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Influencing Factors of Learner’s Career Choice:

Parent’s Choice vs. Personal Decision

A Quantitative Research
presented to the Faculty of Ateneo de Davao University Senior High School

In partial fulfillment of the requirements in


PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2

Antepasado, Troy
Calio, Ezekiel Ray
Gonzales, Jhan Isha
Revamonte, Kurt Kyle
Villa-Agustin, Kane
Waniwan, Shani Belle Aira

Grade 12- Denn

Tricia Angelika B. Firman, LPT


Research Adviser

Eng. Dinelle Aubrey L. Amper


Capstone Teacher

Date of Completion
February 27, 2018
ATENEO DE DAVAO UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Jacinto St., Davao City, Philippines

APPROVAL SHEET

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 2 and Applied
Inquiries and Investigation, under STEM Pre – Engineering and Architecture, this study is
entitled:

Influencing Factors of Learner’s Career Choice:


Parent’s Choice vs Personal Decision

Has been prepared and submitted by Troy Antepasado, Ezekiel Ray Calio, Jhan Isha
Gonzales, Kurt Kyle Revamonte, Kane Villa-Agustin, and Shani Belle Aira Waniwan, who
are recommended for the CULMINATING PERFORMANCE TASK

Tricia Angelika B. Firman, LPT

Research Adviser
APPROVED in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 2 and
Applied Inquiries and Investigation, under STEM Pre – Engineering and Architecture, by the
Contextualize Subjects Department

Ms. Aujefel Amor Y. Lee

Chairperson – Contextualized Subjects

ACCEPTED in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research 2 and
Applied Inquiries and Investigation

Date

Ms. Rachelle B. Remedios

Assistant Director for Academics

Senior High School Unit


ABSTRACT

This study aims to know which of the following factors, self and peer’s influence have

greater impact upon the choice of learners owing to their career from Grade 12

STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture. With the regards to increasing number of

cases such as mentioned, this study revolves about the finding of the relationship

between influencing factors and the choice a learner will choose in college. As a

Hypothesis, there is no significant relationship between the influencing factors:

parent’s choice and personal decision, and the career choices of the learners.

Hence, this study’s target is due to the increasing number of cases of failed career

choice. Moreover, this study will give readers the awareness they need on how vital

both sides’ perspective is in decision-making. Thus, allowing them, the readers, to

have a broader knowledge with respect to the research’s purpose.

Keywords: STEM Pre – Engineering and Architecture SHS Learners, career choice,

Ateneo de Davao University, comparative.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Title Page 1
Approval Sheet 2
Abstract 4
Table of Contents 5
Chapter
1 INTODUCTION 6
Review of Related Literature and Studies 6
Conceptual Framework 9
Statement of the Problem 10
Research Hypothesis 10
Significance of the Study 11
Scope and Delimitation 11
Definition of Terms 11
2 METHODOLOGY 13
Research Design 13
Sample 13
Research Instruments 14
Data Collection Process 14
Plan for Data Analysis 15
Ethical Considerations 15
3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND 16
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, 20
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES 22
APPENDIX 24
CURRICULLUM VITAE

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CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes the Introduction, Review of Related Literature and

Studies, Statement of the Problem, Significance of the Study, Scope and

Delimitation, and Definition of Terms.

INTRODUCTION

Every individual has his or her respective dreams and ambitions. One of these

is the career pathways to take. Choosing a career is crucial as it plays a huge part of

one’s life. In other words, it is important to choose a career wisely as it will affect the

future of an individual. Some may choose their careers based on their skills,

interests, or it is their ambition. However, most of students who are about to enter

college have difficulties in choosing a career which will probably lead to shifting

courses.

With the increasing number of cases such as mentioned, this study is about

finding the relationship between influencing factors and the choice a learner will

choose in college. The influencing factors that some learners’ reason in choosing

their careers may have contributed to this problem. The researchers specified these

factors as parent’s choice as well as personal decision. This study aims to know the

current decision of Ateneo de Davao Senior High School learners under the STEM

(Science Technology Engineering Mathematics) strand specifically the Pre-

Engineering and Architecture regarding this issue.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The graduates of the STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture strand are

faced with the choice of discipline of engineering and architecture to take up in

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college. These are important decisions to be made that will affect the future of the

learner. Most learners already have in mind what they want to take in college, there

some who are still unsure. Some factors that may affect this choice include interest

in the field, personality, academic ability and influential people.

Personal Interest

A factor that those learners who know what course they are going to take

have in common is that they have an interest in this field. Some learners will pursue

a course of which they do not have the aptitudes for to reach their dreams (Beggs et

al., 2008). However, not all who have shown interest in a course take the course

and follow their dream, since some learners are more concerned with the amount of

money they can earn from that course (McGlynn, 2007).

Personality, according to the American Psychological Association (2017), is

the individual’s differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and

behaving. Studies have shown that college prospective will choose a course that will

suit their personality (Mihyeon, 2009). How confident a person is can reveal how well

a person will do in their education. Students who are confident and believe in

themselves have a higher probability of getting what they want rather that settling for

what is comfortable.

Academic Ability

Another possible factor of the learner’s course choice is their academic ability

and their aptitudes. Many students chose a course to with their academic abilities as

a basis (Beggs et al., 2008). In these instances, however, there is the possibility that

these learners do not have the work habit of these courses. An aptitude is an

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acquired or learned ability that may help a person to accomplish certain tasks. There

is a difference between an interest and an aptitude. An interest is want or something

you look forward to whereas an aptitude are skills that give you potential

(idreamcareer, 2014). It is important to have a degree of interest and an aptitude for

a course in order to pass and obtain success.

Family

Since humans are social beings, another factor that may affect the learner’s

course choice are family member. Almost 60% of prospective college students say

that they ask help from their parents when looking for a college or university and

61% of the final decision is done by the prospective students and their parents.

Learners with engineers within their families have an impact as to taking an

engineering course. What a learner majors in can be greatly affect by family role

models (Wildman & Torres, 2002). Learners whose parents own or operate small

businesses can feel obliged to take over the business one day, thus leading them

into the same career as their parents (Zody et al., 2006).

Engineering

The world around us is full of the works of engineers. Engineering is the use

of science and mathematics to exploit the properties of matter and the sources of

energy in nature for the use of the people (Merriam,2017). The word "engineering" is

derived from the Latin "ingenium", meaning flash of genius (IAE, n.d.). Engineering is

divided into the different disciplines. The courses of engineering that are taken in

college are classified into these disciples, since each discipline has a different

specialty. The main disciplines of engineering are chemical, civil, electrical and

mechanical engineering (IAE, n.d.).

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Chemical engineering is applying the principles of chemistry, biology, physics,

and mathematics to solve problems that involve the production or use of chemicals

(College Grad, 2017). Chemical engineers design the process and equipment for

large scale manufacturing, test the production process, and over-see the facility

operations.

Civil engineering is the design and construction of public works and other

large infrastructure projects (Lucas, 2014). It is the oldest branch of engineering and

includes the supervision, operation and maintenance of projects and systems such

as roads, tunnels, buildings, etc.

Electrical engineering deals with electricity, electro-magnetism and electronics

(Sokanu, 2017). An electrical engineer designs, develops, solves problems and test

new electrical equipment. Another important role of an electrical engineer is the

electricity production that is vital to the modern society’s life style. Mechanical

engineering is the design and manufacturing of mechanical devices and complex

systems (Columbia, 2012).

The mechanical engineer’s role is to bring the product form idea to market. This

includes designing the small and large parts of a product and the machines to assist

in the production line.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This conceptual framework shows the variables: parent’s decision and

personal decision, affecting the outcome: career choice, of the Ateneo de Davao

Senior High School Learners under Pre-Engineering and Architecture of STEM

strand.

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Influencing Factors
a. Parents
Career Choice
b. Personal

Figure 1. Influencing Factors on Career Choice

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Due to the increasing number of cases of failed career choice, this research

aims to compare the different influencing factors, namely parent’s choice and

personal decision, and the career choice of the AdDU SHS Pre-Engineering and

Architecture learners of Finster building, Ateneo de Davao University, Jacinto

Campus. During this research, the researchers aim to acquire answer for the

following questions:

1. How do the parents of pre-engineering and architecture learner’s

choice compared to the personal decision of the learners affect their

career choice?

a. Is there a significant difference between learner’s parents

preferred course and learner’s choice?

b. Which has a higher satisfaction level of the learners?

HYPOTHESIS

There is no significant relationship between the influencing factors: parent’s

choice and personal decision, and the career choices of the learners.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is important to conduct this study to address the issue as of today, regarding

the choosing of careers of learners. In addition, if this study will be successful, there

are beneficiaries who will benefit in the future.

For the students, this study will give them awareness on how both parent’s

choice and personal decision affect their career choice. In addition, if this study will

be successful, shifting from courses to another will be prevented.

For the parents, this study will make them fully understand the importance of

choosing a career in life especially their children.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The researchers will conduct a comparative study of the relationship between

influencing factors, parent’s choice and personal decision that affect the career

choice in Senior High School of Ateneo de Davao University. The chosen

respondents are the learners of the STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture strand

of the 7th floor of the Finster Building. Specifically, those learners coming from the

sections of Denn, Escribano, Evans, Fausti, Favre and Fernando.

This is only exclusive on STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture learners of

year 2017-2018. Other tracks such as ABM, HUMMS, STEM Pre-Science and Pre-

Computer Studies will be excluded from this research as they are not part of the

STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

 Career Choice – this is a preferred course that will be taken up in college.

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 Influencing Factors – these are factors that will affect the learner’s career

choice.

 Learners – The enrolled learners of the Ateneo de Davao University Senior

high school STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture strand.

 Parent’s influence – the career choice of the learners decided by their

parents.

 Personal decision– the career choice chosen by the learner.

 STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture – a strand on Senior High School,

which stands for Science Technology Engineering Mathematics specifically

the Pre-Engineering and Architecture.

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Chapter 2 - METHODOLOGY

This chapter includes the Research Design, Sample, Instrument, Data

Collection Process, Plan for Data Analysis, and Ethical Considerations.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study shall fall under the quantitative type of research, wherein the

researchers shall use numerical data and statistical tools to interpret the data.

According to Labree (2009), Quantitative research is a research type which has an

emphasis on the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected

through polls, questionnaires, surveys or pre-existing statistical data. This approach

shall produce more reliable data in comparison to qualitative research, since this

approach has statistical figures to support it.

This research shall also be classified as a comparative study. A comparative

study, involves the comparison of two or more factors with a goal to discover a

relationship about one or all of the things being compared (Heidenheimer, et al.,

1983). This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study. When it comes

to method, the majority agreement is that there is no methodology peculiar to

comparative research. This research, in particular, wants to find the correlation, if

any, of the influencing factors parents’ choice and personal decision to the college

course choice of the STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture learns.

SAMPLE

For this study, the researchers agreed to have 40 respondents. To gather the

sample, the researchers decided to use a random sampling. This implies that a

sample of the population will be drawn at random giving each individual a chance to

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be part of the sample. The target population shall be composed of the STEM Pre-EA

classes of the 7th floor Finster building. These include the sections of Denn,

Escribano, Evans, Fausti, Favre and Fernandez. The researchers plan to choose 15

respondents per classroom to represent the population of the Pre-EA population of

the 7th floor of the Finster building.

INSTRUMENT

The material used in the study is survey questionnaire that contains closed-

ended questions (Yes/No survey). Closed ended questions are linked to the central

question that is most likely about the factors that cause in change of course. The

order of questions is from general to basic to make the answer of the interviewer

precise and accurate. The choice of words or terminologies of the questions are not

difficult to understand. Survey questions are sensible in able to avoid the interviewee

from being offended. There will be two sets of surveys, one for the participants

whose parents chose their course and one for those who chose their course based

on their own accord.

DATA COLLECTION PROCESS

First, the researchers gather the needed materials for the data collection.

Then the researcher will use random sampling to identify the sample for this study.

The researcher shall give each respondent a survey questionnaire to answer. The

respondents have the freedom to choose to reveal their identity during the survey.

The researchers understand and respect the privacy of every respondent.

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Once the survey has been conducted, the researchers shall tally the results and

interpret the collected data to find out if there is a difference between the influencing

factors and the courses chosen.

PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS

The analysis of the data will be through statistics and illustrations such as

charts and tables. This will help to understand fully the data gathered throughout the

research. Since the sample size is 40, the researchers shall use the z-test to test the

hypothesis. The z-test will test for a difference between the two variables when the

variances are known, and the sample size is large. Illustrations shall be made to help

identify and clarify the trend of the result. The researchers will be explaining

thoroughly the relationship of all the variables present in the research.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

This study will contain no plagiarism since the researcher will do the APA

format when citing a reference. The researchers will also observe proper

paraphrasing to give credits to the author of the ideas. In order for the paper to

contain no plagiarism, the researchers will observe proper citation. The researcher

will gather data from the respondents without using violence and any harmful

methods. The researchers will make sure that the respondents are completely

committed in answering the survey without any hesitation. At the same time, the

researchers will give rights to the respondents to be anonymous. In addition, the

confidentiality of the data will be preserved. In order to exercise the rights of the

respondents, anonymity and confidentiality will be put into consideration. Lastly, the

respondents have the right to participate or not participate in the study.

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Chapter 3 - RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this chapter, the researchers presented, analyzed and interpreted the data

gathered in textual and tabular forms.

QUESTION ANSWERS
(for those who answered YES NO
personal decision)
1) I chose my course 20 0
based on my own
interest.
2) I chose my course 13 7
based on my academic
capability.
3) I chose this course 14 6
because of its high
chance of
employability.
4) I am satisfied with my 15 5
chosen course.
Table 1. Results from the sample that chose personal decision.

In table number 1, 20 respondents were to answer the survey questionnaires

under the influence of personal choice. All the respondents chose their course on

their own accord, thus putting them under the classification of personal decision. In

the second question, the respondents were asked if the course that they will take is

based on their capability when it comes to academics. 13 respondents answered

YES and the remaining 7 answered NO. This implies that the majority of the

respondents is confident that they have the capability to endure their chosen course

and shows that the learners agree that academic ability is a reason for learners to

choose a course (Beggs et al., 2008). Another question that is given to the

respondents is that if their course that they are planning to take is based on the high

chance of employability. In this question, 14 respondents answered YES and 6

answered NO. This shows that the learners also take into consideration the

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probability of getting a job in their chosen course. The last question in table number

1 is that respondents were asked if they are satisfied on the course that they are

planning to take in college. 15 respondents are satisfied in the course they are

planning to take, on the other hand 5 respondents does not meet satisfaction in their

future career choice even though they chose it themselves. This shows that though

the majority is happy to take their chosen courses, there is still a part of the

population that is still unsure if they are taking the course that they are happy with.

QUESTION ANSWERS
(for those who answered YES NO
parent’s choice)
1. My parents chose my 20 0
course for me.
2. I chose this course 16 4
because it’s what my
parents took.
3. I chose this course 15 5
based on financial
status.
4. I am satisfied with my 14 6
chosen course.
Table 2. Results from the sample that chose parent’s choice.

In table number 2, 20 respondents were given to answer a survey

questionnaire under the influence of parent’s choice. The first question asked the

respondents if the course that they are planning is what they parents chose for them.

All the respondents said yes and thus fall under the category of parent’s choice. The

second question ask if the course that the respondents are planning to take is based

what also their parents took. 16 respondents answered YES, and 4 respondents

answered NO. This implies that many learners follow suit as to what their parents

took, but there is still a part of the population whose course was influenced by their

parents that will not be taking their parents course in college. This also shows that

parents can affect the learner’s career choice (Wildman & Torres, 2002). Another

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question that was asked to the respondents is if the course that they are planning to

take is based on their financial status. 15 respondents answered YES, while 5

respondents answered NO. This implies that the majority of those who are

influenced by their parents also consider their parents income and the tuition for their

course. This may also mean that the learners also take into consideration their salary

when they become professionals (McGlynn, 2007). The last question that was being

asked to the respondents was that if they are satisfied in the course that they are

planning to take under the influence of their parents. 14 respondents are satisfied to

their career choice under the influence of parent's choice and 6 respondents were

not satisfied under the influence of parent's choice. This implies that the majority of

those whose course was influenced by their parents are okay with their chosen

college courses.

I am satisfied with my chosen course.

Yes No

Personal decision 15 5 Total:

Parent’s choice 14 6 29/40

= 72.5%

Table 3. Level of satisfaction of the learners.

From table 3, we can see that only 72.5% of the sample is satisfied with their

course. This implies that the majority is happy with their chosen course, but there is

still 27.5% of the population who may still be unsettled with their career choice. It is

also noticeable that both categories have almost the same results. This implies that

weather their course is based on their personal decision or their parent’s choice the

learner’s level of satisfaction is the same.

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Independent sample t-test

t df p

-0.283 38.00 0.779

Table 4. Results after the data underwent a t-test.

From the table 4 the resulting probability is 0.779. Since the probability is

greater than the given confidence level, which was set at 0.05, then the null

hypothesis is true. This implies that there is no significant relationship between the

influencing factors: parent’s choice and personal decision, and the career choices of

the learners.

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Chapter 4 – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMENDATION

SUMMARY

This study aimed to know which of the following factors, parents’ choice and

personal decision influence have greater impact upon the choice of learners owing to

their career from Grade 12 STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture. With regards to

the increasing number of cases of shifting courses from one to another, this study is

about the finding of the relationship between influencing factors and the course a

learner will choose in college. This study targets the increasing number of cases of

failed career choice. Moreover, this study offers readers the awareness they need on

how vital both sides’ perspective is in decision-making.

CONCLUSION

The research results show that there is no significant difference between

parents’ choice and personal decision. This does not, however, mean that they do

not affect the learner’s choice. The majority of the learners are satisfied with their

career choice. Furthermore, the data gathered reveals that parents’ choice and

personal decision have around the same levels of satisfaction with their chosen

courses.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Ateneo de Davao University administration can use the findings of this

research to determine the influencing factors affecting the career choice of STEM,

Pre-Engineering and Architecture learners. To know how these factors, affect the

learners of Pre-Engineering and Architecture. Thus, the researchers suggest the

following actions to help the recipients of this study. These recommendations are

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also based on the findings or data gathered by the researchers after conducting the

study.

1. The researchers suggest conducting career guidance with the help of the

Department of Education and the institution for learners to be thoroughly

guided in choosing their career. This may include introducing some courses

and explaining its nature for learners to fully grasp and decide on what course

they want to take.

2. Furthermore, assessments such as test and interviews (if possible) should be

implemented to assess which specifically in line with their interests and

capacities. This course of action also needs the full cooperation of both

learners and their parents.

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REFERENCES:

American Psychological Association. (2017). Personality. taken from

http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/ on December 3, 2017.

Beggs, J. Bantham,J. and Taylor, S. (2008). Distinguishing the factors influencing

college students’ choice of major. College Student Jour. 42(2): 381.

College Grad. (2017). Chemical Engineers. Retrieved from

https://collegegrad.com/careers/chemical-engineers on November 30, 2017.

Heidenheimer, Arnold J.; Hugh Heclo; Carolyn Teich Adams (1983). Comparative

Public Policy. St. Martin's Press.

Idreamcareer. (2014). Why aptitude test is important while you choose a career?.

retrieved from https://idreamcareer.com/blog/importance-of-aptitude-test on

December 3, 2017.

International Association of Engineers. (n.d.). About IAENG. Retrieved from

http://www.iaeng.org/about_IAENG.html on November 30, 2017.

Labree, RV (2009). Quantitative Methods - Organizing Your Social Sciences

Research. Retrieved from http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative.

Lucas, J. (2014). What is civil engineering? Retrieved from

https://www.livescience.com/47612-civil-engineering.html on November 30,

2017.

McFadden, M. (2015). What factors influence college choice for today's studets.

taken from https://www.upandup.agency/digital-marketing/reasons-students-

choose-university on December 3, 2017

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Mcglynn, A. (2007). Achieving the Dream – What is it, and What’s new? The

Hispanic Outlookin Higher Education 18(4):44-45

Mcglynn, A. (2007). Achieving the Dream – What is it, and What’s new? The

Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education 18(4):44-45

Merriam-webster. (n.d.). Definition of engineering. Retrieved from

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/engineering on November 30,

2017.

Mihyeon, K. (2009). The relationship between thinking style differences and career

choice for high-achieving high school students. PhD Diss. Dept of

Education.The College of William andMary. United States, Virginia.

Sokanu. (2017). What is an electrical engineer? Retrieved form

https://www.sokanu.com/careers/electrical-engineer/#what-is-an-electrical-

engineer on November 30, 2017.

Wildman, M. & Torres, R. (2002). Factors influencing choice of major in agriculture.

NACTA Journal. 46(3): 4.

Zody, Z. MacDermid, S. Schrank, H. and Sprenkle, D. (2006). Boundaries and the

functioning of family and business systems. Jour. of Family and Economic

Issues. 27(2): 185-206. 2323

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APPENDIX

Survey Questionnaire

Name: (Optional) f f
Section:

REASEARCH TITLE: “Influencing Factors of Learner’s Career Choice: Parent’s


Choice vs. Personal Decision”

This study aims to know which of the following factors namely; parents or
personal choice has greater influence on the career choice of learners from Grade
12 STEM Pre-Engineering and Architecture. The researchers are conducting data
collection through the use of survey questionnaires. The respondents are expected
to answer this questionnaire with honesty and integrity.
Instruction: Check the box which correspond your answer.

QUESTIONS:

1. What factor influenced you in choosing your course?

 Personal Decision
 Parent’s Choice

If Personal…
QUESTIONS Yes No
1. I chose my course based on my own
interest.
2. I chose my course based on my
academic capability.
3. I chose this course because of its high
chance of employability.
4. I am satisfied with my chosen course.

If Parents…
QUESTIONS Yes No
1. My parents chose my course for me.
2. I chose this course because it’s what my
parents took.
3. I chose this course based on financial
status.
4. I am satisfied with my chosen course.

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