.
Sampling tests: 411-23-16
Test carried out on a few samples taken at random out Calorimetric test:
of one consignment.
A test in which the losses in a machine arc deduced
411-23-06 from the heat produced by them. The losses are calcn-
Commissioning tests: lated from the heatabsorbed by the coolant and the heat
dissipated in the surrounding media, if any.
Tests applied IO a machine on site under normal service
conditions to show that the machine has been erected 411-23-17
and comlected in a correct mamler and is able to work Calibrated driving machine test:
satisfactorily.
A test in which the mechanical input or output of an
411-23-07 electrical machine is calculated from the electrical out-
Acceptance tests: put or input of a calibrated machine mechanically
The whole of the tests carried out usually in the coupled to the machine on test.
customer’s presence on the basis of which the machine 411-23-l%
is acccptcd.
Mechanical back-to-back test:
4 U-23-08
A test in which two identical machines are mechanical-
Ilftiiciency: ly coupled together and the total losses of both
The ratio of output to input, usually given as a percentage. machines are calculated from the difference between
the electrical input to one machine and the electrical
411-23-09
output of the other machine.
‘rotal hjss:
411-23-19
The difference bctwecn the input and the output.
Electrical back-to-back test:
411-23-10
Atest in which two identical machines are mechanical-
Direct calculation of etliciency:
ly coupled together and are both connected electrically
Calculation of the efficiency from direct measurement IO a power system. The total losses of both machines
of input and output. arc taken as the power input drawn from the system .
411-23-U
411-23-20
Indirect calculation of efliciency:
Ketardation test:
Calculation of the efficiency from the measurement of
A test in which the losses in a machine are obtained by
losses.
36
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

plotting the slowing down of the machine when only 411-23-31


losses are present. Harmonic test:
411-23-21 A test to determine directly the value of one or more
No-load test: harmonics of the waveform or a periodic quantity
associated with a machine relative to the fundamental
Atest in which the machine is run as a motor providing of that quantity.
no useful mechanical output from the shaft.
411-23-32
411-23-22
Locked-rotor test:
Open-circuit test:
A test on an energiied machine with the rotor he!d
A test in which a machine is run as generator with its stationary for the purpose of determining the locked-’
terminals open-circuited. rotor torque. .
411-23-23 411-23-33
Sustained short-circuit test: Starting test:
A test in which a niachine is run as generator with its A test taken on a machine while it is accelerating from
terminals short-circuited. standstill under specified conditions for the purpose of
411-23-24 determining the starting torque.
Sudden short-circuit test: 411-23-34
Atest in which a short-circuit is suddenly applied to the Pull-in test:
primary winding of a machine under specified operat- A test on a synchronous machine which is pulling into
ing conditions. synchronism from a specified slip and with a specified
411-23-25 inertia for the purpose of determining the pull-in
torque.
Light load test:
A test on a machine connected to its normal driven or 411-23-35
driving member in which (a) as a motor, its shaft power Pull-out test (UK);
is restricted to the no-load loss of the driven member, Breakdown test (USA):
(b) as a generator, it provides a reduced power output
A test to determine the conditioils under which an a.c.
at its terminals.
machine develops maximum torque while running at
411-23-26 specified voltage and frequency.
Zero power-factor test: 411-23-36
A no-load test in which a synchronous machine is Commutation test:
over-excited and operated as a motor at a power-factor
A test on a machine with a commutator to assess the
very close to zero.
commutating properties under specified conditions.
411-23-27
411-23-37
Unity power-factor test:
Black band test:
A test in which a synchronous machine is operated as
a motor under specified operating conditions with its Aconnnutation test to determine the limits of the range
excitation adjusted to give unity power-factor. of variation of commutating field strength between
which the commutation is practically sparkless for a
411-23-28 specified range of loads.
Temperature-rise test: 411-23-38
A test undertaken to determine the temperature-rise of Resistance test:
one or more parts of a machine under specified operat- A test to measure the resistance of a winding, using
ing conditions. direct current.
411-23-29 411-23-39
Wavefomi test: Core test:
A test in which the v+vefonn of any variable quantity A test taken on a laminated, usually unwound, core of
associartQTVTKTii%chine is recorded. a machine to determine its loss characteristic or the
effectiveness of the lamination insulation.
411-23-30
411-23-40
Wavefomi nieasurenient: Overspeed test:
A measurement of one or more parameters of a
A test on a machine rotor to demonstrate that it com-
waveform. plies with specified overspeed requirements.

37
IS 1X85 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IECl’U16@(~411) ( 1973)

411-23-41 voltage across the insulation to determine the adequacy


BalaM!e test: of its dielectric strength.
A lcsl Iakcn to asecrtain Ihat a rotor is balanced withill 411-23-51
spccil‘jcd limits. Low-frequency high-voltage test:
411-23-42 A high-voltage test performed al a low frequency
Vibration test: between 0.1 Hz and 1 .O Hz.
A test taken on a machine to ~UZWIIE the vibration of 411-23-52
any part of the machine under specified conditions. Loss tangent test (IJK);
411-23-43 Dissipation factor test (USA):
Noise-level test: A test for measuring the dielectric loss of insulation at
A test taken to dctcrminc the noise level produced by a predetermined values of temperature, frequency, and
machine under specified conditions of ‘operation and voltage or dielectric stress.
measurement. No/e. -The dielectric loss is expressed in terms ol the
tangent 0E the complcmcnt of the insulation power-
No/c .--This applies to acoustic noise only.
I;lctor angle.
411-23-44
411-23-53
Shaft-voltage test:
Dischai-ge inception test:
A test taken on an energized machine to detect the
voltage induced which is capable of producing shaft- A test for measuring the lowest voltage at which dis-
-currents. charges of a specified magnitude recur in successive
cycles when an increasing altetxative voltage or work-
411-23-45 ing frequency is applied to the insulation.
Rotation test:
411-23-54
Atest td delcrmine that the rotor rotates in the specified
dircriion and IlLIt the terminal marking is correct. Partial discharge inception test:

411-23-46 Atcst for measuring the lowest voltage at which partial


discharges occur at the surface of the conductors or
Phase-sequence test:
outside their insulation.
A test taken to determine that the phahc scqucnce of a Note.- This test is sometimes called corona inception test.
polyphase winding is correct.
411-23-55
411-23-47
Polarity test: Discharge energy test:
A tcsf taken on a machine to demo&ate that the A ICS~ I;lr dclcnnining the lllagniludc 01‘ the cnrrg!
rclativc polarititcs of the windings or permanent mag- dissipalcd by a discharge or discharges within lhc
net poles are correct. Insulation at a prcdetcrmined value ol‘vc~llagc.

411-23-48 411-23-56
Bar-to-bar test: Impulse test:
A test in which the rcsistancc between adjacent con,- A test for applying to an insulated component an
mutator segment is mcasurcd in order to check that Lhc aperiodic transient voltage having predetermined
winding is satisfactory. polarity, amplitude and waveform.
411-23-49 411-23-57
Insulation resistance test:
Interturn test (IJK);
A test for nieasuring the resistance of insulation under
specified conditions. Turn-to-turn test (USA):
A lest for applying, or nmrc often inducing between
411-23-50
adjacent turns of an insulated component, a voltage of
High-voltage test: predctcrnlined amplitude, for the purpose of checking
A test applied lo insulation made by applying a high the integrity of the interturn insulation.

38
IS 1885 ( Part 35) : 1993
!I<<: hlh 50 ( 411 ) ( 1973 )

NDEX

A Bearing lining 411-12-30


Bearing pedestal 411-13-23
Accelerating 41 I-22-03 Hearing pressure 411-12-36
Acdcrilling torque 411-18-06 Bearing shell 411-12-31
AcceptirnW tests 4 1I-23-07 411-09-13
Belt insulation
Across the line btilllil:g(USA) 411-22-18
Binding hnd 411-13-21
Acyclic machine 411-01-03
Black band 411-22-42
Adjustable constant speed mOtOK 41 l-03-47 411-23-37
Black-band test
Adjustable-speed motor 411-03-46 Booster 41 l-04-02
Adjustable varying speed motor 41 l-03-48 Bore-hole lead insulation (USA) 411-09-22
Air duct (IJK) 411-14-15 411-13-30
Ibx frame
Air duct (USA) 411-14-16 411-23-14
Brake test ((ISA)
Air gap 411-10-15 Braking test (UK) 411-23-14
Air (gas) (water) (liquid) filled 411-15-27 Braking torque 411-18-12
Air guide 411-14-12 Breakaway 411-22-02
Air insulated terminal box 411-l t-30 Breakaway starting current (of an a.~. motor) 41 I-18-20
Air pipe 411-14-14 Breakaway torque of an a.c. motor 41 l-18-04
Air trunking 411-14-13 Breakdown test (USA) 41 l-23-35
Alternating current commutator machine 411-01-10 Hreakdown torque (USA) 411-18-10
Alternating current commutator motor 41 I-03-28 411-1 l-01
Brush
Alternating current generator -11I-02-03 Hrush box 411-11-03
Nlernating current motor -II l-03-04 411-I l-02
Brush holder
Amortiss’eur winding (USA) 41 l-07-13 13rush holder support 411-11-05
Ampere-conductors(of a distrihutedwinding) 41 I-16-01 411-06-17
Drushless
Ampere-turns 411-16-02 Hrushlcss wound-rotor induction motor 41 l-03-18
Angular variation in synchronous generators 411-18-46 411-11-06
Hrush rocker
Aperiodic component of short-circuit current 411-18-24 Brush rocker gear 411-11-08
Aperiodic time constant 411-18-28 411-11-04
Brush spring
Armature reaction 411-19-01 Brush yoke 411-11-07
Armature (IJK) 41 l-13-04
Armature ([ISA) 411-13-03 c
Armature winding (UK) 411-07-12
coupler
C’illTlC! 411-11-25
Armature winding (USA) 411-07-11
(‘age induction motor (IJK) 41 l-03- 15
Asynchronous impcdancc 41 l-20-02
Cage synchronous motor 411-03-07
Asynchronous machine 411-01-07
Cage winding (IJK) 41 l-07-25
Asynchronous operation 411-22-11
(‘alculation of efficiency from summation of 411-23-13
Asynchronous reactance 4 1l-20-05
losses
Asynchronous resistance 411-20- 17 C~illcUlittiOllof efficiency from total loss 411-23-12
Automatically regulated 41 -06- 16 (‘alihratcd driving machine test 411-23-17
Auto-transl’ormer starling 41 1-22-20 calorimetric test 411-23-16
Auxiliary starting winding 41 -07-z Canned 411-15-31
Capacitor braking 411-22-51
H
~apilcitOr motor 411-03-24
Rack span 41 -08-21 Capacitor start and run motor (TJK) 41 I-03-26
Halancc lest 411-23-41 Capacitor start motor 41 l-03-25
Hall hearing 411-12-03 C’artridgc type bearing 411-12-23
nanding insulation 411-09-G (‘eiling voltage 411-18-40
Barring gear (IJK) 41 t-13-35 (‘haracterislic or magnetism 41 L-17-02
Rar-to-hat. test 51 l-23-48 Circlediagram 411-17-12
Bearing 411-12-01 Closed air-circuit 411-15-15
( baring bracket (USA) 411-13-26 Closed air-circuit I‘an-ventilated air-cooled 411-1.5-16
Bearing clearance 411-12-35 Closed air-circuit separately fan-ventilated 411-15-17
Bearing housing 411-12-33 air-cooled
Hearing Ii ner 41 l-12-32 (‘losed air-circuit water-cooled 411-15-18
IS 1885( Part 35 ) : 1993
LEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973)
Closedcircuil cooling 411-14-02 Critical torsional speeds 411-18-48
Closed circuit transition auto-transformer 411-22-22 Critical whirling speeds 411-18-47
starting (USA) Cumulative compounded 41 l-06-07
Closed transition auto-transformer starting 411-22-22 Current pulsation 41 l-22-35
(UK) Cyclic duration factor 411-21-10
Coarse synchronizing 41 l-22-08 Cyclic irregularity 41 l-22-29
Coil 41 l-08-03 Cylindrical rotor machine 411-01-15
Coil (bar) insulation 411-09-0s
Coil pitch (USA) 411-08-19 D
Coil section 411-08-02
Damper winding (USA) 411-07-13
Coil side 411-08-06
Damping winding (UK) 411-07-13
Coil side separator 411-09-08
D.C. braking (USA) 41 l-22-52
Coil span (UK) 411-08-19
D.C. injection braking (UK) 411-22-52
Collector ring 4i1;11-10
Definite purposemotor 41 l-03-36
Comb-like support 411-09-12
Dependent circulating circuit component 411-14-04
Commissioning tests 411-23-06
Deri motor 411-03-31
Commutating winding 411-07-19
Diamond winding 411-07-28
Commutation test 411-23-36
Differential compounded 411-06-08
Commutator 411-11-11
Direct-axis component of current 411-19-0s
Commutator pitch 411-08-27
Direct-axis component of magnetomotive 411-19-03
Commutator riser 411-11-16 force
Commutator segment 411-11-12
Direct-axis component of synchronous 411-19-07
Commutator segment insulation 411-11-15 generated voltage
Commutator type frequency convertor 411-04- 12 Direct-axis component of voltage 411-19-09
Commutator V-ring 411-11-13 Direct-axis sub-transient open-circuit time 411-18-31
Commutator V-ring insulation 411-11-14 constant
Compensated regulated 411-06-15 Direct-axis sub-transient reactance 411-20-11
Compensated repulsion motor 411-03-32 Direct-axis sub-transient short-circuit time 411-18-32
Compensating winding 411-07-18 constant
Compositely excited 411-06-03 Direct-axis sub-transient voltage 411-19-11
Compound 411-06-06 Direct-axis synchronous reactance 411-20-07
Compounding characteristics 411-22-40 Direct-axis transient open-circuit time 411-18-29
Concentrated winding - . 411-07-24 constant
Concentric winding 411-07-27 Direct-axis transient reactance 411-20-09
Conductor insulation 411-09-01 Direct-axis transient short-circuit time 411-18-30
constant
Conical rotor machine 411-01-16
Direct-axis transient voltage 411-19-13
Constant speed motor 411-03-41
Direct calculation of efficiency 41 l-23-10
Continuous operation duty-type 411-21-19
Direct current balancer 411-04-04
Continuous operation duty-type with electric 411-21-20
braking Direct current commutator machine 411-01-05
Continuous operation duty-type with related 411-21-21 Direct current generator 41 l-02-02
load speed changes Direct current motor 41 l-03-03
Continuous running duty-type 411-21-14 Direct-on-line starting (UK) 411-22-18
Control exciter 411-05-11 Discharge energy test 411-23-55
Control winding 41 l-07-20 Discharge inception test 41 l-23-53
Convertor 411-04-08 Disk and wiper lubricated bearing 411-12-15
Core 411-10-01 Dissipation factor test (USA) 411-23-52
Core duct 411-14-11 Distributed winding 41 l-07-23
Core end plate 411-10-03 Distribution factor (USA) 411-08-29
Core test 41 l-23-39 Double-fed asynchronous machine 411-01-08
Corona shielding 411-09-06 Double wound synchronous generator 411-02-06
Counter-current braking (deprecated) 411-22-54 Drip-proof 411-15-04
Cranked coil 41.1-08-14 Duct spacer 411-10-20
Crawling 411-22-46 Duct ventilated 411-15-08
Creeping (of a d.c. motor) 411-22-47 Dumb-bell shaft (UK) 411-13-12
Critical build-up resistance 411-18-38 Dummy coil 411-08-16
Critical build-up speed 411-18-39 Duplex lap winding 411-07-42

40
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

Duplex wave winding 411-07-43 Flat compounded (USA) 411-06-10


Duplicate tests 41 L-23-03 Flood lubricated bearing 411-12-17
Dust-proof 411-15-23 Forced lubricated bearing 411-12-18
Dust seal 411-12-29 Fractional horsepower motor 411-03-39
Duty 411-21-07 Fractional slot winding 41 l-07-47
Duty cycle ,411-21-08 Frame yoke 411-10-14
Duty cycle rating 411-21-27 Frequency changer set 411-04-13
Duty-type 411-21-13 Frequency convertor 411-0411
Dynamic braking 411-22-50 Frequency response characteristic (of an a.c. 411-17-13
Dynamometer test 411-23-15 machine)
Dynamotor 41 l-04-03 Frog leg winding 411-07-31
Front span 411-08-20
E Full pitch winding 411-08-24
Earth terminal 411-11-21 G
Eddy-current braking 41-l-22-57
Effective synchronous reactance 411-20-06 Gas or vapour-proof 411-15-20
Effective turns per phase 411-08-32 Gas seal 411-12-28
Efficiency 41 l-23-08 General purpose motor 411-03-35
Electrical back-to-back test 411-23-19 Generator 41 l-02-01
Electrical dynamometer 411-04-01 Guide bearing 411-12-06
(Electrical) rotating machine 411-01-01
H
Electric braking 411-22-49
Electric coupling 411-04-17 Hairpin coil 411-08-11
Electric loading 411-16-03 Half coil 411-08-05
Electromagnetic braking 411-22-48 Harmonic test 411-23-31
Embedded coil side 41 l-08-09 Heteropolar machine 411-01-04
Encapsulated 411-15-30 High-voltage test 411-23-50
Enclosed ventilated 411-15-06 Homopolar machine 411-01-02
End bracket (UK) 411-13-26 Houseproof 411-15-21
End plate (of a rotor) 411-13-20 Hunting 411-22-30
End shield 411-13-27 Hysteresis coupling 411-04-20
End shift frame 411-13-34 Hysteresis,motor 411-03-19
End winding 411-08-07
End winding cover 411-13-28
I
Equalizer 411-08-15 Ideal paralleling 411-22-16
Equivalent continuous rating 411-21-26 Ideal synchronizing 41 l-22-05
Excitation response 411-18-42 llgner generator set 41 l-05-03
Excitation response ratio 411-18-44 Ilgner system 411-05-04
Excitation-system stability 411-18-45 Impedance drop 41 l-22-34
Excitation winding 411-07-16 Impulse test 411-23-56
Exciter 411-02-10 In&i ng 411-22-45
Exciter response 411-22-32 Independent circulating circuit component 411-14-05
F . Indirect calcnlation of effiliency 411-23-11
Fan housing 411-14-09 Induction coupling 411-04-18
Fan shroud 411-14-10 Induction frequency convertor 411-04-14
Fed-in winding 411-07-37 Induction generator 41 l-02-07
Field coil 411-08-12 Induction machine 411-01-09
Field coil flange 411-09-21 Induction motor 411-03-14
Field pole 411-10-04 Induction motor with collector rings 411-03-17
Field spool 411-09-18 Inductor frequency convertor 411-04-15
Field spool insulation 411-09-19 Inductor generator 411-02-08
Field system 411-13-05 Inductor machine 411-01-11
Field winding 41 l-07-17 Inductor type synchronous motor 411-03-10
Flameproof 411-15-24 Inertia constant 411-18-15
Flameproof terminal box 411-11-29 Inherent regulation (of a generator) 41 l-22-38
Flash barrier 411-11-09 Inherent regulation (of a motor) 411-22-39

41
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )
Initial excitation system response 411-18-43 Mechanical back-to-back test 411-23-18
Initial symmetrical short-circuit current 411-18-23 Modified Kraemer system 411-05-08
Input 411-21-06 Motor 411-03-01
Insulated bearing housing 411-13-25 Motor convertor 411-04-10
Insulated bearing pedestal 411-13-24 Motor generator set 411-04-07
Insulation resistance test 411-23-49 Motor synchronizing 411-22-07
Integral circulating circuit component 411-14-06 Multi-constant speed motor 411-03-44
Integral slot winding 411-07-46 Multiplex lap winding 411-07-44
Intermittent duty 411-21-11 Multiplex wave winding 411-07-45
Intermittent periodic duty-type 411-21-16 Multi-section coil 411-08-04
Intermittent periodic duty-type with electric. 411-21-18 Multi%qeed motor 411-03-43
braking Multi-varying speed motor 411-03-45
Intermittent periodic duty-type with starting 411-21-17
Intertum insulation 41 l-09-04 N
Interturn test (UK) 41 l-23-57 Negative phase-sequence impedance 411-20-03
Inverted 41 I -(t&u) Negative phase-sequence reactance 411-20-15
Negauvc phase-sequence resistance 411-2.0-19
Neutd mne 411-22-41
Jack shaft 411-13-10 Noise-level test 411-23-43
Sournat bearing 411-12-02 No-load 411-21-02
Journal (of a shaft) 411-13-07 No-load characteristic. 411-17-03
No-load test 411-23-21
K
Nominal acceleration time 411-18-16
Key _ Nominal excitation system ceiling voltage 411-18-41
Kraemer system Nominal pull-in torque 41.1-18-09
NonLsalient pole 411-10-05
L
l 0
Laminated core 41 I-10-02
Laminated frame 41 I:1332 Oil grooves 411-12-34
lap winding 4 I I 07-29 Oil-jacked bearing 411-12-20
Level compounded (UK and USA) 411-06-10 (hl ring lubricated bearing 411-12-14
Light load test 411-23-25 Oil Seal 411-12-27
Load 411-21-01 Oil thrower 411-12-26
Load angle characteristic 411-17-11 ( )rnzn 411-15-01
Load characteristic 411-17-04 Open-circuit characteristic 411-17-03
Location bearing 411-12-09 ()pen circuit cooling 411-14-01
Locked-rotor current 411-18-17 Open-circuit test 411-23-22
Locked-rotor current of a motor and starter 411-18-18 Open circuit transition auto-transformer 411-22-21
Locked-rotor impedance characterisitic(of an 411-17-06 starting (USA)
asynchronous machine) Open ended coil 411-08-10
Locked-rotor test 411-23-32 Open terminal box 411-11-26
Locked-rotor torque 411-18-02 Open transition auto-transformer starting 411-22-21
Long pitch winding 411-08-26 (UK)
Loose leads 411-11-22 output 411-21-04
Loss tangent test (UK) 411-23-52 Over compounded 41 l-06-09
Low-frequency high-voltage test 411-23-S Overhang packing 411-09-11
Overspeed test 411-23-40
M Over-synchronous braking 411-22-S
Machine mounted circulating circuit
P
component
Magnetic friction clutch 411-04-21 Pad type bearing 411-12-11
Magnetic loading 411-16-04 Paralleling 411-22-15
Magnetic particle coupling 411-04-22 Partial discharge inception test 411-23-54
Main exciter 411-02-11 Partly preformed winding
Main winding 411-07-08 Part-winding starting
Maximum asymmetric short-circuit current 411-18-25 Peak-switching current 411-18-21
Maximum continuous rating 411-21-24 I’rdcstal bearing 411-12-25
IS 1885 ( Part 35) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

Performance tests 41 l-23-01 Quadrature-axis component of magneto- 411-I 9-04


Periodic duty 411-21-12 motive force
Permanent magnet generater 411-02-09 Quadrature-axis component of synchronous 411-19-08
Permanent magnet synchronous motor 411-03-H generated voltage
Permanent split capacitor motor (USA) 41 l-03-26 Quadrature-axis component of voltage 41 l-19-10
Phase advancer 411-04-06 Quadrature-axis sub-transient open-circuit 411-18-36
time constant
Phase coil insulation 411-09-14
Quadrature-axis sub-transient reactance 411-20-12
Phase convertor 411-04-16
Quadrature-axis sub-transient short-circuit 411-18-37
Phase insulated terminal box 411-11-31
time constant
Phase segregated terminal box 411-l 1-33
Quadrature-axis sub-transient voltage 411-19-12
Phase separated terminal box 411-11-32
Quadrature-axis synchronous reactance 411-20-08
Phase sequence test 411-23-46
Quadrature-axis transient open-circuit time 411-18-34
Phase swinging 411-22-31 constant
Pilot exciter 411-02-12 Quadrature-axis transient reactance 411-20-10
Pipe ventilated 411-15-07 Quadrature-axis transient short-circuit time 411-18-35
Pitch factor 411-08-30 constant
Plug braking 411-22-56 Quadrature-axis transient voltage 411-19-14
Plugging (deprecated) 411-22-56 Quill shaft 411-‘13-14
Plug-in type bearing 411-12-24
Polarity test 411-23-47 R
.
Pole body 411-10-07 Radial air gap (minimum) 411-10-16
Pole body insulation 411-09-20 Random paralleling 411-22-17
Pole end plate 411-10-13 Random synchronizing 411-22-06
Pole face 411-10-10 Random winding 41 l-07-36
Pole face level 411-10-11 Rated load torque 411-18-01
Pole face shaping 411-10-12 Rated output 411-21-05
Pole pitch 411-08-22 Rated value 411-21-23
Pole shoe 411-10-08 Rating 411-21-22
Pole slipping 41 l-22-43 Reactor starting 411-22-23
Pole tips 411-10-09 Reactor start split phase rut Itl>r 411-03-23
Polyphase machine 411-01-13 Regenerative braking 41 l-22-53
Positive phase-sequence reactance 411-20-14 Regenerative braking (of a d.c. machine) 4lj -22-54
Positive phase-sequence resistance 411-20-18 Regulation (of a generator) 411-22-36
Potier reactance 411-20-13 Regulation (of a motor) 411-22-37
Preformed winding 411-07-34 Reluctance motor 411-03-12
Pressure containing terminal box 411-11-28 Reluctance synchronizing 411-22-09
Pressure lubricated bearing 411-12-19 Repulsion induction motor 411-03-34
Pressure relief terminal box 411-11-27 Repulsion motor 411-03-30
Preessurized 41 l-15-28 Repulsion start induction motor 411-03-33 -’
Primary circuit (USA) 411-07-03 Resistance grading (of corona shielding) 411-09-07
Primary circuit winding 411-07-05
Resistance start split phase motor 411-03-22
Primary series circuit 41 l-07-02
Resistance test 411-23-38
Primary winding 41 l-07-04
Rest and de-energized 411-21-03
Protected 411-15-02
Retaining ring 411-13-18
Pulling into synchronism 411-22-12
Pulling out of synchronism Retardation test 411-23-20
411-22-13
Pull-in-test 41 l-23-34 Rising out of synchronism 411-22-14
Pull-in torque 411-18-08 Roller bearing 411-12-04
Pull-out test (UK) 411-23-35 Rotary amplifier 411-05-10
Pull-out torque (of an a.c. motor) (UK) 411-18-10 Rotary convertor 411-04-09
Pull-out torque (USA) ~ 411-18-11 Rotatable frame 411-13-33
Pull-through winding 411-07-39 Rotation test 411-23-45
Pull-up torque (of an a.c. motor) 411-18-07 Rotor’ 411-13-02
Push-through winding 411-07-38 Rotor end-winding retaining ring 411-13-19
Rotor resistance starting 411-22-24
Q Rotor winding 411-07-10
Quadrature-axis component of current 411:19-06 Routine check tests 411-23-04

43

..
IS 1885 ( Part 35 ) : 1993
IEC Pub 50 ( 411) ( 1973 )

S Specified breakaway torque 411-18-03


Speed regulation characteristic 411-17-09
Salient poie 411-10-06
Spherically seated bearing 411-12-22
Salient pole machine 411-01-14
Spider 411-13-16
Salient pole synchronous induction motor 411-03-09
Spiash-proof 411-15-05
Sampling teats 41 l-23-05
Split phase motor 411-03-21
Saturation characteristic 411-17-01
Split sleeve bearing 411-12-08
Saturation factor 41 l-20-22
Split throw winding 411-07-26
Scherbius machine 411-05-06
Spread factor (UK) 411-08-29
Schrage motor 411-03-29
Springi loaded bearing 411-12-10
Screen-protected 411-15-03
Squirrel cage induction motor (USA) 411-03-H
Sealed 41 l-15-19
Squirrel cage winding (USA) 411-07-25
Secondary circuit winding 411-07-07
Stabilized shunt (generator) 411-06-12
Secondary winding 411-07-06
Stabilized shunt (motor) 411-06-H
Segmental rim motor 411-13-17
Standard dimensioned motor 43’1-03-38
Self excited 411-06-02
Standby or emergency cooling 411-14-03
Self lubricating ‘bearing 411-12-13
Star-delta starting 411-22-19
Self regulated 411-06-14
Starting 411-22-01
Separately excited 411-06-01
Starting current -411-18-19
Sepzrately mounted circulating circuit 411-14-08
Starting motor 411-03-50
component
Starting test 411-23-33
Separate terminal enclosure 411-11-24.
Starting torque 411-18-05
Series 411-06-05
Starting winding 411-07-14
Series connected starting-motor starting 411-22-28
Static Kraemer system 411-05-09
SeriesLparallel starting 411-22-26
Stator 411-13-01
Series winding 411-07-22
Stator frame 411-13-29
Snaded pole motor 41 l-03-20
Stator resistance starting 411-22-25
Shaft 411-13-06
Stator winding 41 l-07-09
Shaft end 411-13-09
Steady short-circuit current 411-18-22
Shaft extension 411-13-08
Stored-energy constant 411-18-13
Shaft-voltage test 411-23-44
Stored-energy constant of a set 411-18-14
Short-circuit characteristic 411-17-0s
Straight seated bearing 411-12-21
Short-circuit ratio 411-20-21
Strand or lamination insulation 411-09-02
Short-circuit time constant of primary 411-18-33
windings Strip terminals 411-11-20
Short pitch winding 411-08-25 Stub shaft 411-13-11
Short-time duty-type 411-21-15 Stud terminals 411-11-19
Short-time rating 411-21-25 Submersible 411-15-29
Shunt 411-06-04 Subsynchronous reluctance motor 411-03-13
Shunt winding Sub-transient current 411-18-27
41 l-07-21
Sudden short-circuit test 411-23-24
Simplex lap winding 41 l-07-40
Sustained short-circuit test 411-23-23
Simplex wave winding, 411-07-41
Symmetrical fractional slot winding 411-07-48
Single layer winding ’ 411-07-32
Synchronizing 411-22-04
Single-phase machine 411-01-12
Synchronizing coefficient 411-20-23
Single-phasing . 411-22-44
Synchronizing power coefficent 411-20-24
Skeleton frame 411-13-31 Synchronous compensator 411-04-05
Sleeve bearing 411-12-07 Synchronous condenser 411-04-04 -
Slip 411-16-06 Synchronous coupling 411-04-19
Slip regulator 411-05-05 Synchronous generated voltage 411-19-02
Slot 411-10-17 Synchronous generator 411-02-04
Slot liner 411-09-10 Synchronous impedance 41 l-20-01
Slot packing 411-09-09 Synchronous induction motor 411-03-08
Slot .wedge 411-13-22 Synchronous machine 411-01-06
Small-power motor 411-03-40 Synchronous motor 411-03-05
Solid pole synchronous motor 41 l-03-06 Synchronous operation 41 l-22-10
Spacer shaft (USA) 411-13-12 Synchronous pull-out torque (UK) 411~18-11
Special purpose motor 411-03-37 .
Synchronous speed 411-16-05

44

rcc--__.
IS 1885( Part 35 ) : 1993
IECPub50(411) (1973)
r.
1 Universal motor 4 1l-03-02
IJp-shaft insulation (UK) 41 l-09-22
‘l-ap 41 l-08-17
Temperature-rise test 411-23-B V
Terminal 411-11-17
Terminal board 41 l-11-34
Termi na I box Varying speed motor 41 l-03-42
411-11-23
Termination V-curve characteristic 411-17-10
411-11-18
Ventilating duct (USA) 411-14-16
Thermal equilibrium 411-21-09
Vermin-proof 41 l-15-25
Thrust bearing 411-12-05
Tier Vibration lesl 411-23-42
411-08-13
Voltage build-up 41 l-22-33
Tilting pad nearing 411-12-12
Tooth Voltage regulation characteristic 411-17-08
41 l-IO-18
Tooth pitch 411-08-18 W
Tooth support 41 l-10-19
Torque motor 41 l-03-49
Torque shaft Ward- Leonard generator set 41 l-05-02
41 l-13-13
Total loss Ward-Leonard system 41 l-05-01
4 1l-23-09
‘~0liIlly-~l~cl0sed
Watertight 411-15-22
41 l-15-09
Totally-enclosed fan-ventilabd Waveform mensurcment 4 1l-23-30
411-15-10
Totally-enclosed fan-ventilated air-cooled WaVeform test 411-23-29
411-15-12
Tntally-enclosed separately fan-ventilated Wave winding 41 i -07-30
411-15-11
Tolally-enclosed separately fan-ventilated Wea thcrproof 411-15-26
411-15-13
air-cooled Wick luhricalcd bearing 411-12-16
Tolally-enclosed water-cooled 41 I-15-14 Winding 411-07-01
Transient current 411-18-26 Winding factors 411-08-31
Transpcsition 41 l-OS-28 Winding overhang 41 l-OS-08
Turbine type 41 l-06-18 Winding overhang supporl 411-09-16
Turbine-type alternating current generator 41 I-02-05 Winding overhang support insulation 411-09-17
Turbo machine 411-06-19 Winding pitch 41 I-08-23
Turning gear (USA) 411-13-3s Wound-rotor induction motor 411-03-16
Turn insulation 41 I-09-03
Turn-to-turn test (USA) 41 I-23-57
n0 layer winding 41 J -07-33 Z
Two-value capacitor motor 411-03-27
Type-lesls 41 l-23-02 Zero-phasesequence impedance 41 I-20-04
Zero-phase-sequence reactance 41 l-20-16
lJ
Zero-phase-sequence resistance 4 1I-20-20
Under-compounded 411-06-11 Zero power-factor characteristic 411-17-07
tJni& power-factor test 41 l-23-27 Zero power-filclor test 411-23-26

45
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