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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

Abecede (2003) specified that today’s world teachers need to be equipped not

only with subject-specific expertise and effective teaching methodologies, but with the

capacity to assist students to meet the demands of the emerging knowledge &base

society. Teachers therefore require familiarity with new forms of ICT and need to have

the ability to use that technology to enhance the-quality of teaching and learning.

Jung stated that ICTs have also been used to improve access to and the quality

of teacher training. For example, institution like the Cyber Teacher Training Center

(CCTC) in South Korea are taking advantage of the internet to provide better teacher

professional development opportunities to in-service teachers. The government funded

CCTC, established in1223, offers self-directed, self-paced Web-based courses for

primary and secondary school teachers. “Sourses include computer in the information

Societys”, “Education Reforms” and “Future Society and Educations”.

Based on Rogers' Theory, the process of adopting new innovations has been

studied for over 30 years, and one of the most popular adoption models is described by

Rogers in his book, "Diffusion of Innovations" (Sherry & Gibson, 2002). Much research

from a broad variety of disciplines has used the model as a framework. Dooley (1999)

and Stuart (2000) mentioned several of these disciplines as political science, public

health, communications, history, economics, technology, and education, and defined

Rogers' theory as a widely used theoretical framework in the area of technology

diffusion and adoption. In this paper the author presents the: Four Main Elements in the

Diffusion of Innovations, The Innovation-Decision Process, Attributes of Innovations and

Rate of Adoption, Adopter Categories, and Technology-Related Studies.

According to the Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning

environments, during the past decade, literature on the design of technology-enhanced

learning environments (TELEs) has flourished. Multiple TELE theoretical frameworks,

especially those based on constructivist epistemology (Cognition and Technology

Group at Vanderbilt [CTGV], 1992a, 1992b; Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999; Savery &

Duffy, 1996), have been proposed. TELEs are technology-based learning and

instructional systems through which students acquire skills or knowledge, usually with

the help of teachers or facilitators, learning support tools, and technological resources

(Aleven, Stahl, Schworm, Fischer, & Wallace, 2003; Land, 2000; Shapiro & Roskos,

1995). In recent years, with the rapid development of new technologies (e.g.,

computers, wide-area Internet, and PDAs), TELEs have generated considerable

enthusiasm within the design community. However, as with previous teaching-learning

innovations, design and research have evolved in a largely sequential manner, with little

direct influence on practice. As a result, TELEs have not been widely used by either

students or teachers (Cuban, 1986, 2001; Kent & Mc Nergney, 1999).

Beyond PowerPoint Presentations Amy Rottmann and Salena Rabidoux

recommend these free, easy-to-use presentation tools to improve student outcomes in

online courses by Salena Rabidoux and Amy Rottmann (2017), a variety of user-friendly

presentation tools can help instructors guide students to a heightened understanding of

content in an online environment. Presentation tools can move beyond a text-based

slide, whether instructor created or student created. Plus, integrating design techniques

and creativity to relay information can be easy and free.

Teaching with Emerging Technologies Michelle Pacansky-Brock says digital

learning is reshaping the higher ed landscape, and suggests five things instructors need

to succeed by Michelle Pacansky-Brock (2017), below are several tools that can easily

become part of your online environment. With each tool there is an example of a

completed presentation. As online and blended learning reshape the landscape of

teaching and learning in higher education, the need increases to encourage and support

faculty in moving from delivering passive, teacher-centered experiences to designing

active, student-centered learning. Our new social era is rich with simple, free to low-cost

emerging technologies that are increasing experimentation and discovery in the

scholarship of teaching and learning. While the literature about Web 2.0 tools impacting

teaching and learning is increasing, there is a lack of knowledge about how the adoption

of these technologies is impacting the support needs of higher education faculty. This

knowledge is essential to develop new, sustainable faculty support solutions. Driven by

my own experiences as a full-time and part-time faculty member and early adopter of

Voice Thread -- a Web 2.0 tool that fosters asynchronous voice, video and text

conversations around media -- I designed my dissertation research study to investigate

how the use of Web 2.0 tools is impacting the support needs of higher education faculty.

I performed this action research study in collaboration with the Voice Thread

organization with the purpose of improving the support needs of their higher education

According to Gayle Y. Thieman, the discussion of the state of technology, social

studies, and teacher education, Friedman and Hicks (2006) articulated the need to

“research and evaluate the impact of the use of technology and technology enhanced

instruction within classrooms” (p. 250). They explained the need to recognize the digital

divide and its impact on teaching and learning social studies and to examine the digital

disconnect between teachers’ and students’ abilities and expectations with regard to

using technology. Similarly, Whitworth and Berson (2003) found that Internet use and

accessing information on the Web was the most common use of technology in the

social studies. They expressed a concern that technology was being used as a more

sophisticated and expensive way to meet the same learning outcomes that could also

be achieved through more traditional methods.

How technology can help improve education by Ragan Whiteside (2011) T&L

Advisor Blog by David Andrade, Improving education is a huge issue (and always has

been). Test scores, our perceived performance against other countries, and other

factors have pushed education to the forefront of national politics, right behind

healthcare reform. Technology can be used to improve teaching and learning and help

our students be successful. Base from the ‘Teacher’s Guide to Surviving Fortnite’ while

smaller schools and class sizes are always desired, technology cannot do that

physically. However, technology can be a “force multiplier” for the teacher. Instead of

the teacher being the only source of help in a classroom, students can access web

sites, online tutorials, and more to assist them. Education doesn’t stop at the end of the

school day because students have access to teachers, resources, and assignments via

the web and access these resources at any time. Students can also get help and
tutoring at any time, whether from the teacher via email or online collaboration, or from

a help web site.

Base on Vikas Agrawal there are different ways that technology in the classroom

can enhance student learning. As technology continues to infiltrate every area of our

lives, the benefits of using technology in the classroom can no longer be denied. For

example, iPads and tablets can replace bulky textbooks. Smartphones can allow for

quick research and access to educational apps. Social media can provide an

opportunity for increased parent-teacher communication and student activities.

Monitoring services can be used to track the usage of technology. Technology can also

be an important way for teachers to collect student data that can have a positive impact

on learning outcomes. Pano Savvidis(2016) added that, It is important to acknowledge

that students are already interested and engaged in using technology, this creates

many amazing opportunities for schools and teachers to benefit from integrating some

forms of technology in the classroom and to make teaching and learning more effective.

Here are some of the main benefits of using technology in the classroom. Encourages

individual learning. No one learns in the same way because of different learning styles

and different abilities. Technology provides great opportunities for making learning more

effective for everyone with different needs. For example, students can learn at their own

speed, review difficult concepts or skip ahead if they need to. What is more, technology

can provide more opportunities for struggling or disabled students. Access to the

Internet gives students access to a broad range of resources to conduct research in

different ways, which in turn can increase the engagement.

How Does Technology Enhance the Learning Environment? Thanks to

technology, there are more options than ever before to create student-centered learning

environments that are personalized to the way each student thinks and learns.

“Technology is a major part of how students learn and interact with the world,” said

MHS Director of Learning Technologies Matt Campbell. “They thrive on technology

integration—it’s something they need. It really builds on the 21st century skills we’re

trying to teach our students.”

How Technology Enhances Teaching and Learning, this article was originally

published in the Fall 2000 issue of the CFT’s newsletter, Teaching Forum by Ellen M.

Granberg, students at the Owen School’s Strategy in the New Economy seminar enter a

classroom that looks like any other, except that a projection system and video screen

have been installed. Their professor announces that today they will be joined by a guest

lecturer, a senior VP from a Fortune 500 corporation. What makes this guest lecture

unique is that the students are sitting in a Nashville classroom but the guest lecturer is

speaking from his home office in Estonia, via video technology. This is an example of

one of the creative ways faculty members at Vanderbilt are using technology to

enhance their students’ learning. In the scene described above, Owen Professor David

Owens, along with Professor Bart Victor, use video conferencing to bring an

international guest speaker to their organization studies seminar. Across the University,

faculty are using technology to help students master subjects from elementary and

secondary school instruction to bioengineering to structural equation modeling. They

are developing their own skills while making students comfortable with the technology

that will help them be successful after leaving Vanderbilt. As they introduce more and
more technology into the classroom, faculty are finding it raises the quality of class

discussion and involves students much more deeply in their own education. For this

issue of the Teaching Forum, we spoke to four Vanderbilt faculty members, each of

whom is using technology to enhance their students’ learning.

According to Julia Morison (2018) there are many ways that technology improves

education. Technology has affected the different industries immensely, and education is

one of them. From schools to colleges and universities, everyone can feel the impact of

technology. Not Just a Cool New Thing: How Technology Improves Education. Apart

from the argument that technology has negatively affected students' learning schedules,

edTech has been proved to be a helpful tool. Nowadays, the time that students invest in

learning can be utilized in the best way possible since their growth is under their control

thoroughly: either they can make efforts to stand out or let the opportunities go vain.

Here are some ways in which technology has made the academic industry better.

How has technology changededucation? Technology has impacted almost every

aspect of life today, and education is no exception. Or is it? In some ways, education

seems much the same as it has been for many years. A 14th century illustration by

Laurentius de Voltolina depicts a university lecture in medieval Italy. The scene is easily

recognizable because of its parallels to the modern day. The teacher lectures from a

podium at the front of the room while the students sit in rows and listen. Some of the

students have books open in front of them and appear to be following along. A few look

bored. Some are talking to their neighbors. One appears to be sleeping. Classrooms

today do not look much different, though you might find modern students looking at their
laptops, tablets, or smart phones instead of books (though probably open to Facebook).

A cynic would say that technology has done nothing to change education.

Using educational technology to enhance student learning by Marilyn Siderwicz. |

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (2016). Improving educational

delivery is a core focus of MIT, and also a priority for training new generations of

teachers in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE). On July 19,

about 30 postdocs and graduate students attended a Workshop on Digital Education

hosted by CEE to learn about digital education tools available to them as they prepare

to teach undergraduate and graduate students, both at MIT and elsewhere.

Teaching with Technology: Tools and Strategies to Improve Student Learning. If

you’re interested in using technology tools to enhance your teaching, it’s easy to get

overwhelmed by the mountain of information out there. To make matters worse, much

of what you find is either highly technical or simply not very practical for the college

classroom. That’s why we created this special report. Teaching with Technology: Tools

and Strategies to Improve Student Learning approaches teaching technologies from

your perspective — discussing what works, what doesn’t, and how to implement the

best ideas in the best ways.

7 Effective Teaching Strategies in the Classroom. The classroom is a dynamic

environment, bringing together students from different backgrounds with various abilities

and personalities. Being an effective teacher therefore requires the implementation of

creative and innovative teaching strategies in order to meet students’ individual needs.

Whether you’ve been teaching two months or twenty years, it can be difficult to know

which teaching strategies will work best with your students. As a teacher there is no
‘one size fits all’ solution, so here is a range of effective teaching strategies you can use

to inspire your classroom practice.

25 Easy Ways to Use Technology in the Classroom (2017) Marcus Guido

Adaptive Learning, Game-Based Learning, Teaching Strategies, Teaching Tools.

Although many technology-based teaching methods and resources effectively engage

students and build their skills, many educators encounter difficulties when using

technology in the classroom. Maybe a specific platform is too hard to introduce. Or

maybe it won’t run on your devices. Despite the challenges, you likely want to enjoy the

benefits that education technology can deliver.

8 Exciting Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning Approaches That

Teachers are Embracing in 2014 by Kelly Walsh. As we head into this new year I'm

excited about the many instructional means and methods that educators are using

technology to facilitate in 2014's classrooms (both physical and virtual!). As the 2nd

decade of the 21st century rolls along, the scales are undoubtedly tilting further in favor

of embracing the benefits that technology can bring to instruction, and away from

frustration and resistance.

12 Easy Ways to Use Technology in the Classroom, Even for Technophobic

Teachers by Kim Haynes. Everyone wants teachers to use technology in the classroom.

But you're busy -- meeting standards, prepping students for tests -- and maybe you’re

not too fond of computers, anyway. Never fear – there are easy ways to bring your

classroom up-to-date, technologically.

Teaching with technology. Teaching with technology can deepen student

learning by supporting instructional objectives. However, it can be challenging to select

the “best” tech tools while not losing sight of your goals for student learning. Once

identified, integrating those tools can itself be a challenge albeit an eye-opening

experience. The CTL is here to help you (novice, expert and everyone in between) find

creative and constructive ways to integrate technology into your class. If you are looking

to flip your class, make use of Canvas or simply want to experiment with some new

instructional technologies, we can help. (


Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research method and procedures that was used as the

study. This includes research design, setting and subject of the study, sources of data,

procedure of the study and statistical treatment.

Research Design

The researchers used the descriptive method of research to describe the use of

technology in terms of teaching method. According to Behav Res Methods (2005), to

study everyday use and context of technology in its broad rather than narrow definition,

covering the whole of the life space. This sought to overcome the limitations of previous

research that focuses rather exclusively on the home, or work.

According to Opie (2004:74), the purpose of the case study is the descriptive-

survey method was used in this study, and descriptive means that surveys are made in

order to discover some aspects of teacher's teaching style and the word survey denotes

an investigation of a field to ascertain the typical condition is obtaining. The researchers

used questionnaires, observations, interviews, students' class work and other student

outputs for this study.


Direction: Kindly put a check which best describes the best describes the items

presented in the table below using the five-point scale.

5 – Strongly Agree

4 – Agree

3 – Moderately Agree

2 – Disagree

1 – Strongly Disagree