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CHAPTER-I

BOKARO STEEL PLANT –AN INTRODUCTION

1.1 BOKARO STEEL PLANT:


Bokaro Steel Plant ‘brings out before one’s eyes the vision of a massive giant in the making’.
Bokaro steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public Sector – was conceived in 1959.It
started taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the Soviet Union. It was originally
incorporated as a limited company on 29th January 1964, and was later merged with SAIL, first
as a subsidiary and then as a unit, through the Public Sector Iron & Steel Companies
(Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978. The construction work started on 6th
April 1968.

The Plant is hailed as the country’s first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous
content in terms of equipment, material and know-how.

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Bokaro Steel Plant is having a special range of steel products like Grade Steel, HRVO, WICR,
DMR249A, HSCR, SAILCOR, SAILBOILER, Titanium BEARING, LPG Steel, HRNO,
SAILMA, WTCR and BSK 46. The galvanized products of Bokaro Steel Plant are branded
SAIL- JYOTI.

1.2 HISTORY:
Bokaro Steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public Sector - started taking shape in 1965
in collaboration with the Soviet Union. It was originally incorporated as a limited company on
29th January 1964, and was later merged with SAIL, first as a subsidiary and then as a unit,
through the Public Sector Iron & Steel Companies (Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions)
Act 1978. The construction work started on 6th April 1968.
The Plant is hailed as the country’s first Swadeshi Steel Plant, built. Its first Blast Furnace started
on 2nd October 1972 and the first phase of 1.7 MT Ingot steel was completed on 26th February
1978 with the commissioning of the third Blast Furnace. All units of 4 MT stage have already
been commissioned and the modernization taken up in the nineties has further upgraded this to
4.5 MT of liquid steel.

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The new features added in modernization of SMS-II include two twin-strand slab casters along
with a Steel Refining Unit. The Steel Refining Unit was inaugurated on 19th September, 1997
and the Continuous Casting Machine on 25th April, 1998. The modernization of the Hot Strip
Mill saw addition of new features like high pressure de-scalers, work roll bending, hydraulic
automatic gauge control, quick work roll change, laminar cooling etc. New walking beam
reheating furnaces are replacing the less efficient pusher type furnaces.
A new hydraulic coiler has been added and two of the existing ones revamped. With the
completion of Hot Strip Mill modernization, Bokaro is producing top quality hot rolled products
that are well accepted in the global market.
Bokaro is designed to produce flat products like Hot Rolled Coils, Hot Rolled Plates, Hot Rolled
Sheets, Cold Rolled Coils, Cold Rolled Sheets, Tin Mill Black Plates (TMBP) and Galvanized
Plain and Corrugated (GP/GC) Sheets. Bokaro Steel has provided a strong raw material base for
a variety of modern engineering industries including automobile, pipe and tube, LPG cylinder,
barrel and drum producing industries.

1.3 MISSION STATEMENT

1. Consistent with the corporate vision and core values, Bokaro Steel Plant strives to create
sustainable long term competitive advantage by managing, mobilizing, inspiring &
motivating its employees for continuous growth in production, productivity, quality &
profitability leading to total customer satisfaction.

2. Bokaro Steel Plant recognizes that though the process of competences building people
involvement unleashing and leveraging the creative energies of our people, we can create
values for the organization and agreed the needs and expectation of our state leaders.

3. Bokaro Steel Plant is committed to safety health and environment, friendly, operations and
practices for its people as well as personal touch in all people imitativeness and interactions
to bring a sense of togetherness and pride, we believe people create value when they are
valued.

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1.4 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

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1.5 BOKARO STEEL PLANT - PRODUCT BASKET
(Mill Capabilities)

Figure: Cold rolled sheets (CRS)

Figure: Hot rolled sheets (HRS)

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1.6 UNITS:
a) Raw Materials & Material Handling Plant
The Raw Materials and Material Handling Plant receives blends, stores and supplies different
raw materials to Blast Furnace, Sinter Plant and Refractory Materials Plant as per their
requirements. It also maintains a buffer stock to take care of any supply interruptions.
b) Coke Ovens & By-product Plant
The Coke Oven Complex at Bokaro converts prime coking coal from Jharia, Dugda and
Moonidih and medium coking coal form Kargali, Kathara and Mahuda, blended with imported
coal, into high quality coke for the Blast Furnaces, recovering valuable by-products like
Anthracene Oil, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Light Solvent Naphtha, Ammonium Sulphate and
Extra-hard Pitch in the process. Bokaro is situated in the prime coal belt of the country.
c) By Product Plant
The By Product Plant situated at Bokaro Steel Plant is set up for the utilization of waste from the
other units.
d) Sinter Plant
The main function of this unit is to convert the small particles like flux, waste, etc. which cannot
be feed to the blast furnace is converted into big pieces so that it can be used in the blast furnace
e) Blast Furnaces
Bokaro has five 2000-cubic meter Blast Furnaces that produce molten iron - Hot Metal - for steel
making. Bell-less Top Charging, modernized double Cast Houses, Coal Dust Injection and Cast
House Slag Granulation technologies have been deployed in the furnaces. The process of iron-
making is automated, using PLC Charging System and Computer Controlled Supervision
System. The wastes products like Blast Furnace slag and gas are either used directly within plant
or processed for recycling / re-use.
f) Steel Melting Shops
Hot Metal from the Blast Furnaces is converted into steel by blowing 99.5% pure Oxygen
through it in the LD converter. Suitable alloying elements are added to produce different grades
of steel.
g) Continuous Casting Shop

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The Continuous Casting Shop (CCS) has two double-strand slab casting machines, producing
high quality slabs of width ranging from 950 mm to 1850 mm. CCS has a Ladle Furnace and a
Ladle Rinsing Station for secondary refining of the steel. The Ladle Furnace is used for
homogenizing the chemistry and temperature. The concast machines have straight moulds,
unique in the country, to produce internally clean slabs.
h) Slabbing Mill
Slabbing Mill transforms ingots into slabs by rolling them in its 1250 mm Universal Four-High
Mill. The rolling capacity of the Mill is 4 MT per annum. The shop has Hot and Cold Scarfing
Machines and 2800 Ton Shearing Machine. Controlled heating in Soaking Pits, close
dimensional accuracy during rolling and hot and cold scarfing help produce defect-free slabs.
i) Hot Strip Mill
Slabs from CCS and Slabbing Mill are processed in the state-of-the-art Hot Strip Mill. The fully
automatic Hot Strip Mill with an annual capacity of 3.95 million tones has a wide range of
products - thickness varying from 1.2 mm to 20 mm and width from 750 mm to 1850 mm. The
mill is equipped with state-of-the-art automation and controls, using advanced systems for
process optimization with on-line real time computer control, PLCs and technological control
systems.

j) Hot Rolled Coil Finishing


All the Hot Rolled coils from the Hot Strip Mill are received in HRCF for further distribution or
dispatch. HR Coils rolled against direct shipment orders are sheared and finished to customer-
required sizes and dispatched to customers. The material is supplied as per Indian specifications

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and many international/ foreign specifications. The shop has two shearing lines with capacities of
6, 45,000 Tones/ year and 4, 75,000 Tones/ year respectively
k) Cold Rolling Mill
The Cold Rolling Mill at Bokaro uses state-of-the-art technology to produce high quality sheet
gauge material, Tin Mill Black Plate and Galvanized Products. Cold rolling is done to produce
thinner gauge strips of very smooth and dense finish, with better mechanical properties than hot
rolling strips.

Figure: Cold Rolling Mill

l) Hot Dip Galvanizing Complex


The Hot Dip Galvanizing Complex integrated with the CRM produces zinc-coated Cold Rolled
strips resistant to atmospheric, liquid and soil corrosion. The Continuous Coil Corrugation Line
in the HDGC produces corrugated sheets and the Galvanized Sheet Shearing Line produces
galvanized plain sheets for a variety of applications.
1.7 SERVICES-A VALUABLE SUPPORT NETWORK
The service departments like Traffic, Oxygen Plant, Water Management and Energy
Management provide invaluable support to this gigantic plant.
1.8 MAINTAINANCE DEPARTMENT

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Bokaro has centralized maintenance departments for large-scale electrical and mechanical
maintenance, in addition to shop-based maintenance wings for running repairs and maintenance.
These facilities are capable of executing massive capital repairs, supported by the fabrication
facilities of the auxiliary shops.
All these departments work together to produce steel , iron sheets which are the main products of
Bokaro Steel Plant .All these departments work in a process flow to make it one of the leading
steel makers.

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1. 9 PROCESS FLOW

FIGURE: PRODUCTION FLOW IN BOKARO


STEEL PLANT

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