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Grammar work sheets

Session 13 : Compound / Complex Sentences

Combine the sentences using proper conjunction.
(And, but, or, else, still, until, not only…..but also…./ either…. Or…. / so / therefore /
1. We have much wealth. We use it among the poor. We should not be miser.

2. These days, the students learn new technology. They can’t apply it in the real life. Students should
become smart.

3. The present time is of globalization. The people are more advanced than old time. In the past the
people used limited resources.
4. We have many natural resources. We use it in a bad manner. We should save this gift of nature.

5. Many students go to foreign countries. They want to learn advanced subjects. They can make their
life by this education.

6. It is seen that people destroy the forests. The people want to develop new cities and roads. The
forests are important to us.

7. We should use less petrol. We should save petroleum oil for the future for the future generation
without petrol we will have many problems.
8. The developed countries make nuclear weapons. These countries wish to threaten the small
countries. These countries are wealthy.

9. The parents should teach their children. The children can learn love and sharing. The children need
to learn this.
10. The water is saved by all. We need it in the future. Water is very important.

11. The government has passed the law. It wants to reduce the pollution. This law should be abided by
12. The people have stopped driving many vehicles. It is for the benefit of the environment of the Earth.
13. The examinations have been postponed. The examiners want to support the Election. The students
are not happy with this decision.

14. The consumption of petrol has been made less. The global warming can be reduced by this. We have
to save the Mother Earth.

15. We should conserve the energy. The people have worked very hard. The energy can be saved by
many ways.
16. There is much heavy traffic. The roads have been made wider.
Choose the best endings for these sentences and Use other clause to create the sentences
1. I hurt my knee quite badly so I had to go to hospital / I didn’t have the right running shoes.

2. One way to improve your health is to eat more fruit and vegetables. Alternatively, you could
increase your risk of heart disease / you could exercise more.

3. Humans like to form social group. Likewise, many other mammals live independently of each
other / many other mammals live together in small communities.

4. I didn’t work hard at school. Consequently, I did well at university / I failed most of my exams.

5. I believe travelling can help us to understand other cultures. Furthermore, it can help you to become
more independent / it can be a lonely experience at times.

6. In spite of the fact that learning to speak a foreign language requires a lot of time and effort, many
people give up after a short time / many people manage it successfully.

7. In my experience, vegetarians tend to be quite healthy. In contrast, many meat- eaters do not have
a healthy diet / they look after their bodies well.

8. Fifty present of all newspaper readers in this country only read the sports section of the paper. In
other words, many people are not interested in news. / sports are reported very well in the

9. Sydney is the biggest city in Australia, yet it isn’t the capital/ it is oldest city.

10. Studies suggest that although sales of cookery books have increased significantly in the past five
years, we spend less time than ever in the kitchen / we enjoy experimenting.

11. There are delays on all trains due to the fact that passengers should allow extra time / there is a
shortage of drivers.

Fill in the gaps with the linking expressions from below.

As a result / because / but firstly / for example / however / moreover / similarly
1. Regular exercise increases the blood flow to your heart and keeps your heart healthy
………………………………… it provides you with a general sense of well-being.

2. In times of recession people stop spending, which can have serious consequences for the economy
……….…………. Poor sales can lead to closure of some businesses.

3. In this talk I will outline several possible reasons for melting polar ice cups
………………………………. It could be because of climate change.

4. These days many famous musicians are getting involved in political causes
……………………………. Famous actors are often seen o television promoting some charity or

5. Pets can have a calming effect on their owners …………………………… having a pet can increase
stress due to the demands made on the owner to look after the pet properly.
6. Some people believe that we have too many public holidays, ……………………………………… I
believe they are a good idea ……………………………. it is important to find time to celebrate

7. In my city there are too many cars on the road and there are always traffic jams
…………………………. it is difficult for people to judge how long their journeys will take.

Rewrite the sentences with similar meaning to the sentences below, using the words in
brackets and any other words you need.
1. Despite the rise in profit this year, our company is still losing money. (although)
2. The head of my department called an emergency meeting so I had to cancel all of my afternoon
appointments. (because)
3. It is now much cheaper to rent a DVD at home so fewer people are going to the cinema these days.
(due to)
4. The cost of basic foods has risen because petrol prices increased last month. (as a result)
5. Although there are over 30 girls on this course, the boys still outnumber the girls bi two to one. (but)
6. Although there are some advantages to the place of modern life, it also has its disadvantages.
7. The numbers of red deer in the wild increased slightly in the 1980s, although the increase was not
significant to take them off the endangered species list. (in spite of)
Connectives for simple, Compound, and complex sentences.

Simple Compound Complex

At the time of -ing And When
At the moment of -ing Moreover As soon as
On someone’s -ing Similarly No sooner …. Than
Having V3 As well as Hardly….when
In addition to someone’s Not only…but also Meanwhile
Noun Neither …nor Before
Besides Either …..or After
In spite of someone’s one But However
Despite someone’s noun On the contrary Although
Instead of -ing Otherwise Though
Nonetheless Nevertheless
On + not + ing Or If
Having not V3 Otherwise Unless
Depending on -ing Or else Provided
So that
Due to For As
Because of Since Since
Owing to And Because
With a view to In other words, The reason why
That leads to -ing
As a result of -ing And So
In the case of -ing eventually Therefore
It follows that my -ing consequently Then

Addition Sequence Consequences Contrast

In addition Firstly As a result However
And Initially Thus On the other hand
Similarly Secondly So Despite of
Likewise To begin with Therefore Though
As well as Then Consequently Although
Beside Next In follow that But
Furthermore Earlier / later There by On the contrary
Also After this / that Eventually Otherwise
Moreover Following this / that Then Yet
And then Afterwards In that case Instead of
Too admittedly Rather
Not only….but Whereas
Even Nonetheless
Besides this/ that Even though
Certainty Condition Definition Compared with
Obviously If Is In contrast
Certainly Unless Refers to Alternatively,
Plainly Whether Means
Of course Provided that That is
Undoubtedly For Consists of
So that
Depending on
Example Reason Time Summary
For instance Since Before In conclusion
One example As Since In summary
For example So As Lastly
Just as Because of Until Finally
In particular Due to Meanwhile To sum up
Such as Owing to At the moment To conclude
Namely The reason why When To recapitulate
To illustrate In other words Whenever In short
Leads to As soon as
Cause Just as