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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY


COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL FIBRE, FOAM,
AND NORMAL CONCRETE

YABO WANG 1, H. T. LIU2, G. F. DOU3, C. H. XI4, L. QIAN5

Abstract: This paper aims to study the effect of reinforcement configuration (steel fibre and rebar) on the
mechanical performance of composite slabs of the same total steel contents. We manufactured four pieces of full-
scale multi-ribbed composite prefabricated slabs with different reinforcement configurations by using steel fibre-
reinforced concrete, foam concrete, and normal concrete. The multi-ribbed composite prefabricated slab has many
excellent properties, such as light weight, good thermal and sound insulation. Thus, it can be applied to fabricated
structures. In addition, the composite prefabricated slabs with the same total steel contents but with different
reinforcement configurations were studied under the same static load, and many technical indicators such as crack
resistance capacity, yield load, ultimate load capacity, maximum deflection, destructive pattern, and stress of steel
rebar were obtained. Results indicate reinforcement configuration has a significant effect on the mechanical
performance of composite prefabricated slabs with the same total steel contents, and composite prefabricated slabs
reinforced with longitudinal rebar and steel fibre (volume fraction is 1.5%) have the best mechanical performance
and ductility.

Keywords: steel fibre, foam concrete, multi-ribbed slab, one-way slab, composite slab


1
Assoc. Prof., PhD., Eng., Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Structure and Earthquake Resistance Technology Innovation
Center, Changchun 130118, China, e-mail: wangyabo@jlju.edu.cn
2
PhD., Eng., Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Structure and Earthquake Resistance Technology Innovation Center,
Changchun 130118, China, e-mail: academic_365@outlook.com
3
PhD., Eng., Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Structure and Earthquake Resistance Technology Innovation Center,
Changchun 130118, China, e-mail: albert.brook@outlook.com
4
PhD., Eng., Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Structure and Earthquake Resistance Technology Innovation Center,
Changchun 130118, China, e-mail: cooper.well@outlook.com
5
PhD., Eng., Jilin Jianzhu University, Jilin Structure and Earthquake Resistance Technology Innovation Center,
Changchun 130118, China, e-mail: uranium_235@163.com


80 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

1. INTRODUCTION

The addition of fibre into concrete can increase crack resistance, tensile strength, and stiffness. Thus,
there are many codes providing guidelines for its design [1–4]. Glass fibre [5], steel fibre [6–11],
plastic fibre [12], carbon fibre [13, 14], as well as others can be used as reinforcing material for
concrete. Steel fibre has been studied as a kind of material enhancing the flexural strength of self-
compacting concrete sheets [15–17]. Foam concrete, which has many excellent properties including
light weight and good thermal insulation, is widely used as a material of walls, roofs, and flooring
[18]. However, because foam concrete has high water absorption capacity, it has poor frost resistance
after absorbing water and can easily break during freeze-thaw cycles. In contrast, steel fibre-
reinforced concrete has good crack resistance and impermeability [19]. Thus, combining the
advantages of steel fibre reinforced concrete (good impermeability) and multi-ribbed structures (good
mechanical performance), we designed a new type of multi-ribbed prefabricated composite slab. This
composite slab uses foam concrete as the core layer, steel fibre-reinforced concrete as the surficial
layer, and rebar-reinforced concrete as the ribs.
Steel fibre-reinforced concrete has been widely used in the construction industry. Some researchers
think that it can improve the overall strength and flexural strength of structures [20, 21]. With the
addition of steel fibre into the member, the ductility of the member and its tension redistribution
ability after cracking can be significantly improved. With a simultaneous addition of continuously
deformed rebar and randomly distributed steel fibres into concrete, the hybrid steel fibre-rebar-
reinforced concrete can be obtained, attaining the best structure [22–26]. When the volume content
of the steel fibre in this hybrid material reaches 60 kg/m3, the crack resistance of it can be significantly
improved; it is then higher than that of the steel mesh-reinforced concrete [27].
In this paper, we studied the effect of reinforcement configuration (steel fibre and rebar) on the
mechanical performance of composite slabs and obtained the optimum reinforcement configuration.
The manufacturing process of composite slabs is more complicated than that of normal concrete slabs.
However, composite slabs have good mechanical performance, high crack resistance, good thermal
insulation, and low-cost operation and maintenance, which satisfies the requirements of
industrialization of structural members, building energy efficiency, and “green” buildings. Thus,
despite its complex manufacturing process, this kind of composite slab has bright market prospects
and broad applications.


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 81

2. EXPERIMENT DESIGN

2.1. PROPERTY TESTING

2.1.1. STRENGTH OF STEEL FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE AND PLAIN CONCRETE

According to the guideline [28], three groups of cubic blocks were made for the common concrete
and steel fibre concrete, respectively. Each group included six test blocks, and the size of the test
block was 150 mm h 150 mm h 150 mm. After 28 days of nurture under the same conditions, the
average compressive strengths of the cubic steel fibre-reinforced concrete blocks and plain concrete
blocks were 38.7 MPa and 39.54 MPa, respectively.

2.1.2. PROPERTIES OF REBAR

We tested the properties of HPB 300 and HPB 400 rebar and obtained the following results (each
value is the mean of six rebar samples): the ultimate strength of HPB300 rebar is 624 MPa and its
total elongation rate is 17.5%; the ultimate strength of HRB400 rebar is 618 MPa and its total
elongation rate is 13.5%. These values meet the requirements of the code; that is, the total elongation
rates of HPB300 and HRB400 rebar should be no less than 10% and 7.5%, respectively.

2.2. DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF SLABS

The design principle in this experiment is that all slabs are of the same total steel content (calculated
through the equal strength principle). To investigate the effects of different reinforcement
configurations (steel fibre and rebar) on the mechanical performance of composite prefabricated
slabs, four experimental slabs were designed. B1: Both the tensile and compressive layer use steel
fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete (volume fraction of the steel fibre is 1.5%). The core layer uses foam
concrete composite slabs with a density of 200 kg/m3. B2: Both the tensile and compressive layer use
rebar-reinforced concrete. The core layer uses foam concrete composite slabs with a density of 200
kg/m3. B3: Both the tensile and compressive layer use steel fibre-reinforced concrete (volume fraction
is 2.0%). The core layer uses foam concrete composite slabs with a density of 200 kg/m3. B4: The
tensile layer uses steel fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete (volume fraction of the steel fibre is 1.5%).
Both the compressive layer and the core layer use foam concrete composite slabs with a density of


82 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

700 kg/m3. All experimental slabs have the same size, with a length of 3600 mm, a width of 1200
mm, a height of 120 mm, rib beam height of 80 mm, and rib width of 60 mm.
As shown in Figure 1, the peripheral border line and the internal dotted line represent ribs in the
experimental slabs. Steel fibre-reinforced concrete is of C30 class and the manufacturing process uses
normal Portland cement (42.5), river sand (fineness modulus is 2.5–2.7), crushed stone maximum
diameter  20 mm, average diameter = 15 mm), first-class silica fume, copper tailings ground by a
metallurgical slag plant, and sheared steel fibres with a length of 30 mm, a diameter of 0.8mm, an
ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, and a yield strength of 450 MPa (Anshan Kebite Co., Ltd.,
Anshan, China).

Fig. 1. Plan View of B1–B4.


The rebar reinforcement of B1–B4 is shown in Figures 2-5, respectively. B1–B4 were modelled in a
prefabricated factory (ChangChun, China), nurtured naturally for 28 days, and transported to the Civil
Engineering Laboratory of Jilin Architecture University. The B in B1–B4 represents composite slab
and the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent slabs with different reinforcement configurations. As
mentioned above, the total steel content in all four experimental slabs is the same and was calculated
through the equal strength principle. The amounts of total steel and reinforcement of the experimental
slabs are shown in Table 1.

Fig. 2. Sectional View of B1.




EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 83

Fig. 3. Sectional View of B2.

Fig. 4. Sectional View of B3.

Fig. 5. Sectional View of B4.


Table 1. Materials and Reinforcement Ratio for Experimental Slabs.

Slab B1 B2 B3 B4
C30 C30 C30
Concrete C30
The class of the (Vf = 1.5%) (Vf = 2.0%) (Vf = 1.5%)
based materials Long side:
The and rebar Rebar HPB300 HRB400; - HPB300
thickness of Short side: HPB300
bottom Force on the
9 with d = 6 mm 12 with d = 8 mm - 9 with d = 6 mm
surface (20 long side
mm) Distribution of d= 6 mm; d= 6 mm; d = 6 mm;
Reinforcement -
the short side gap = 300 mm gap = 300 mm gap = 300 mm
Longitudinal
0.2 0.46 0 0.2
rebar ratio (%)
C30 C30 foam concrete
The class of the Concrete C30
(Vf = 1.5%) (Vf = 2.0%) (= 700 kg/m3)
based materials
The Long side:HRB400;
and rebar Rebar - - -
thickness of Short side: HPB300
top surface Force on the six with
- - -
(20 mm) long side d = 8 mm
Reinforcement
Distribution of d = 6 mm;
- - -
the short side gap = 300 mm
Concrete C30 C30 C30 C30
The class of the Longitudinal Longitudinal Longitudinal Longitudinal
based materials reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement reinforcement
Rebar
Rib and rebar HRB400; Stirrup HRB400; Stirrup HRB400; Stirrup HRB400;
(60 mm h HPB300 HPB300 HPB300 Stirrup HPB300
80 mm) Longitudinal
two with d = 8 mm two with d = 8 mm two with d = 8 mm two with d = 8 mm
rebar
Reinforcement
d = 6 mm; d = 6 mm; d= 6 mm; d = 6 mm;
Stirrup
gap = 300 mm gap = 300 mm gap = 300 mm gap = 300 mm
Materials of
Density of foam concrete (kg/m3) 200 200 200 700
the core
The total steel content (kg) 36 48 43 36


84 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

2.2.1. LOADING AND MEASURING POINTS

In this experiment, the flexural performances of B1–B4 were investigated under vertical static load.
An eight-point loading program of counter-force beam two-step loading was adopted [28]. Under the
current experimental conditions, the experimental slabs can hardly be destroyed under a uniformly
distributed load. However, the thickness of the surface layer of each slab is only 20 mm, and as that
cannot bear the concentrated load the loading plan was changed so that the load acts on the
intersectional points of the longitudinal rib and the transverse rib. A hydraulic loading system was
used; the jack was calibrated to obtain a specific load–displacement relationship, and manual loading
was adopted. The loading value can be obtained from a strain gauge connected to the hydraulic
pressure sensor. The loading device is shown in Figure 6. A plastic pad with a diameter of 400 mm
and thickness of 100 mm was placed at the loading position.

Fig. 6. The Loading Device.


Before loading, preloading was performed to ensure that the experimental structural member would
work properly during loading. It can check whether the loading device and instruments work properly
and also compact the support. The preload for B1–B4 is 5 kN. It should be noted that the preload
cannot be higher than 30% of the cracking load of a structural member. After this operation the
preload was totally removed, and after the structure members had been fully recovered, loading was
performed. Static destruction experiments were performed on B1–B4, and the process is defined as
6–19 level loading according to the cracking load, working load, and ultimate load of these
experimental slabs. When the loading was performed, the load at each level was adjusted according
to the actual situation, and each level of loading lasted 10 min. When the specimen was near cracking,
the load at each level fell by half; when the cracking load was reached, the load at each level increased
to its original value; when the load on the specimen almost reached the ultimate load, the load at each
level should not be greater than 0.05 times the ultimate load. During the process the tension and strain
of the slabs were recorded. The weight of the slab and the loading device are a part of the load in this
experiment. After a stable deformation of experimental slabs was achieved at each level of loading,


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 85

the deflection value was calculated through multiplying the deflection value obtained from the
displacement gauge and the strain gauge by a correction factor, which is 0.94 in this experiment [28].
Vertical displacement gauges were placed at the midspan of the slab. There were two displacement
gauges placed at each position, and the mean of the values obtained from them was used. The
distribution of the rebar strain gauges is shown in Figure 7, and the distribution of the strain gauges
for concrete is shown in Figure 8. Meanwhile, the crack extension, deformation, and destructive
characteristics of the slabs were observed and recorded.

Fig. 7.Distribution of Rebar Strain Gauges.

Fig. 8.Distribution of Strain Gauges for Concrete.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. LOAD–DEFLECTION ANALYSIS

3.1.1. DATA

Table 2. Experimental Data.


Cracking load Yield load Ultimate Deflection of slab under Ultimate deflection of
Slab
(kN) (kN) load (kN) ultimate load (mm) slab (mm)
B1 26 42 53 40 60
B2 20 46 59 38 51
B3 10 - 12 8 14
B4 26 38 44 38 42


86 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

Note: the ultimate deflection is the maximum deflection at the geometric center of the test floor.

3.1.2. DATA ANALYSIS

A. Cracking load
Before the cracking loads of the experimental slabs were reached, the experimental slabs were in their
elastic stage, their P– curves are almost coincident, and their deflections are close to each other.
Because the load was applied to the slab manually and gradedly, the cracking load of the slab was
usually coincident with its load grading. In addition, as shown in the P– curves for B1 and B4, the
change in the slope near the cracking load is insignificant, so it is difficult to accurately determine the
cracking loads of B1 and B4. As shown in the P– curve for B2, B2 has a four-stage working state,
thus it is relatively easy to determine the cracking load of B2. For B3, there is large deformation when
it cracks, and then it is destroyed (Figure 9).

ϲϬ
Loading Value㸦kN㸧

P -  Curve
ϱϬ

ϰϬ

ϯϬ

ϮϬ

ϭϬ ϭ Ϯ ϯ ϰ

Ϭ
Ϭ ϭϬ ϮϬ ϯϬ ϰϬ ϱϬ ϲϬ
The Maximum Deflection Value at Midspan 㸦mm㸧

Fig. 9.Load–Deflection Curves for Four Experimental Slabs at Midspan.


Although the total steel contents in B1–B4 are the same, the cracking loads of the four experimental
slabs are different. The cracking load of B3 is the lowest, followed by B2, and the cracking loads of
B1 and B4 are the highest - close to each other and 23% higher than that of B2. This implies that at a
proper volumetric reinforcement ratio steel fibre in a slab can help resist cracking and improve crack
resistance and cracking load. However, when a high volumetric fraction of steel fibre is added to the
slab which is not reinforced with rebar, its cracking load is not improved and remains close to that of
plain concrete. The test specimen also shows obvious characteristics of brittle fracture.
B. Normal working stage
The loading–deflection curve at the midspan of each slab is shown in Figure 9.
When entering the elastic stage, B2 has an obvious turning point, while B1 and B4 change only
insignificantly. There are decreases in the stiffness of B1, B2, and B4, and that of B2 is the most


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 87

significant. This means that the slope of the P̢Ƹ curve for B2 is smaller than those for B1 and B4.
When the loads on B1, B2, and B4 reach 42 kN, 46 kN, and 38 kN, respectively, their deflections
begin to increase rapidly. Then, these members enter into their plastic stages. When the rebar yields,
the bearing capacity of B2 is the highest, about 10%, and 21% higher than those of B1 and B4,
respectively. B3 destructs after cracking, so it has no normal operational stage.
C. Ultimate load
The deflection of B3 reaches its ultimate value first. After cracking, the bearing capacity of B3 barely
increases, but the deflection increases significantly, showing obvious characteristics of brittle
fracture. The ultimate load of B3 is 12 kN. The ultimate loads of B1, B2, and B4 are 53 kN,59 kN,
and 44 kN, respectively. When ultimate loads are reached, as the load decreases the deflections of
B1, B2, and B4 still increase, their ultimate deflections are 60 mm, 51 mm, and 42 mm, respectively.
The yield load and ultimate load of B2 are the highest because the longitudinal rebar content of B2 is
the highest. Although the volume fraction of steel fibre and rebar reinforcement in the tensile layers
of B1 and B4 are the same, light foam concrete in the compressive layer of B4 creases before the
yield load is reached because of its low strength. Then, the foam concrete is crushed and B4 is
destroyed with excessive deformation. Thus, the ultimate load of B4 is lower than that of B1. The top
surface and bottom of B1 are steel fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete, so the ultimate bearing capacity
of it is higher than that of B4. In addition, the amount of longitudinal rebar reinforcement in B1 is
lower than that in B2, so the ultimate bearing capacity of B1 is lower than that of B2.
D. Stiffness
B1 does not meet the requirements of the minimum rebar reinforcement ratio as described in the
Concrete Structural Design code [29], so it is a kind of less-reinforced slab. However, as the P̢Ƹ
curve shows, B1 does not show characteristics of brittle fracture, which a less-reinforced slab often
has, and B1 has good ductility. Therefore, when total steel content in concrete is fixed to a specific
value, increasing steel fibre content (but decreasing deformed rebar content) cannot improve working
load and ultimate bearing capacity of the concrete. However, the addition of steel fibre into rebar-
reinforced concrete can significantly improve the ductility and stiffness of the concrete.
As shown by the load–displacement curves of B1–B4, before the member cracks and the rebar yields,
the stiffness loss of B2 is not significant, whereas that of normal concrete is significant (Figure 10).
Thus, when the displacements or the widths of cracks in the concretes are the same, the bearing
capacity of steel fibre-reinforced concrete is higher than that of normal concrete. This is consistent
with the results of Luca Facconi [17]. As shown in the load–deflection curve, after B1 and B2 crack,
the slope of B2 is significantly smaller than that of B1, so the stiffness loss of B1 is significantly


88 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

lower than that of B2. During the loading process, B2 enters the following four stages subsequently:
elastic stage, operation stage with cracks, strengthening stage, and the degenerative stage. However,
the transitions between the stages of B1 and B4 are not obvious. Although B1 and B4 both undergo
the elastic stage, plastic stage, strengthening stage, and the degenerative stage, the whole process is
mild without a significant turning point. This indicates that the steel fibre can help bear force during
the work stage of the member.
ϲϬ
Loading㸦kN)

ϱϬ

ϰϬ

ϯϬ

ϮϬ

ϭϬ
ϭ Ϯ ϰ

Ϭ
Ϭ ϱϬϬ ϭϬϬϬ ϭϱϬϬ ϮϬϬϬ ϮϱϬϬ ϯϬϬϬ
Average Strain for Rebar

Fig. 10. The Load–Average Strain Curves for Rebars in B1, B2, and B4 at Midspan.

3.2. LOAD–STRAIN ANALYSIS

Figure 10 shows the load–average strain curve for each slab. When the load is 51kN, the strain of the
rebar at the midspan of B2’s bottom is 2500 , and the corresponding tensile strength is 514 N/mm2,
which is simply the average of the measured ultimate tensile strengths of the HRB400 rebar used in
B2 (514 N/mm2). When the load is 49kN, the strain of the rebar at the midspan of B1’s bottom is
2000, and the corresponding tensile strength reaches the average of the measured ultimate tensile
strengths of the HPB300 rebar used in B1 (410N/mm2).The average of the measured yield strengths
of HRB400 is 411 N/mm2, and the average of the measured yield strengths of HPB300 is 317 N/mm2.
Both are higher than the actual yield strength. When the ultimate bearing capacity of B1–B4 is
reached, the maximum strain of the rebar is about 3600, and the rebar is in the strengthening stage.
Then, as the bearing capacity decreases, the strain of the rebar still increases rapidly.
As shown in Figure 10, the trends of load–average strain curves for rebars in B1, B2, and B4 are the
same. The rebar is first in its elastic stage. When the concrete cracks, the tension of the concrete acts
on the rebar, resulting in a sudden increased strain of the rebar. Then, the strain of the rebar increases
continuously. Finally, when the concrete reaches its yield moment, the rebar is in the plastic stage,


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 89

and then strengthening stage. Although the ultimate bearing capacities of the experimental slabs are
different, the bearing capacities of all rebars reach their ultimate values.

3.3. CRACK EXTENSION AND MAXIMUM DEFLECTION

3.3.1. THE EXTENSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRACKS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE SLABS AND THE
ULTIMATE DESTRUCTIVE STATE

During the process of loading, the crack first appears on the surface of the tensile zone. The first crack
appears around the midspan of the slab because the yield moment at midspan is at its maximum. The
cracks on each slab appear at the middle of its bottom and extend towards the short sides of the slabs.
There is only one crack on B3, whereas there are many cracks with various patterns at different
positions on B1, B2, and B4’s bottoms. As the load increases, many new cracks appear symmetrically
at two sides of the original crack at midspan. These cracks extend and develop along parallel lines.
Finally, cracks appear near the support. Figure 11 shows the distribution of cracks at the bottoms of
B1–B4. There are 11 cracks at the bottom of B1, evenly distributed within 2/3 of the slab’s midspan.
Every rib has a transverse long through-crack in the middle of it (besides the transverse long through-
cracks at its two sides). The largest crack has a width of 5.2 mm, the deflection of B1 exceeds the
ultimate value, and the maximum deflection is 60 mm. There are six cracks on bottom of B2, which
are within 1/3 of the slab’s midspan. The largest crack has a width of 2 mm, the deflection of B2
exceeds the ultimate value, and the maximum deflection is 51 mm. Of the four slabs, B3 cracks first.
When it is destroyed, there is only one crack with a width greater than 2 mm on its bottom. Its
maximum deflection is only 14 mm. The destruction of B3 shows obvious characteristics of brittle
fracture. Moreover, there are only two cracks at the midspan of B4’s bottom with widths greater than
2 mm. The deflection of B4 exceeds the ultimate value and the maximum deflection is 42 mm. The
ductility and bearing capacity of B4 are lower than those of B1.


90 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

Fig. 11.Distribution of Cracks on the Bottoms of B1–B4.

3.3.2. ANALYSIS OF DESTRUCTION PHENOMENA OF SLABS

During the initial stage of loading steel fibre, concrete, and the rebar net bear the external force
together. When concrete cracks, the force is transferred to the steel fibre, then the steel fibre (across
the cracks) transfers the force to two sides of the cracks. This way, the materials around the cracks
can still bear the load, the crack-extension rate is decreased, and a steady state of crack opening is
achieved [30]. As can be seen from the destructive states of the four slabs that the highest number of
cracks is on B1, they have the largest width, the most widely distributed area, and the smallest
interval. After cracking, it shows the obvious characteristics of ductile destruction, and maintains the
unrecovered flexural plastic state after unloading. This indicates that under a certain longitudinal
rebar ratio, though it is smaller than the minimum ratio, the destructive pattern can be changed after
the addition of steel fibre; that is, the brittle destructive characteristic of rebar-reinforced concrete is
changed into the ductile destructive characteristic of steel fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete. The
addition of the steel fibre can expand the distributed area of the cracks and reduce crack interval. This
indicates that steel fibres play a major role in inhibiting cracks in concrete from further opening and
they also bear part of the load. Finally, the steel fibre is snapped or pulled out from the concrete under
the load (Figure 12).
When the total steel content in the slabs is the same, the cracking load of B1 is 30% higher than that
of B2. The study of Luca Facconi, Fausto Minelli, Giovanni Plizzari, et al. shows that the maximum
cracking load of a steel fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete sheet is 42kN (the volume fraction of steel
fibre is 0.32%), whereas that of a normal rebar-reinforced concrete sheet is 31kN (both sheets measure
4200 mm × 2500 mm × 80 mm). The cracking load of the steel fibre-rebar-reinforced concrete sheet


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 91

is 35% higher than that of a traditional rebar-reinforced concrete sheet. When the amount of rebar in
concrete is appropriate, the longitudinal rebar content determines the ultimate load of the concrete.
B2 has the highest content of rebar, so its ultimate load is the highest, 11% higher than that of B1. In
addition, inclined cracks at the supports of B1 and B3 develop more slowly than those of B2. This
indicates that steel fibre in concrete can effectively transfer load around cracks. This way, inclined
cracks can extend and develop, and shear resistance of concrete is improved.

Fig. 12.The Development of Cracks around Steel Fibre.

3.3.3 SOUND INSULATION AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF UNIDIRECTIONAL PLATE

The thermal test of foam concrete was performed in accordance with GB/T10294-2008 (the guarded
hot plate apparatus method for determining steady-state thermal resistance and related properties of
thermal insulation materials) [31]. Three groups of samples (300 mm × 300 mm × 30 mm) were made
for the 200 kg/m3 bulk foam concrete. Then, their thermal conductivities were determined. The
average thermal conductivity of the three groups of specimens was determined to be 0.0531 W/
(m·K). According to reference [32], the thermal conductivity of foam concrete with density values
ranging from 200 to 700 kg/m3 is in the range of 0.09–0.17 W/(m·K), and the thermal resistance is
about 10–20 times that of ordinary concrete.

Although a sound insulation test was not conducted here, according to reference [33], foam concrete
is a porous sound-absorbing material with a sound absorption coefficient of 0.8–1.4, and its sound
dissipation ability can reach first or second grade standards.

It is thus clear that the composite slab made with foam concrete has not only light weight, but also
good sound insulation and thermal properties.


92 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

4. CONCLUSIONS

On the basis of the mechanical analysis of these four slabs, the following conclusions can be
obtained:
(1) The cracks distribute widely and evenly on B1. B1 deforms slowly and its ultimate deflection is
the largest, 18%, 329%, and 43% larger than those of B2, B3, and B4, respectively. Thus, B1 exhibits
excellent ductility.
(2) Although total steel content in B1–B4 is the same, the cracking load of B1 is 30% higher than that
of B2. After B1 cracks, its deflection increases slowly, and its ductility is significantly improved. In
addition, it does not show characteristics of brittle fracture that less-reinforced concrete often shows.
This indicates that steel fibre can inhibit cracks in concrete from further extending and developing.
(3) Although total steel content in B1–B4 is the same, the working loads of B2 are 7% and 13%
higher than those of B1 and B4, respectively. In addition, the ultimate load of B2 is 9% and 35%
higher than those of B1 and B4, respectively. This indicates that the longitudinal rebar ratio at the
bottom of the member determines its ultimate load, and the addition of steel fibre into concrete cannot
improve its ultimate bearing capacity.
(4) Because there is a difference between the rebar reinforcement ratios of B1 and B4 in the
compression zone, the working load and the ultimate load of B1 are different from those of B4. The
working load and the ultimate load of B4 are 11% and 21% lower than those of B1. This indicates
that when the compressive deformation of the compressive zone is significant, the bearing capacity
of the member decreases, the foam concrete is crushed, and the member is destroyed.
(5) As long as the total steel content in B1–B4 is the same, the addition of steel fibre into concrete
without rebar improves neither crack resistance nor ultimate bearing capacity of the member. In
addition, when the volume fraction of steel fibre is 1.5%, the concrete exhibits the best mechanical
performance. With further increase in the volume fraction of steel fibre, the bearing capacity cannot
be improved.
(6) Although total steel content in B1–B4 is the same, both the occurrence and development of
inclined cracks on the four experimental slabs are different. The reinforcement configuration (steel
fibre and rebar) has an effect on the destruction of the oblique section. When the cracking load of the
oblique section is reached, steel fibre can delay the opening of the inclined cracks. However, for steel
fibre-reinforced concrete without a longitudinal rebar, inclined cracks appear even when the load is
low.


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 93

(7) When total steel content in the slabs is the same, by an adjustment of the volume content of
longitudinal rebar and steel fibre, the optimal cracking load, working load, and ultimate load of the
slab can be achieved simultaneously. It is inferred that when we use steel fibre-rebar-reinforced
concrete (volume fraction is 1.5%) with a longitudinal rebar ratio of no less than the minimum rebar
reinforcement ratio as the tensile zone and use steel fibre-reinforced concrete (volume fraction is
1.5%) without rebar as the compression zone, the slab will attain its best performance.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China (Grant
No. 2010-k1-26).

Conflict of Interests
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MULTI-RIBBED ONE-WAY COMPOSITE SLABS MADE OF STEEL... 95

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES:

Fig. 1. Plan View of B1–B4.


Rys. 1. Widok z góry B1–B4.
Fig. 2. Sectional View of B1.
Rys. 2. Przekrój B1.
Fig. 3. Sectional View of B2
Rys. 3. Przekrój B2
Fig. 4. Sectional View of B3.
Rys. 4. Przekrój B3.
Fig. 5. Sectional View of B4.
Rys. 5. Przekrój B4.
Fig. 6. The Loading Device.
Rys. 6. Urz@dzenie obci@Jaj@ce.
Fig. 7. Distribution of Rebar Strain Gauges.
Rys. 7. Rozkład tensometrów prKtów zbrojeniowych.
Fig. 8. Distribution of Strain Gauges for Concrete.
Rys. 8. Rozkład tensometrów betonu.
Fig. 9.Load–Deflection Curves for Four Experimental Slabs at Midspan.
Rys. 9. Krzywe obci@Jenia i odchylenia dla czterech eksperymentalnych płyt w połowie rozpiKtoVci.
Fig. 10. The Load–Average Strain Curves for Rebars in B1, B2, and B4 at Midspan.
Rys. 10. Krzywe odkształcenia i naprKJenia dla prKtów zbrojeniowych w B1, B2 i B4 w połowie rozpiKtoVci.
Fig. 11. Distribution of Cracks on the Bottoms of B1̽B4.
Rys. 11. Rozkład pKkniKZ na dnie B1-B4.
Fig. 12.The Development of Cracks around Steel Fibre.
Rys. 12. Rozwój pKkniKZ wokół włókna stalowego.

Table 1. Materials and Reinforcement Ratio for Experimental Slabs.


Tab. 1. Stosunek materiałów i zbroje[ dla płyt eksperymentalnych.
Table 2. Experimental Data.
Tab. 2. Dane eksperymentalne.


96 Y. WANG, H.T. LIU, G.F. DOU, C.H. XI, L. QIAN

BADANIE DOĝWIADCZALNE WIELOROWKOWEJ, JEDNOKIERUNKOWEJ PŁYTY


ZESPOLONEJ WYKONANEJ Z WŁÓKNA STALOWEGO, PIANKI I ZWYKŁEGO BETONU

Słowa kluczowe: włókno stalowe; beton piankowy; płyta wielorowkowa; płyta jednokierunkowa; płyta zespolona.

PODSUMOWANIE:

Dodanie włókna do betonu moJe zwiKkszyZ odpornoVZ na pKkanie, wytrzymałoVZ na rozci@ganie i sztywnoVZ. A zatem,
beton zbrojony włóknem szklanym posiada wiele zastosowa[ inJynieryjnych jako rodzaj materiałów budowlanych, a
ponadto istnieje wiele kodeksów zawieraj@cych wskazówki dotycz@ce jego konstrukcji. Beton zbrojony włóknem
stalowym, otrzymywany poprzez dodanie losowo rozproszonego krótkiego włókna stalowego do betonu, jest rodzajem
wieloskładnikowego materiału kompozytowego na bazie cementu. Ma dobre właVciwoVci fizyczne i mechaniczne. Beton
piankowy, który posiada wiele doskonałych właVciwoVci, w tym lekkoVZ i dobr@ izolacjK termiczn@, jest szeroko
stosowany jako materiał Vcienny, dachowy i podłogowy. JednakJe, ze wzglKdu na fakt, iJ beton piankowy charakteryzuje
siK wysok@ zdolnoVci@ pochłaniania wody, posiada słab@ odpornoVZ na mrozy po wchłoniKciu wody i moJe łatwo ulegaZ
pKkniKciu podczas cykli zamraJania i rozmraJania, co wpływa na funkcjK i wygl@d zewnKtrzny budynku. Natomiast beton
zbrojony włóknem stalowym charakteryzuje siK dobr@ odpornoVci@ na pKkanie i nieprzepuszczalnoVci@. Dlatego teJ,
ł@cz@c zalety betonu zbrojonego włóknem stalowym (dobra nieprzepuszczalnoVZ) z wielorowkow@ struktur@ (dobre
właVciwoVci mechaniczne), zaprojektowaliVmy nowy rodzaj wielorowkowej, prefabrykowanej płyty zespolonej. Celem
niniejszej pracy jest zbadanie wpływu konfiguracji zbrojenia (włókna stalowego i prKta zbrojeniowego) na właVciwoVci
mechaniczne płyt zespolonych o takiej samej zawartoVci stali. WyprodukowaliVmy cztery kawałki pełnowymiarowych,
wielorowkowych, prefabrykowanych płyt zespolonych o róJnych konfiguracjach zbrojenia, z wykorzystaniem betonu
zbrojonego włóknem stalowym, betonu piankowego i zwykłego betonu. Wielorowkowa, zespolona, prefabrykowana
płyta posiada wiele doskonałych właVciwoVci, takich jak lekkoVZ, dobra izolacja termiczna i akustyczna, itp. W zwi@zku
z tym, moJe byZ ona stosowana na wytworzonej konstrukcji. Ponadto, zbadano zespolone, prefabrykowane płyty o takiej
samej zawartoVci stali, lecz róJnych konfiguracjach zbrojenia, pod takim samym obci@Jeniem statycznym i uzyskano
wiele wska\ników technicznych, takich jak odpornoVZ na pKkanie, obci@Jenie plastyczne, maksymalna noVnoVZ,
maksymalne ugiKcie, destrukcyjny wzór oraz naprKJenie stalowych prKtów zbrojeniowych. Wyniki pokazuj@, Je
konfiguracja zbrojenia ma znacz@cy wpływ na właVciwoVci mechaniczne zespolonych, prefabrykowanych płyt o takiej
samej zawartoVci stali, a zespolona, prefabrykowana płyta zbrojona podłuJnym prKtem zbrojeniowym i włóknem
stalowym (ułamek objKtoVciowy wynosi 1,5%) charakteryzuje siK najlepszymi parametrami mechanicznymi i
plastycznoVci@.
Proces wytwarzania płyty zespolonej jest bardziej skomplikowany niJ w przypadku zwykłej płyty betonowej. Płyta
zespolona charakteryzuje siK jednak dobr@ wydajnoVci@ mechaniczn@, wysok@ odpornoVci@ na pKkanie, dobr@ izolacj@
termiczn@, niskimi kosztami eksploatacji i konserwacji, które spełniaj@ wymagania w zakresie uprzemysłowienia
elementów konstrukcyjnych, efektywnoVci energetycznej budynków i budownictwa ekologicznego. Tak wiKc, pomimo
złoJonego procesu produkcyjnego, ten rodzaj płyty zespolonej ma jasne perspektywy rynkowe i szerokie zastosowania.