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MICRO PERSPECTIVE OF TOURISM AND in space

HOSPITALITY - Travel to space is limited activity

Micro-perspective - is a perspective, or form of Sports Tourism


analysis, which focuses on the individual and their - Appreciation and involvement in sports
subjectivity, rather than focusing on the structures of event or competition
society thought to be external and constraining on the
Urban Tourism
individual. - Travel of people to metropolitan areas for
Sightseeing, Shopping and Recreation
Tourism- the act and process of spending time away
from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation, and Rural Tourism
pleasure, while making use of the commercial provision - Traveler set their sites on the countryside
of services. where trees, farms and animals are highlighted

Hospitality- is the relationship between a guest and a Educational Tourism


host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, - Participants’ objective is not just for leisure but also to
including the reception and entertainment of guests, enhance their knowledge and to learn.
visitors, or strangers.
Festival Tourism
Hospitality Industry- is a broad category of fields - Areas which hold colorful fiestas and spectacular
festivals
within the service industry that
includes lodging, food and drink service, event Events Tourism
planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise - Focuses on Meetings, Convention, Conferences,
line, traveling, airline and additional fields within Congress and Exhibit
the tourism industry.[
TYPES OF TOURIST
TYPES OF TOURISM PLOG’S MODEL
1. PSYCHOCENTRIC
Adventure Tourism • Non adventurous
- Risk and Excitement • Prefer the familiar travel
- Remote and Exotic Destinations • Non risk takers
-Soft and Hard Adventure • Passive type of travel

Culinary Tourism 2. ALLOCENTRIC


- Offer a Gastronomical experiences • Try new products
- Lectures on food History • Adventurous
• Prefer the off beaten tracks
Disaster Tourism • Self-confident
-Travel to disaster places out of curiosity
- Merely observe and watch 3. MIDCENTRIC
• Dwell between allocentric and psychocentric
Dark Tourism • Most Tourist belong to this category
- Areas that were once sites of events involving deaths,
suffering and grief. COHEN’S MODEL
1. ORGANIZED MASS TOURIST
Eco Tourism • Prefer tours
- Advocates and promotes the protection and • Prefer the familiar environment
preservation of ecosystem.
2. INDIVIDUAL MASS TOURIST
Heritage Tourism • Tourist has some control over his/her itinerary
- Pursues the appreciation of different attributes of and time allocations
society. • Remains with environmental bubble home
country
LGBT Tourism
- Pride Marches and Parades, Gay Festival, Gay Square 3. EXPLORER
Dance Convention and Same Sex Marriage • Usually plan his/her own trip
• Avoids developed tourist attractions
Medical Tourism • Mixes with local but still protected by
- Seek healing and relief from adverse health Conditions environmental bubble
to find cure from their ailments
4. DRIFTER
Nautical Tourism • Plan his/her own trip
- Undertaken by tourists through sailing and boating • Avoids tourist attractions and lives with locals
• Mixes with local but still protected by
Space Tourism environmental bubble
- People are given the opportunity to travel • Immerses in the host culture
PEARCE’S TRAVELERS CATEGORY MOTIVATION AND DESIRE TO TRAVEL

TOURIST – take photos, buys souvenirs, goes to ABRAHAM MASLOW (1943, 1954) stated that people
famous places are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some
needs take precedence over others. Our most basic need
TRAVELER – take photos, stays briefly in one place, is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing
and experiments with local food and explore privately that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled
the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.
HOLIDAYMAKER – takes photos, goes to famous
places, alienates from society and buys souvenirs MASLOW HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
• Tourism Suppliers will address and anticipate
JETSETTER – lives a life of luxury, is concerned with the tourist want and desire
social status, seeks sensual pleasures, and prefer • Businesses can plan the services and amenities
interacting with people of his/her own kind that will be more attractive and will provide
BUSINESS PERSON – is concerned with social status, comfort to tourist
contributes to the local economy • Businesses industry will reassure the safety of
clients.
MIGRANT – has language problems, prefers interacting • Establishments will inform their clients that
with people of his/her own kind safety and security is one of their utmost concern
• Industry can offer to clients to visits those
CONSERVATIONIST – interested with environment, destinations which promotes a particular hobby
does not buy souvenirs explore privately and explore or sport that will bring them together and to
privately share same interest at the same time.
• This form of human need is widely addressed in
EXPLORER – explores privately, interested with the tourism industry.
environment, takes physical risk and does not buy • Rewarded by an incentive tour as recognition to
souvenirs his/her valuable contribution to the company.
• This level drives or compels the person to travel
MISSIONARY – Keenly observe the visited society
in order to achieve his/her ultimate desire or to
OVERSEAS STUDENT – experiments with the local fulfill his/her dream.
food, explores privately, interested with environment
and takes physical risk DISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO TOURISM
1. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH
ANTHROPOLOGIST – takes photo, interested with • Looks at the business side of tourism industry
environment, does not buy souvenirs explore privately and analyzes the risk factors and operational
and explore privately method of the different entities

HIPPIE – does not take photos, does not buy souvenirs 2. HISTORICAL APPROACH
and does not contribute to the society • Focuses on the historical growth or decline of
activities and institutions
INTERNATIONAL ATHLETE – does not understand • Observe the industry as its starts and evolves
the local people, explores privately through time
OVERSEAS JOURNALIST – explores privately,
interested with environment, takes physical risk and 3. MANAGERIAL APPROACH
• Studies the industry focusing on management
does not buy souvenirs
activities such as planning, research, advertising,
RELIGIOUS PILGRIM – searching for the meaning of pricing, control, and other aspects essential in
life operating tourism-related businesses.

PURPOSE OF TRAVEL 4. ECONOMIC APPROACH


• The focus is on tourism’s contribution to the
1. PLEASURE/VACATION country’s economic development and finances.
- To have HOLIDAY
- To RELAX and ENJOY 5. SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH
- To have FUN • Analyzes the impact of tourism to the
community based behavior, habits traditions,
2. BUSINESS / PROFESSIONAL and customs.
- Usually representative of companies, institutions,
schools or organization to attend seminar, convention 6. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES
meeting or event. • It is a fusion of different fields that cross and are
brought together in order to bring about a
VISITING FRIENDS or RELATIVES phenomenon.
- Socializing, dining in and dining out, home • Disciplines including arts, sciences, technology,
entertainment medicine, culture, music and even politics affect
the tourism industry.
5. RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT
A dynamic position leading a team of employees servicing
7. SYSTEM APPROACH food and beverage. A day in the life of a restaurant
• Rationalizes and simplifies complex ideas and manager can go from tasting wines with different
presents them in an organized and synthesized distributors to bussing tables on a busy night. Also
manner
responsible for the overall function of the operation,
8. GEOGRAPHICAL/DEMOGRAPHICAL inventory, ordering and budgeting often top the list of a
APPROACH manager’s to-do list.
• Involve the subject educational attainment,
social status, general age grouping, and 6. SPA AND WELLNESS MANAGEMENT
population size. Responsible for the day-to-day operations of a health or
beauty spa. Based on the size of the operation the position
9. PRODUCT APPROACH can be customer service focused or more business based,
• Focus on the product of tourism, its component handling all the marketing, schedules, and training.
as well as it compatibility to the tourist
preferences EVENT MANAGEMENT
1 5 H O SP IT A LI TY AN D T O U R ISM 7. CONCERTS, FESTIVALS & EXHIBITIONS
Event planning and project management dealing with large
M A NA G EM E NT C AR E E R O P TIO NS
scale events. This role involves studying the brand,
The travel & tourism industry makes up 9.8 % of global identifying the target audience, devising the event concept
GDP, and it’s still growing. Responsible for one out of and coordinating all the technical aspects before launching
every eleven jobs worldwide, the industry is the world’s or hosting an event.
largest employer according to the World Tourism
Organization UNWTO. Every day, a new idea is 8. WEDDING COORDINATION
hatched, big investment firms sign off on the designs of It all comes down to the details and building relationships.
a five-star luxury resort or some mom and pop diner Brides want to have confidence in their wedding
opens its doors.
coordinator and in doing so, this individual needs to be
extremely organized and love executing special events with
HOTEL OPERATIONS many moving components, balancing a need for both
1. BANQUET & CONFERENCES structure and creativity in the workplace. A rewarding
A demanding, yet high energy career working in hotels, career for the right individual, making lasting memories.
resorts and conference centers setting up rooms and OTHER AREAS
servicing events. If you enjoy seeing an event executed 9. AIRLINES
from the initial planning stages through to its end, this Jump on board and travel the world as a flight attendant.
may be for you. From organizing a 500-guest NGO Gala Manage the inflight services taking care of food and
to raise awareness for humanity aid to political beverage, duty free and other customer service requests.
receptions and corporate holiday parties, your clientele is Upon landing you are in a new location, traversing the
always changing, creating a unique environment that is globe on a regular basis.
never boring.
10. AMUSEMENT PARKS
2. FOOD & BEVERAGE MANAGEMENT Make every child’s eyes light up. Manage the overall
Responsible for all things related to food and beverage operations as a member of the leadership team or be ready
from ordering products to hiring staff and balancing profit to welcome amusement park goers behind the desk selling
and loss sheets. The career requires exceptional social and tickets, supervising a food and beverage outlet or
analytical skills. The ideal candidate is organized, calm controlling the rides themselves.
under pressure, service oriented and business minded.
11. CASINOS
3. FRONT OFFICE RECEPTION The gaming service industry is huge and jobs are typically
From the very first moment of a guest’s arrival, the front found in casinos or at the racetrack. Someone interested in
office serves as the face of the company and its standards this career may work as a dealer, slot machine attendant, pit
of service. Knowledgeable not only about the products they boss or an overall operations manager dealing with the
offer, these individuals are friendly, customer service activities, in addition to any lounges or food and beverage
oriented and can give insights on the surround area. outlets offered to the players.

4. RESORT MANAGEMENT 12. CATERING


Oversee all operations departments from the front desk and A mash up of sales, project management and food and
security to housekeeping and food and beverage. beverage, this is a fun and vigorous career. Whether you’re
Responsible for the overall success of the facility, this is a a chef creating the menu or coordinator organizing the
very diverse position that manages a wide variety of people. vendors, this position is constantly on-the-go fielding
A strong leader, that is both service oriented and business queries and giving instructions. A great position
savvy, will exceed in this management role. incorporating sales with event planning.
13. CRUISES and maintaining infrastructures such as roads, railways,
Head out to sea. Very similar to a hotel, but you are and ports; promoting destinations to local and
floating from port to port. Work in sales, food and beverage, international tourists; and ensuring safety and security of
housekeeping, maintenance or security. Maybe you strive tourists. In 2016, the UK government made an
to be the big boss, in which case there are a lot of moving announcement of £40 million investment to deliver new
parts to oversee 24 hours a day. tourism outside London and ease travel around Britain,
which is aimed at helping local and international visitors
to explore the wealth of tourism opportunities across the
14. CONSULTING country.
Work for a firm or start your own business, this career
requires a base of experience in order to advise your clients.
Whether in hotels, restaurants or travel, becoming an expert Local governments
in your trade will allow you to give the soundest guidance.
Local governments with specific competence in tourism
matters also play in important role in tourism
15. START YOUR OWN BUSINESS development. Councils promote local tourist attractions,
16. provide infrastructure and services to support tourism
and manage the impacts of tourism. They are also in a
STAKEHOLDERS IN TOURISM better position to understand unique characteristics of a
DEVELOPMENT destination and can create an authentic experience for the
people who want to visit it.
Tourism establishments and enterprises
Tourism establishments and enterprises play a variety of
roles in tourism development. For example, airlines,
trains, and buses transport tourists from one place to
another, restaurants provide them with food and drinks,
and hotels provide accommodation. Tour operators,
travel agencies, and tourist information centres also fall
in to this category. In fact, travelling abroad is almost
impossible without tourism organisations.
Tourists
Travelers, including business travelers, and visitors to
tourism destinations, sites and attractions are perhaps the
most important stakeholders. Tourists visit attractions;
spend money; and may promote the attractions through
Definition of stakeholder word of mouth and social media if their experience is
positive. If the experience is not positive, tourists may
A stakeholder is a person, group, or organization that can not return to the attractions again, and may even spread
affect or be affected an organisation. According to negative word of mouth.
Johnson, Scholes & Whittington (2006) stakeholders
refer to individuals or groups who depend on the Local people
organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in Local people are also very important in tourism
turn, the organisation depends. development. They may have legitimate concerns and
Stakeholders in tourism development may resist any tourism development. Therefore, they
need to be involved in the decision-making process
Participation of stakeholders in the decision-making where appropriate. Local people with their distinct
process is very important for sustainable tourism values and cultures can add value to any tourist
development. According to UNWTO (2005) there are a destinations. Tourists may also benefit from local people
number of stakeholders who may impact directly or in many different ways.
indirectly on tourism planning and development. They
play a wide variety of roles and may sometimes have Employees and professionals
competing aims and objectives. Tourism employees, professionals and consultants also
The roles of stakeholders in tourism development play a very important role in tourism
development. According to Visit Britain (2017) tourism
National governments has been the fastest growing sector in the UK in
employment terms since 2010. Tourism is expected to
National governments play an important role in tourism
support almost 3.8 million jobs, which is around 11% of
development. They plan tourism activities at national
the total UK number by 2025. These figures demonstrate
levels. Planning at national levels require appropriate
how important tourism employees and professionals
policies being designed and implemented. National
are. Restaurants, hotels, airlines, buses, trains, and others
governments’ roles include but not limited to developing
will certainly struggle should they employ an inadequate
number of employees, or there are shortages of skilled
people in the market.
Other stakeholders
There are some other stakeholders tourism planners
should consider. For example, institutions engaged in
financing tourism projects, trade unions of employees
and professionals working in tourism, tourism
educational centres, and other tourism specialist
organisations play a variety of roles in tourism
development.