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Common Types of Networking

If you want to understand the different types of networks and how they
operate, you need to know who the networks are structured. There are
two main types of networks: local area network (LANs) and wide area
networks (WANs).
Local Area Network
A local area network is a data communication system consisting of
several devices such as computer and printers. This type of network
contains computers that relatives near each other and are physically
connected using cable, infrared links, or wireless media. A LAN can
consist of just two or three PCs connected together to share resources,
or it can include hundreds of computers of different kinds. Any network
that exist within a single building is considered a LAN. A LAN is not a
system that connects to the public environment (such as the internet)
using phone & data lines.
It is often helpful to connect separates LANs together so they can
communicate and exchange data In a large company for example to
departments are located on same floor of a building may have on
separate LANs. But If the department want to share the data they can
create a link between two LANs.
Wide Area Network (WANs)
Typically a wide area network (WAN) is a two or more LANs connected
with each other. Generally across a wide geographically area. For
example a company may have its corporate headquarters and
manufacturing plants in one city and its marking office in another, Each
site needs resoruces, data and programs locally but it also need to
share data with the other sites. To accomplished this feat of data
communicate the company can attach device that connect over public
utilities to create a WAN. Even though neither is a part of a local area
network.
Theses remote LANs are connected through a Telecommunication
network (a phone company) or via the internet thorugh and internet
service provider (ISP) that contracts with the telecommunication
networks to gain access to the internet back bone.
Hybrid Networks
Between the LAN and WAN structure you will find hybrid networks such
as campus area network (CANs) and metropolitan area networks
(MANs). In addition a new form of network types is emerging called
home area networks (HANs).
The need to access corporate Web sites has created two classification
known as internets and extranets. The following sections introduce
theses networks.
One a student has paid his/her tuition fee to the bursar, this is
transmitted to the registers system so the student can enroll for
classes. Some university departments or organization might be linked
to the CAN even though they already have their own separates LANs.
Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)
The metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large-scale network that
connect multiple corporate LANs together. MANs usually are not
owned by a single organization; their communication devices and
equipment are usually maintained by a group or single network
provider that sells its networking services to corporate customers.
MANs often take the role if a high-speed network that allows fir the
sharing of original resources. MANs also can provide a shared
connection to other networks using a WAN link.
Network topologies and protocols
Bus Topology
A bus topology network uses one cable. All the nodes and peripheral
devise are connected in a series to that cable. A special device, called
terminator, is attached at the cable’s start and end point, to stop
network signals so they do not bonce back down the cable. This
topology main advantage is that it uses the last amount of cabling of
any topology. In a bus topology network, however extra circuitry and
software are used to keep data packets from colliding with one other. A
broken connection can bring down all or part of the network.
Star Topology
The star topology is probably the most common topology. In a star
network all nodes are connected to a device called a hub and
communication thorugh it. Data packets travel through the hub and are
sent to the attached nodes, eventually reaching their destination. Some
hubs known as Intelligent hubs can monitor traffic and help prevent
collision. In a star topology, a broken connection between a node and
the hub dose not effect the rest of the network. If the hub is lost,
However, all nodes connected to that hub are unable to
communication.

The Ring Topology


The ring tepology connect the networks nodes in a circular chain, with
each nodes connected to the next. The last node connected to the first
completing to ring. Each nodes examines data as it travel through the
ring. If the data known as a token is not addressed to the nodes
examining it, that nodes passes it to the next nod, there is no danger of
collisions because of only one packet of data travel the ring at a time. If
the ring is broken however the entire network is unable to
communicate.
The Mesh Topology
The mesh topology is least used network topology and the most
expensive to implement. In a mesh environment a cable runs from
every computer to every other computer. If you have four computers,
you must have six cables three coming from each computer to the
other computers. The big advantage to this arrangement is that data
can never failed to be delivered; is one connection goes down, there
are other ways to route the data to its destination.