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SJVN LIMITED

(A joint Venture of Govt. of India & Govt. of H.P.)

(A Mini Ratna & Schedule „A‟ PSU)

CHALLENGES FACED IN DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HRT


IN ADVERSE GEOLOGICALCONDITIONS
AT (412 MW) RAMPUR HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROJECT

PRESENTED AT
TUNNELLING ASIA 2012
ORGANISED BY
TUNNELING ASSOCIATION OF INDIA &
CENTRAL BORD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER
AT NEW DELHI

22-24 FEB 2012 BY: Er. Rakesh Sehgal


NEW DELHI SJVN LTD.
TOPICS DISCUSSED

Following topics have been discussed in this presentation:-

• Introduction

• Tunneling in SJVN Projects

• Challenges Faced In Rampur HEP Tunnel Construction


& Solutions Implemented
INTRODUCTION (contd.)
• Construction of Tunnels of Major Hydro Electric projects
in India is mostly taking place in Himalayas.
• In future more and more such under ground passages
would need to be built in Himalayas
• In general, the Himalayas are young fold mountains
offering very challenging sites.

 Other than hydro-projects, also a number of tunneling


projects are under construction for roads and railways in
the Himalayan region e.g.
• 9 Km long Rohtang road tunnel.
• Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link project having
about 70 Km tunneling in J&K .
• & Chenani-Nashri 9 KM long road tunnel in Jammu.

Contd.
INTRODUCTION (contd.)

(GENERAL GEOLOGY)

In coming decades several km length of tunneling is


expected in Himalayan Geology for hydropower and
transport. In a typical project located in the Himalayan
the geology in the region would be about

• 15-25% ------ good and very good rock Class.


• 30-40% ------ fair rock Class.
• 30-45% ------ poor/very poor rock Class.
• 5-10% ------ extremely poor rock Class.
• Shear zones comprising crushed/fractured rock material
along with clay gauge having very low strength which is
easily crushable with hands and squeezing in nature.

Contd.
INTRODUCTION (contd.)

PROBLEMS IN TUNNELLING

In tunneling projects located in Himalayas, following


problems can be expected to be encountered:-
• Weak rocks in long stretches.
• Squeezing ground conditions.
• Rock burst conditions.
• Wide and long shear zones.
• Ingress of heavy seepage coupled with geothermal
conditions.

Contd.
ABOUT TUNNELING IN SJVN PROJECTS
• IN THE STATE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH
– NATHPA JHAKRI HEP (1500 MW) ON RIVER SATLUJ
• Tunneling involved-----40 KM
– RAMPUR HEP (412 MW) ON RIVER SATLUJ
• Tunneling involved-----20 KM
– LUHRI HEP (775 MW) ON RIVER SATLUJ
• Tunneling involved-----94 KM
– DHAULASIDH HEP (66 MW) ON RIVER BEAS
• IN THE STATE OF UTTRAKHAND
– DEVSARI HEP (252 MW) ON RIVER PINDER
• Tunneling involved-----20 KM
– NAITWAR MORI HEP (60 MW) ON RIVER TONS
– JAKHOL SANKRI HEP (51 MW) ON RIVER SUPIN
• Tunneling involved-----15 KM
Contd.
ABOUT TUNNELING IN SJVN PROJECTS
• IN NEPAL
– ARUN-III HEP (900 MW)
• Tunneling involved-----21 KM
• IN BHUTAN
– KHOLONGCHU HEP (650 MW)
• Tunneling involved-----23 KM
– WANGCHU HEP (600 MW)
• Tunneling involved-----15 KM SJVN GOING GLOBAL

SJVN is the first CPSU to


bag a hydro power project
outside India in open
competition basis
Contd.
TOTAL TUNNELING INVOLVED IN SJVN’S
PROJECTS IS ABOUT 250 KM
CHALLENGES FACED IN RAMPUR HEP TUNNEL
CONSTRUCTION AND SOLUTIONS IMPLEMENTED

(contd.)
RAMPUR HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECT 412 MW
Rampur hydro-electric project (412 MW) has been planned as a
downstream development of 1500 MW NJHEP by tapping water
directly from its tail pool.

TRT OUT FALL STRUCTURE

RAMPUR INTAKE

TRT OF NJHPS
LAYOUT PLAN

STA. 328.56

LEFT BANK WORKS

STA. 2712.176

7.5 m D-SHAPED
STA. 5818.822 771.380 M LONG ADIT AT KAJO

10.50 m Ø 15.08 KM LONG HRT

UJ
TL
SA
ER
RIV
7.5 m D-SHAPED
593.887 M LONG ADIT AT KUNNI

7.5 m D-SHAPED
-1

287.204 M LONG ADIT AT KASHOLI


GE
KA

STA. 11718.526
CA
PA
-2
GE

7.5 m D-SHAPED 1089.595 M LONG ADIT AT GOSHAI


A
CK
PA

C/L OF STA.14793 M
SURGE SHAFT 7.5 m D-SHAPED 489.322 M LONG ADIT AT BAEL
STA.15144.261 M
POWER HOUSE COMPLEX
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)
HEAD RACE TUNNEL
CROSS SECTION - 10.5 M Circular, conc. Lined
LENGTH - 15.177 KM. CONTACT GROUT HOLES

10°
22.5
°

)
ED
FIN
ISH 400/600 THICK LINING
0( OF GRADE M20.
5 25
R=
22.5°

FINISHED
CONCRETE LINE

6500 Contd.
.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)
LEFT BANK WORKS

NJHPS TAIL POOL

HRT CROSSING UNDER RIVER


D/S COFFER DAM
HRT

DIVERSION TUNNEL
220 m LONG
RD. 484

D/S COFFER DAM RD. 328

SURGE TUNNEL 470m LONG

CONSTRUCTION ADIT CUM


SPILL TUNNEL 337 m LONG Contd.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)

Contd.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)

GATE GROOVE

EXISTING ROCK PLUG TO BE REMOVED


FOR LINKING OF NJHPS AND RHEP

L-SECTION SHOWING RHEP INTAKE AND ROCK PLUG IN HRT


U/S OF SPILL TUNNEL

Contd.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)
POWER HOUSE COMPLEX

10.50 m Ø H.R.T
38 m Ø SURGE SHAFT

TRANSFORMER YARD
POT HEAD YARD

PRESSURE SHAFTS

BUTTERFLY VALVE HOUSE

POT HEAD YARD


SURFACE POWER HOUSE

TAIL RACE OUT FALL

Contd.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)
SURGE SHAFT EL. 1090.00

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
TYPE

y
y
RESTRICTED ORIFICE

y
y

y
y

y
MAXIMUM SURGE LEVEL 1058.55 M

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
GATE GROOVE

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
C/L OF SURGE SHAFT

HEIGHT

y
y
155.07 M

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
DIAMETER 38 M FOR 146.5 M HEIGHT

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
STATIC LEVEL 1010.00 M

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
6 M FOR ORIFICE

y
y

y
DRAINAGE GALLERY

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y
44000

y
44000

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y
40000

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
MINIMUM SURGE LEVEL 966.84 M

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
ORIFICE

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
y

y
EL. 943.50

y
y

y
EL. 940.50 C/L OF PRESSURE SHAFT

y
y y y y y y y

y
y y y y y y y

C/L OF HRT

STA.0.0

y
EL. 939.50 y
y y

EL. 934.25 EL. 934.925 y y y

FLOW EL. 932.30


EL. 929.00 EL. 929.00
y y y y y y y
y
EL. 927.50 y y y

y
y
y y y y y y
y
y y
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
y y y y

STA.6.628
STA.(-)25.50

STA.(-)20.00
SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF SURGE SHAFT
Contd.
SALIENT FEATURES (contd.)
POWER HOUSE-MACHINE HALL
TYPE - SURFACE
SIZE - 158 M X 24.5 M X 48 M
TYPE VERTICAL AXIS FRANCIS TURBINE
NO. & CAPACITY 6 X 68.67 MW
EL.908.00

EL.906.00

BEAM(400X600)
COLUMN(600X1000)
E.O.T. CRANE
EL.903.50

EL.899.00

DESIGN ENERGY
898.00
E.O.T. CRANE
EL.896.50 896.50

894.00
COLUMN(1000X1000) COLUMN(400X600) BEAM(400X600)

E.O.T. CRANE(2X150/30 TONNES) EL.890.00

90% DEPENDABLE YEAR- 2077 MU EL.887.50 BEAM(1000X1500)

BEAM(600X600)
GANTRY CRANE

IN AN AVERAGE YEAR - 2230 MU


BEAM(600X900) EL.884.30 EL.884.30

COLUMN(1500X1000)

TRANSFORMER BAY BEAM(600X1200)


EL . 878.00 EL.878.00 ROAD

BACKFILL
COLUMN(1000X1000)
N.S.L .
BEAM(600X600)
EL.874.05
CONTROL ROOM

BACKFILL
BEAM(600X600)

EL.870.45 EL . 870.45 Generator MACHINE FLOOR EL.870.45


C/

L
FIL
L
-

CK
O

BA
F BEAM(600X900)
PE
NS
TO
CK EL.865.45 865.45 GENERATOR FLOOR EL.865.45

CABLE DUCT
NORMAL TWL 867.00

EL.860.45 TURBINE FLOOR EL.860.45


MIN. TWL 862.90

C/L - OF PENSTOCK EL.858.40

EL.856.45

EL.854.45 M.I.V. FLOOR EL. 854.33


EL.854.00

T.R.T.
BYEPASS ARRANGEMENT FOR BE
SILT FLUSHING
MAIN INLET VALVE
DR AFT TU
EL. 850.65
DRAINAGE GALLERY EL.849.95
(2000 x 3000 )

EL. 847.00 C/L-OF DRAFT TUBE GATE GROOVE

CROSS - SECTION
SALIENT FEATURES
TRT OUTFALL & TAIL RACE TUNNEL

TAIL RACE - HORSE SHOE SHAPED, 10.5 M DIA,


CONC. LINED TUNNEL, 67.15 M LONG
GEOLOGY OF THE PROJECT
 ROCK TYPE
 Along the tunnel alignment in the upper reaches ( about 6
km) quartzites ,quartizitic phyllites, amphibolites and quartz
mica shist have been encountered as predicted.

 In the lower reaches rocks encountered till now are phyllites,


carbonaceous phyllites, slates with quartzite presence.

 In some zones high geothermal temperatures (max.


40deg.C) and thrust and shear zones have also been
encountered.

CONTD.
GEOLOGY OF THE PROJECT CONTD.

ROCK QUALITY ANTICIPATED DURING INVESTIGATIONS

 VERY GOOD-GOOD 10-20%

 FAIR 35-45 %

 POOR-VERY POOR 35-45 %

 EXTREMELY POOR 5-10 %


GEOLOGY OF THE PROJECT CONTD.

There are two regional thrusts

•Jhakri Thrust (near Barauni khad)


The Jhakri Thrust is at the contact of Quartz-mica schist
and Quartzite (of Rampur Group). In the vicinity of this
thrust (at the confluence of Kajo khad), a hot water
spring (31o C) is present.The Jhakri thrust zone was
expected to be sheared and fractured where medium to
heavy in flow of ground water conditions were expected.

• Kulu Thrust between Goshai adit junction and Surge


shaft.
.
CONSTRUCTION PLANNING FOR HRT
 CONSTRUCTION OF HRT ORIGINALLY PLANNED
WITH FOUR ADITS ON RIGHT BANK AND ONE ON LEFT
BANK.

 NO OF FACES: 10

1. SPILL TUNNEL ADIT 335 M


2. KAJO ADIT 771 M
3. KUNNI ADIT 593 M
4. GOSHAI ADIT 1116 M
5. BAEL ADIT 489 M
NEED FOR CHANGE IN TUNNEL ALIGNMENT
 In comparison to 27 km long HRT of NJHEP (10.15 m Fin
dia.) the finished tunnel diameter of 15 km long RHEP is
10.50 m.
 The rocks encountered during excavation are also weaker as
compared to HRT of NJHEP.
 Asking rate of HRT excavation went up due to very poor
ground conditions and frequent cavity formations in Goshai
adit.
 Tunnel alignment modified to shorten this adit by 250 M.
 Also a new adit at Kasholi has been introduced to
minimize the delays in the overall construction period of
the tunnel.

Contd.
INTRODUCTION OF NEW ADIT AT KASHOLI

3
142
3
142

HEAD RACE TUNNEL


1620

7500 D-SHAPED
7500 D-SHAPED 593.887 M LONG
285.204 M LONG ADIT AT KASHOLI ADIT AT KUNNI
1619

7500 D-SHAPED
831.510 M LONG ADIT AT GOSHAI
HEAD RACE TUNNEL SUPPORT SYSTEM
Rock Class Support System
Very Good Shotcrete and spot bolting

Good 50 mm Shotcrete and pattern bolting 25 mm dia.

Fair 100 mm thick Shotcrete with welded wire mesh &


pattern bolting 25 mm dia.
Poor Rock 100mm Shotcrete with welded wire mesh
staggered pattern rock bolts 25 mm dia, Steel Ribs
ISHB150 spacing 1.0m c/c
Very Poor 100mm thick Shotcrete in two layers with welded
Rock wire mesh staggered pattern rock bolts in crown.
Steel Rib ISHB 150 Kg/m spacing 0.75m c/c.

(Contd.)
HEAD RACE TUNNEL SUPPORT SYSTEM

Rock Class Support System


 DRAINAGE/EXPLORATORY DRILL HOLES 50
DIA.,24000 LONG.

FACE IMPROVEMENT BY GROUTING

EXTREMELY STEEL PIPE UMBRELLA ARCH 6 MM


POOR ROCK TH.,114.33 MM (O.D.),12000 LONG @ 400 C/C
CLASS AHEAD OF THE FACE
(DRESS
METHODOLOGY) RADIAL ROCK REINFORCEMENT AT FACE

SELF DRILLING ANCHORS


EXPERIMENTATION WITH LATTICE GIRDERS IN
CLASS IV & V ROCK IN HRT
EXPERIMENTATION WITH LATTICE GIRDERS IN
CLASS IV & V ROCK IN HRT

• The rock support system being provided in underground works


of RHEP for poor and very poor rock conditions has been
reviewed due to unsatisfactory rate of progress, particularly in
Goshai adit and Kunni downstream face of HRT where
predominant rock type was Carbonaceous Phyllites.

• Secondly 30-40 m behind face excessive deformation were


observed which were distorting the ribs.

• It was thought that the flexible support using lattice girder


should be tried instead of steel sets in poor and very poor rock
conditions to improve the progress rate.
EXPERIMENTATION WITH LATTICE GIRDERS IN
CLASS IV & V ROCK IN HRT

• In order to improve tunnel cycle time and expedite the rate of


progress an alternative support system has been designed for
Rock class IV and V using lattice girders.

• In these rock classes the installation of steel sets, with steel


lagging/ pre-cast concrete lagging, followed by back filling
concrete activities had been giving a very long cycle time.

• The alternative is comprising of lattice girders embedded in


shotcrete. Due to their light weight they provide major
reduction in erection time and safety. Its structural behavior
when fully embedded in the shotcrete is more effective than
the steel arches in soft ground.
TYPICAL SECTION FOR LATTICE GIRDER
25 / 32 DIA. 4 TO 6 M LONG
ROCK BOLTS

WIREMESH 150 X 150 X 6@ SHOTCRETE 200 THICK IN LAYERS


2.96KG/SQM MINIMUM
EXCAVATION LINE
LATTICE GIRDER
(Spacing as per round length) 5850
5250

HEADING

BENCHING GROUTED ANCHOR BAR


TEMPORARY TOP HEADING
SHOTCRETE INVERT
WIREMESH
(OUTER SIDE)
MINIMUM 100
EXCAVATION LINE
25 Ø BAR 250
10Ø BAR
32Ø BAR
SEQUENCE OF LATTICE GIRDER SUPPORT
Sequence of Support system with Lattice Girders

•Drilling & Blasting.


•Mucking.
•Scaling.
•Initial layer/sealing of shotcrete.
•Fixing of wire-mesh/Rockbolts.
•Installation of Lattice Girder.
•Fore-Poling.
•Final layer of Shotcrete.
•Rock bolting
•Ring closure as per rock class.
•Monitoring with Geodetic measurements (Paper Targets) at
approx every 20m distance.
•Additional 25 mm/ 32 mm dia. rock bolts behind the face to
arrest deformations if any.
ADVANTAGES OF LATTICE GIRDER SUPPORT
Provision of lattice supports in rock class IV and below
have following advantages:-

1. There is an increase in capacity of load bearing shell.

2. In rock class IV the lattice supports can take a load


equivalent to 23 m of rock height which was 15 m earlier with
steel supports.

3. In rock class V this support and take a load equivalent to 28


m of rock height which was 20 m earlier with steel supports.
4. With this type of support it is now possible to monitor the
behavior of rock in the realistic manner behind the face and
provide additional support if required.

5. The provision of lattice has helped in minimizing the over


excavation in the rock by use of forepoles.
ADVANTAGES OF LATTICE GIRDER SUPPORT

6. The support handling has become convenient and better.

7. Contact between rock & shotcrete has improved.

8. Support system with lattice girders has been found very


effective in the soft rock conditions encountered in Rampur
HEP.

9. Additional 25 mm/ 32 mm dia. rock bolts behind the face to


arrest deformations if any can be provided without
encroaching upon the cycle time.

10. The cycle time for 2 m pull with lattice support has now
considerably reduced from 48 hours to 18 hrs as compared
to steel rib supports.
PROFILE OF TUNNEL SUPPORTED WITH LATTICE
GIRDERS AFTER FINAL SHOTCRETING
MONITORING OF BEHAVIOR OF LATTICE SUPPORT

MEASUREMENT OF DEFORMATIONS WITH PAPER TARGETS


COMPARISON OF LATTICE GIRDER WITH
CONVENTIONAL RIBS

CONVENTIONAL HEAVY “STEEL LATTICE GIRDER LIGHT WEIGHT


RIB” SECTIONS @ 34.6 Kg/m. SECTIONS @ 9.39 KG/M
COMPARISON OF LATTICE GIRDER WITH
CONVENTIONAL RIBS

 Weight per rib 675 kg in adit  Weight per Lattice girder


 Weight per rib 755 kg in HRT 182 kg in adit
 Weight per Lattice girder
205kg in HRT

CONVENTIONAL HEAVY Lattice girder light weight


“STEEL RIB” SECTIONS @ sections @ 9.39 Kg/m
34.6 Kg/m.
COMPARISON OF LATTICE GIRDER WITH
CONVENTIONAL RIBS

CYCLE TIME COMPARISON FOR A PULL OF 2M


Description Conventional ribs Lattice girder
(time in hrs) ( time in hours)
TOTAL TIME CYCLE ( hrs) 48.6 18 hrs
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT

80

HRT

CAVITY AREA
C/L OF
KASHOLI
ADIT

Contd.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
•The HRT reach from junction (RD 0.0 m) till RD 52 m had
been excavated in Amphibolites rock with thin parting of the
schistose rock.
•The reach was supported with channel fore poles, steel
sets at close spacing , rock bolts, backfill with steel lagging
and grouting as per site conditions.
•Because of soft nature of rock mass at the face, twin cutter
was used to make the space for erection of steel ribs
without blasting. In this reach a cavity occurred at RD 52 m
where a band of sheared quartz mica schist appeared in
the crown at RD 52m.
•This band was very soft with low uni-axial compressive
strength of the rock mass . The lateral and vertical rock
cover at this location varied between 200 -230 m.

Contd.
Cavity Developed between RD 52-58m and
continuous rock falling from right side

Showing Cavity depth

Cavity supported with steel ribs from RD 52-


55m`

Showing muck of rock fall upto crown level.

Contd.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
Probable reasons for the cavity formation analyzed at
site are mentioned below:
• Foliation joints are dipping at an angle of 10-15 deg towards
face of tunnel and forming low dip planes in the crown.
• Very low uniaxial compression strength of rock Smooth
undulated and clay coated joint surface has very low
cohesion and foliation planes separate out from each other
caused loosening in rock mass.
• Micaceous nature of sheared quartz mica schist having
clayey nature of material swell with use of water during
drilling for rock bolting etc.
• A gap/space always left between the backfill concrete and
rock surface. This allows the rock to deform/move on the
support system and damage the installed steel rib support.
Contd.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
Face Advancement
•Twin cutter was used from RD 52 m to 75 m to make the
space for ribs on both walls with out removing the central
part of rock mass.
•The onward face advancement was done in the same
manner i.e. in rounds of 0.50-1.00 m.

A• band
Spraying
of aboutinitially shotcrete,
1-2m thick erection of
was encountered steel
in the ribs
crown
in(150x150 mm) ofwith
the mid part the minimum spacing
cavity at RD 58m. (as
This closed
band ofas
possible 40-50
Amphibolite rock iscm.),fixing steel lagging and backfilling.
Forepole umbrella of ISMC 100x150mm.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
Face Advancement
• While treating the cavity a band of about 1-2m thick was
encountered in the crown in the mid part of the cavity at
RD 58m.
•This band of Amphibolite rock was very hard and it was
anticipated that this band will appear at RD 75- 76m in the
crown.
A band
•The twinofcutter
about can
1-2mnotthick was encountered
excavate such type ofinhard
the crown
rock.
in the
Drill andmid part of
blasting therequired
was cavity at RDTwin
with 58m. Thisfrom
Cutter bandRDof
Amphibolite
75m -80m. rock is
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
Face Advancement

Loose muck removed


from LHS and ram was
made for mechanized Showing rock ledge of 1m height left to support
steel ribs.
access to LHS. RHS was
shotcreted to make a
stabilize.
Occurrence Why
of a recurrence
major Cavity D/s of
of Cavity Kasholi Adit in
??????
the critical reach of HRT
Face Advancement
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT

Showing deformation in the Pieces of the shotcrete


steel ribs.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT

REAPPEARANCE OF CAVITY IN KASHOLI HRT D/S ON


24.01.2010
Occurrence Why
of a recurrence
major Cavity D/s of
of Cavity Kasholi Adit in
??????
the critical reach of HRT
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT
MEASURES TAKEN

• A detailed assessment of the time required to


carry out rehabilitation works of collapsed area
was carried out keeping in view the critical reach
of HRT.
• It was decided jointly by design, construction
and Experts that the cavity area has to be by
passed and an alternate passage to D/s of the
collapse area has to be made to save in time.
Occurrence of a major Cavity D/s of Kasholi Adit in
the critical reach of HRT

JUNCTION 110
JUNCTION
STA=248 M
HRT

CAVITY AREA
C/L OF
7.5 M D-SHAPED KASHOLI
BYE PASS ADIT 130.479 M LONG ADIT
STATUS OF CAVITY REACH D/S OF KASHOLI ADIT
•The collapsed area now not on critical path was taken up
separately in parallel activity. This area about 30m long and
additional 30m up to by-pass junction has been stabilized
by multi drifting, pipe roofing systematic supporting and
grouting.
•However, the priority was given to HRT face D/s of by-pass
adit and till date about 1200 m of HRT excavation has been
completed from this face.
Occurrence of Geothermal conditions and heavy
water ingress U/s of Kajo Adit of HRT

 Flooding in Tunnel due to heavy seepage of water (180-210


litres /sec).
• Production Loss (33 days)

 Occurrence of hot water Temp-40ºc and heavy seepage -


300-350 litres/sec
• Production Loss (35days)

 Occurrence of Thrust Zone in a length of 40 m


• Time consumed in crossing it was 90 days
Heavy seepage of 300-
350litres/sec resulted into
flooding of HRT

Flooding at Junction (due to


reverse slope in adit -10%)
REMEDIAL MEASURES TAKEN TO CONTROL
SEEPAGE

• Heavy seepage was controlled by providing additional 8”


diameter pipeline to carry the seepage.

• 05 No. Additional Dewatering pumps of 60HP capacity


were installed.

• After that heavy seepage at face was controlled by


injecting Polyurethane grout.
Polyurethane Grouting being done in hot & heavy seepage
conditions
RHEP-TACKLING OF THRUST ZONE ``

As predicted Thrust zone (44 m long) occurred between


RD 1464m to 1508 m U/s of Kajo adit
• It took about 90 days to cross it.

• Excavation was done with hydraulic hammer only

Start of thrust zone


Excavation with Hydraulic
hammer in thrust zone

Drift excavation in progress


STATUS OF HRT WORKS
• Till date about 18 Km of tunneling works including 3.3 km in
construction adits and 15.3 Km in HRT , spill tunnel and
diversion tunnel has been completed.

• Benching in a length of 11.5 km and lining in 7 Km length is


also complete.

• Tunnel length constructed with lattice girders is 4 km in HRT


and 700m in adits.

• Progress rates up to 60 m/per month were achieved in HRT


heading using this methodology.

• At some locations where rock was soft mechanical


excavation using twin cutters was used to obtain smooth
profile/reduce over breaks.
RHEP-STATUS OF EXCAVATION OF HRT

STATUS OF EXCAVATION OF HRT (As on 05.05.10)

2898 3238 2846 3107 2417

567

262
312

SPILL TUNNEL JUNCTION


KAJO JUNCTION
KASHOLI JUNCTION

KUNNI JUNCTION
KASHOLI BYEPASS JUNCTION
GOSHAI JUNCTION
BAEL JUNCTION

LEGEND

1.TOTAL HRT EXCAVATED = 14513M EXCAVATED


2.BALANCE HRT TO BE EXCAVATED = 567 M

BALANCE
CONCLUSION
While tunneling in Himalayas due to its fragile and
unpredictable geology possibility of encountering
problems discussed above cannot be ruled out.
With limited geological/geo-technical data available for
deep seated tunnels, flexibility in changing the support
system and excavation methodology is desirable.
• In Rampur HEP the use of Lattice support has given very good
results. Over break has been well within control.
• Lattice girder support along with rock bolts, wire mesh and
shotcrete is flexible support system compared to steel set support
and allows for controlled deformations.
• Over breaks can be effectively controlled by use of fore poles in
this methodology resulting in smooth profile.
• Monitoring deformations behind face is integral part of this system
and in case of excessive deformations the same can be
controlled by application of additional rock bolts behind face
without encroaching upon the cycle time.
CONCLUSION (Contd.)
• In Rampur Project lattice support system was adopted in
Goshai adit where low progress and unsafe tunneling
conditions were being encountered while using steel sets in
carbonaceous phyllites in poor and very poor conditions.
• The progress rate could be accelerated from 20-30m /month to
55-60m/month in addition to achieving better tunnel profile and
safe tunneling conditions while working in poor and very
poor/soft ground conditions.
• This methodology has been adopted in main HRT on 4 faces
very effectively in soft ground conditions.
• It is pertinent to state that in soft rock mechanical excavation is
being resorted to with the help of twin cutters, although mainly
drill and blast methodology is being adopted.
CONCLUSION (Contd.)
• Likewise provision for tackling hot water ingress coupled with
occurrence of shear zone should be made at an early stage.
• The experience gained in dealing with above mentioned
problems can be utilized in other projects facing similar
conditions.
• To reduce construction problems suitable designs and
construction methodology needs to be adopted to carry out
construction works without long interruption.
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