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UMTS Tutorial-Page1

This tutorial on UMTS covers UMTS overview,UMTS Releases, UMTS frequency
bands,UARFCN,UMTS multiple access,UMTS frame structure, UMTS network architecture, UMTS
channel types(logical,transport,physical channels),mapping between channels,spreading,scrambling
and modulation.
This tutorial covers following in addition to overview and UMTS releases outlined here:

UMTS Overview
UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. It came into existence from GSM
technology developed by 3GPP. UMTS network composed of three main parts UE (User
Equipment), Radio Access Network (RAN) and Core Network. UMTS is released in several phases
by 3GPP standard body as shown below. UMTS is also referred by 3G. The main features of 3G
standardization by ITU includes support for circuit and packet switching, support for both voice and
data applications, support for seamless mobility for both voice and data, improvement in spectral
efficiency, legacy support for GSM/GPRS systems, increase in voice quality, low round trip packet
delay and more.

UMTS Releases
Release Feature introduced
R99 WCDMA air interface introduced in UMTS
R4 IPMS (IP Multimedia Service) introduced on network side
R6 HSUPA + Fractional DPCH
HSPA, MIMO, higher modulation scheme 64QAM, continuous packet connectivity and
Flexible RLC
R8 LTE, Dual cell HSDPA
R10 LTE Advanced, Multi cell HSDPA
R11 8 carrier HSDPA

3GPP TS 25.201, Physical layer general description
3GPP TS 25.101, UARFCN
UMTS Frequency bands and UARFCN
RF carrier frequency in UMTS is calculated based on UARFCN. UARFCN stands UTRA Absolute
Radio Frequency Channel Number. In GSM, ARFCN is used to calculate the carrier frequency.
UARFCN calculation formulas are mentioned below.

Uplink: NUL = 5 * (FUL - FUL_Off)

Downlink: NDL = 5 * (FDL - FDL_Off)

FUL_Off and FDL_Off is defined in TS 21.101 standard released by 3GPP, with this we can obtain
following UARFCNs.
UMTS Frequency band Carrier Frequency range(MHz) UARFCN
Band I 1922.4-1977.6(FUL), 2112.4-2167.6(FDL) 9612-9888(UL), 10592-10838(DL)
Band II 1852.4-1907.6(FUL), 1932.4-1987.6(FDL) 9262-9538(UL), 9662-9938(DL)
Band III 1712.4-1782.6(FUL), 1807.4-1877.6(FDL) 937-1288(UL), 1162-1513(DL)
Band IV 1712.4-1752.6(FUL), 2112.4-2152.6(FDL) 1312-1513(UL), 1537-1738(DL)
Band V 826.4-846.6(FUL), 871.4-891.6(FDL) 4132-4233(UL), 4357-4458(DL)
Band VI 832.4-837.6(FUL), 877.4-882.6(FDL) 4162-4188(UL), 4387-4413(DL)

UMTS Multiple access types

UMTS uses Direct Sequence CDMA and information is spread across bandwidth in multiple ways as
shown below, which derives different physical channels or air interfaces.

1. Information is spread across 1.6 MHz BW (1.28Mcps), referred as narrowband CDMA

2. Information is spread across 5 MHz BW (3.84 Mcps), referred as WCDMA
3. Information is spread across 10MHz BW (7.68 Mcps)

UMTS supports both FDD and TDD duplex modes. FDD is supported in 3.84Mcps option. TDD is
supported in all the three options i.e. 1.28, 3.84 and 7.68 Mcps.

UMTS Frame Structure

Figure depicts UMTS frame structure for 3.84Mcps radio system. It is made of super frame, radio
frame and chips. Each radio frame is of duration 10ms and composed of 15 slots. Each slot is
composed of 2560 chips. Chip duration is about 0.26micro-sec (derived from 1/3.84Mcps). Slot
duration is about 0.667ms.
Refer frame structure of other standards as mentioned below.

UMTS Network Architecture
UMTS Protocol Stack
UMTS Logical, Transport and physical channels
UMTS Spreading,scrambling and modulation

Frame structure of wireless standards, technologies

Frame structure of various wireless standards/technologies are mentioned below. It include WiMAX,
WLAN, Zigbee, GSM, GPRS, UMTS, LTE, TD-SCDMA, GPS, SDH, 11ac WLAN, AMPS, Ethernet,
VLAN etc.

WiMAX physical layer Frame Structure as per 802.16d and 802.16e standards
WiMAX MAC layer Frame Structure as per OFDM 802.16d standard
Zigbee RF4CE Frame Structure
Zigbee physical layer Frame Structure
Zigbee MAC layer Frame Structure
GPRS Frame Structure
GPS Frame Structure
LTE Frame Structure
TD-SCDMA Frame Structure
UMTS Frame Structure
SONET Frame Structure
SDH Frame Structure
802.11ac PHY Frame Structure
802.11ac MAC layer Frame Structure
WLAN Frame Structure as per 802.11a,11b,11n,11ac standards
AMPS Frame Structure
Ethernet Frame Structure
VLAN Frame Structure
GSM Frame Structure