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J. Sound Vib. (1969) 9 (l), 28-48

J. Sound Vib. (1969) 9 (l), 28-48 ACOUSTIC WAVE PROPAGATION CONTAINED IN A IN A DUCT

ACOUSTIC

WAVE

PROPAGATION

CONTAINED

IN

A

IN

A

DUCT

SHEARED

FLUID

P. MUNGURAND G. M. L. GLADWELL

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO9 5NH, England

(Received 12 June 1968)

In assessing the propagation of an acoustic wave in a sheared fluid, first, the derivation of the linearized wave-equation for two-dimensional viscous flow is presented. Interactions with the acoustic wave of the mean flow, the shear and the viscosity of the fluid through

shear have been included. This is followed by a numerical solution to the inviscid case, using a constant gradient and a turbulent velocity profile, for the first three symmetric modes. The “plane” mode is compared with results obtained by Pridmore-Brown using an

analytical approach;

Methods of solution are also presented for the problems of acoustic wave propagation in a flowing medium, both with and without shear, contained in ducts with fmite wall

admittance.

there is good agreement for the case with constant gradient profile.

1. INTRODUCTION

The stimulus for these theoretical investigations of the propagation of acoustic disturbances in a fluid contained in a duct and having mean velocity gradients normal to the flow direction, was the observation that high intensity sound produced in the currents of gas-cooled nuclear reactors appeared to be most strongly attenuated in those regions of the flow where high

shear gradients, associated with turbulent boundary layer flow, were produced for the purpose of efiicient heat transfer. It was also interesting to determine whether mean shear effects could produce significantly greater attenuation of sound in gas flowing in pipes and ducts than the classical diffusion and molecular relaxation effects associated with propagation in the quiescent fluid. Meyer, Mechel and Kurtze [I] experimented on the influence of flow on sound attenuation in absorbing ducts. Ingard [2] investigated the effect of uniform flow (no shear) on the pro- pagation and attenuation in lined ducts. The effect of shear in lined ducts has been considered by Pridmore-Brown [3] and Tack and Lambert [4]. In all the works referred to above, the effect of viscosity has been neglected altogether. When a fluid flows past a solid boundary, the fluid immediately in contact with the wall is

at rest. However, the velocity rises rapidly

stream, the rise taking place within the thin viscous boundary layer next to the wall. In this layer the velocity gradient is very large, so that even if the viscosity is small, the tangential stresses cannot be ignored. The paper presents a derivation of the linearized wave equation for two-dimensional viscous flow. This is followed by a numerical solution to the inviscid case for comparison with Pridmore-Brown’s results. Methods of solution are also presented for the problems of acoustic wave propagation in a flowing fluid, both with and without shear, contained in ducts with finite wall impedance.

28

from zero at the wall to its value in the main

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

FLUID

29

The projected

sequel to this paper

will present

results of numerical

solution

for acoustic

wave propagation

in viscous flows.

To reduce

the complexity

2. THE WAVE EQUATION

of the problem,

the present

analysis

will be confined

to two

dimensions only. The mean flow will be taken to be in the x direction and will be assumed to be a function of y only, as shown in Figure 1.

be assumed to be a function of y only, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.
be assumed to be a function of y only, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.
be assumed to be a function of y only, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.

Figure 1. Pressure profile for lowest mode constant gradient flow. M = ik&(y/L).

The exact two-dimensional

Navier-Stokes

equation

is given by (see Howarth

[5])

Navier-Stokes equation is given by (see Howarth [5]) and $ [ ;+p+$s ay 1 - in

and

$

[

;+p+$s

ay1 -

in the x direction

ap’+qy(vy+fa

aY

3 ay

f!L+!c -

(

ax

ay

1

2a4

--- 3 ay

-+_ ad

(

ax

ad

ay

1

+-.-+- 2aql ad

ay

ay

aqf

ax

(

in they

-+-& ad

ay

ad

1

direction.

(1)

(2)

The dashes denote the total magnitude of the parameters concerned, and V: = the two-

dimensional Laplacian operator = gz

+

ay2 -!? *

Let P'= PO+ P (POis the mean pressure and P is the fluctuating pressure);

u=

U + u

(U is the mean flow velocity

function of y only depending on the flow profile and u is the fluctuating

velocity in x direction) ;

in the x direction

and is assumed

to

be

a

v’= V + v = v (since there is no mean flow in y direction in that direction);

and v is the fluctuating

velocity

p= p.

q= q.

+ p

+ 17

(p. is the static density and p is the fluctuating

(y. is the mean viscosity and 11is the fluctuating viscosity).

density);

In a duct of uniform

the variation

cross-section

with fully developed

flow, under

with x of any of the mean parameters

will be zero.

steady-state

conditions,

30

(1) and (2)

by subtracting the time-average of equations (1) and (2) from equations (1) and (2). If this is

done, and the products of fluctuating components are neglected, one obtains

P. MUNGUR

The acoustic part of the Navier-Stokes

AND

G.

M.

L.

GLADWELL

equation

can be filtered from equations

G. M. L. GLADWELL equation can be filtered from equations and P o k + ~

and

Pok+~&]=-$+

rloV;v+--

1)30:(:; _+au

aX)

+YE* axay

in the x direction

mtheydirection.

(3)

(4)

The two-dimensional

conservation

of mass yields

aP'

Yg+ujy+vay+

,aPf

,aPf

p’ !T!Ic+~=o*

(

ax

>

ay

(5)

As before,

average of equation (5) is substracted from equation (5), and the products of fluctuating

components

if the mean

and fluctuating

one obtains

components

of the parameters

are used, the time

are neglected,

aP

aP

z+uax+po

au+%=o.

(

ax

ay 1

(6)

be denoted

by 4, then

+-J-($+ u$).

(7)

Differentiating

equations

(3) and (4) with respect to x and y, respectively,

one obtains

and

zE+ ua~+2au

ax

ay I 2$+~,-&+3%!+lp+!5L~

ax ay2

a2v +auao mu a2v

L--

ayax

I

~_azp+90-a,~v+

ay

~

axay ay2

po ay at

TOa

+

3 ay2

Differentiating

equation

(6) with respect to t, one obtains

axayay

a2rlau

ZSjjay’

C&U-

a2P

a4

axat+PO~=O-

(8)

(9)

(10)

If all the terms in equations

(8) and (9) are brought

and equated

to equation

(10) one obtains

to the left and the two equations

g+ugt

=v~P+pouax+2podt’~-~770v~~-~~-2~y~.

axay

a+

2

a211au

added

(11)

4 may be eliminated from the above expression by using equation

W=-;

au a2p

[ &(v:P)+U$$i7:p)+2ayaxay+~~~

(7) and the derived relation

1

(12)

above expression by using equation W=-; au a 2 p [ &(v:P)+U$$i7:p)+2ayaxay+~~~ (7) and the derived

Substituting

equations

a2P -

at2

=v:P-2Ua~~-

arla2u

--

ax

ay2

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

FLUID

(12) and (7) in equation

UZ$$+2po

av au

ax+

(1l), one obtains

4r10

[

a

_(v:p)+2aua

at

+--

3po

2a211au

4710

,,,,,,+g+g:P).

a

2P

ay axay

a2uap

+ay2ax

1 -

31

(13)

To obtain a convenient wave equation, p, 7 and v must be expressed in terms of P in equation (13). In the simpler case of an inviscid fluid with no thermal conductivity, propaga- tion may be considered to take place adiabatically and isentropically, and the fluctuating density and pressure to be related by

(14)

where c is the sound velocity. However, in viscous fluids, where the isentropic condition is no longer valid due to energy dissipation by viscosity, the change in entropy must be taken into account. Thus, via the mechanism of viscosity, the sound wave gives rise to an entropy wave. Through the equation of state of the fluid, the pressure wave is accompanied by a temperature wave which in turn leads to a viscous wave. In Appendix 2, it has been shown that when entropy is not conserved due to viscous dissipation, the fluctuating pressure and density are related thus :

where

pJp+@

-

C2

[compare with equation

s=-(U--_-)X

jW(1 _MK)

(14)]

(15)

(16)

and E is a function of viscosity, thermal conductivity, shear, etc., o = angular frequency,

u = ratio of the principal specific heats (cP/cy). M = U/c, and K is defined in equation (26) below.

In Appendix

1, it has been shown that

y=qO

(PO

P_P

PO)

(17)

where a is the index relating viscosity and temperature,

and is about 0.72 to 0.75 for gases.

and temperature, and is about 0.72 to 0.75 for gases. If p is replaced by (P

If p is replaced

by (P + S)/c2, equation

(17) becomes

Substituting equations (15) and (18) in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by TV,one obtains

in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by
in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by
in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by
in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by

32

For harmonic variation with time, a/at = jw and, in this case, denoting U/c by A4, the Mach number, one finds

P. MUNGUR

AND

G. M. L. GLADWELL

2~ ayp+ 6)

--

c

axat fTC M$V:(P+6)+2-

[

-~2c~+r-l)%gLrq-

dhfaqP+6)+awa(P+q -~-

dy axay

ay

ax I

-27,eg

[ (u- 1) aqp+ 8) axay

-CT------. axay a26 1

(20)

This is the wave equation governing the propagation of sound in a viscous flowing fluid in the presence of shear. Terms involving aM/ay represent the interaction of shear with the acoustic wave and those containing T and 72 are due to viscosity. Terms in M represent interaction of the mean flow with the acoustic wave and those involving the products of T or 72 and aM/ay or a2M/ay2 represent interaction with viscosity through shear. The above equation simplifies to the one used by Pridmore-Brown [3] if the terms containing T and r2 are suppressed. Further, if the terms containing aM/ay and a2M/ay2 are suppressed, the equation reduces to a wave equation obtained by Ingard [2] for the case of uniform flow in an inviscid fluid. It must be stressed that the solution to equation (20) is subject to the following limitation. Although the effect of shear has been taken into account, it has been assumed that variations with x of PO, U, v. and p. are zero; this assumption is valid only under steady-state conditions and constant cross-section. In Appendix 2, while deriving the effect of the fluctuating entropy on the fluctuating density, it has been assumed that there is no mean temperature gradient. Equation (20) cannot be solved by the normal separation of variable method because of the presence of coupled terms. Substitution for 6 transforms the equation from second order to one of fourth order. Of course, in an inviscid fluid, 6 3 0, the equation retains its second- order wave equation characteristic. It may be noted that shear affects the propagation even in the absence of viscosity [see fourth term on the right of equation (20)]. To find the contribu- tion of viscosity to the attenuation, the effect of shear in the fluid with no viscosity must first be determined. The following section therefore deals with the solution of equation (20) for the inviscid case. The general solution taking viscosity into account will follow in another paper.

taking viscosity into account will follow in another paper. 3. THE INVISCID CASE When the viscosity

3. THE INVISCID

CASE

When the viscosity is zero, T, 72 and 6 are also zero, and equation

(20) becomes

As the problem

;!$41

-M3$+~+2poc;$-~$~.

is now one involving the effect of shear on the propagation,

a solution

of the form

 

p

= F(y)

e-ax elw-kxx)

and

U= G(y) e-CcXeJ(wt-kxX)_

(21)

one may assume

(22)

(23)

Here F(y) and G(y) are the amplitudes of the pressure wave and the transverse particle velocity, respectively, and a, k, are respectively the attenuation and the propagation constants

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

FLUID

33

in the x direction. As there is no viscosity, the attenuation would be due to finite wall admit- tance. For rigid walls CLwould tend to zero.

Substituting

From

-$E=(l

equation

equations

(22) and (23) in (21), one obtains

-M3(~+j/~,)~F+~~-2p~c~~(~+j~JG+j+~.+j~~)F.

(4), in absence of viscosity,

(24)

or

[jw-(u+jk,)U]G=-;z

and

where

G=_

1

jccJpo(1 -

aF

MK) ay

K = (g + jk,) jw/c

the normalized

complex wave vector in the x direction and k = w/c.

in equation

If one substitutes

the expression

(25) for G, equation

(24) becomes

d2F

@+

&Kdr;$+k2[1

-K2(1-

M2) -

2MK]F=O.

(25)

(26)

(27)

if Kis taken to be wholly real

(that is if the walls are rigid). Once the flow profile M which is a function of y has been chosen,

equation (27) may be solved to yield the pressure profile across the duct. In order to obtain an explicit solution, the boundary conditions at the walls or at one wall and the centre of the duct must be specified. This leads to specific eigenvalues of K, the imaginary part of which yields the attenuation.

This equation

is identical to that obtained by Pridmore-Brown

4. SOLUTION

FOR RIGID

WALLS

Pridmore-Brown

obtained

by Langer

[6]. For a constant

an approximate

solution to equation

(27) by a method proposed

gradient

boundary

layer, he obtained

where

e=K-I-M,

q=fP-1

F=

,

d~“~q-~‘~f (H)

(28)

andf(H)

s = f ‘q112de = +{8(e2 -

1

H = (3clK~/2)“~,

d = kl(dMdy),

1)“2 -

cash-’ B},

is the general solution

of Airy’s differential

equation,

namely,

f”(H)

+ Hf(H)

= 0.

34

P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL

In the case of a turbulent

boundary

independent

variable,

one obtains

layer,

taking

M = M,,(J&)~/~, and using M as the

d2F

-- dM2

dg+49(kL)2M,14M12{(1

-MIQ2-K2}F=0.

A solution

to the above equation,

obtained

by Pridmore-Brown,

is

F= M3 t9s”6q-“4f (H)

where q = M12(e2 -

A = 7kLMG7,

and the remaining symbols are defined as above.

l),

Due to the singularity in equation

(29) at M = 0, the solution given by equation

(29)

(30)

(30) breaks

down at the wall. However, the solution is valid asymptotically for (1 --f w in the neighbour-

hood of y = 0. Values of F across the flow profile were obtained using Laurent series and involved tedious calculations and approximations.

5. NUMERICAL

SOLUTION

Equation

(27) has been solved numerically

for a number of different velocity protjles M(y).

The method used was the fourth-order

Runge-Kutta,

a good description

of which is given by

Hildebrand

[7]. Equation

(17) may be written in the form

 
 

d2 Y

@

+fi(X)dr;+f2(X)

Y=

0

(31)

where

Y = F,

X E y/L.

 

Equation

(31) may be rewritten

as a pair of equations

 

dY

dx=Z

and

g=-fi(X)Z-f2(X)

Y=f(X,

 

Y,Z)

(32)

for which the Runge-Kutta

method

gives the approximate

solution

 
 

Y(‘+‘) = Y(‘) + hZ”’ + &?,

+ rnz + m3)

+

O(V)

(33)

and

 

ZCr+‘)= Z@)+ *(ml + 2m2 + 2m3 + m4) + O(h5)

 

where

Y(‘) =

Y(rh), Ztr) = Z(rh), the interval

0 G X G 1 is divided into n intervals

of length

h =

l/n,

and

 

m,

= h

x f (X@), Y(‘), Z@)),

 

m2 = h

x f (X(r) + +h, Y(r) + +hZ(‘), Z(r) + *ml),

 

m3 = h

x f (Xc’) + *h,

Y(‘) + 3hZ(‘)

+ ihm,,

Zcr) + Jm2),

 

m4 = h

x f (Xc’) + h, Y(‘) + hZ(‘) + +hm2,Zcr) + m3).

(34)

6. APPLICATION

OF

RUNGE-KU’ITA

TO THE

Tack and Lambert

[4] showed that the velocity profiles M(y)

INVISCID

CASE

in a duct can be approximated

either by an exponential function or by a fractional power. In the present analysis a power law will be assumed, namely,

M=

Mo(y/L)‘lN = MOX1’N

for 0 G XG

1

(35)

35

where L is the value of y at the centre of the duct, Me is the midstream Mach number, and N is a positive number whose value depends on the nature of the wall. For flow without shear, the velocity profile is uniform so that N -+ co. In the case of a constant velocity gradient, N = 1, and for a fully-developed turbulent flow, N is approximately equal to 7. It follows that

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

FLUID

Equation

(28) now becomes

dM 1 MOX”‘N’-’

-=- dy N

L

d2 Y

dXZ=dX=-

dZ

2Kjj,f,,X”‘N’-1

N(l

-MO

XIN) Z -

’[(1 -

M,, KX”N)2 -

K2] Y,

(36)

(37)

= -_f&w

=f(X

-.lxX)

K

(38)

where Y G F, X E y/L and Z = (d Y/dZ). Equation (37) is of the same form as equation (32),

the solution of which is given by equation (33). The boundary conditions that must be satisfied in solving equation (38) are as follows:

at the wall X = 0, Y may be set equal to unity. Z, being actually (d Y/dX), is proportional to the particle velocity normal to the flow and is therefore equal to zero at a rigid wall. Also at X= 1, the centre of the duct, Z is zero for symmetric modes and Y is zero for antisymmetric modes. Several values of K may be found to satisfy the above boundary conditions ; the mode of propagation depends on the magnitude of K. For plane wave propagation in the absence of flow K is unity in the lowest mode.

K a,

A computer program was written to evaluate Y and Z at various steps of X between

0 and 1 for various values of (wL/c), Me and N. A subroutine selects the appropriate value of K

to satisfy the boundary

in this way. However, the effect due to shear or viscosity is best demonstrated by comparing

the results for the lowest mode of propagation. In the absence of shear, that is for uniform flow, the pressure is uniform across the flow. The way in which shear alters the pressure

profile is shown in Figures 2 and 3 where N has been set equal to unity, equivalent to a constant gradient flow. The results are in good agreement with those predicted by Pridmore-Brown using an analytical solution. Figure 4 shows the pressure profile for a turbulent flow; in this case, unlike Pridmore-Brown’s results, the present solution does not break down at the wall. Figures 6 and 7 show the effect of flow on the pressure distribution for the next two higher symmetric modes. In Appendix 3 an expression is obtained for K, the normalized wave vector in the x direction when shear is absent, and the magnitude of K so deduced is compared

in Table 1 with those obtained when

(that is mode zero) Kis a function of the mean flow only for the no-shear case, but the presence

on the frequency as well. Figure 5 shows

of shear brings in dispersion by making K dependent the variation of K with MO and kL.

condition

at

X = 1. Various modes of propagation may be investigated

shear is present. It may be noted that for the lowest mode

7. SOLUTION

FOR

WALLS

WITH

FINITE

ADMITTANCE

Before the general

numerical

solution

of this class of problem

is described,

the slightly

simpler case of absence of shear will be discussed as this can be solved analytically.

7.1.

IN ABSENCE

OF SHEAR

In

this case the separated

wave equation

becomes

f$

+ (kL)2

[(1 -

MK)2

-

K2] F

=

0.

(39)

P.00.1

fi 3

m”

_\

‘0

8.0

0
\

II

II

f-(7/10 (qJ-2

0
\

9.0

0
\

I

a)@3

0
\

0
\

I

I

2.0

0

i

\

OE=

,.,=o,-0s

Olo

7n

-0E

-

-

-02

= 5

0

ot
09

O!

I II

I

]uagx?B wn?~suo~ apow

no14 ou

7

=

I

6

(0

amsald

.

I

‘(7/4’AC = A!

=

$j

ysamoI .IOJqgo.Id amssaa

I

‘MoI3

I

I

‘2 am+I

81

l

I

I

I

I

-

0

------

0,

6

0

k

al

0

l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601
l I I I I - 0 ------ 0, 6 0 k al 0 -([b/d) 601

-([b/d)

601

02

I

p

I

al

I

u)

I

P

I

(u

_T

0

o

IPM

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

39

of the sound wave and this makes K

FLUID

The finite admittance of the wall leads to attenuation necessarily complex. Let

 

K

= B +jA

[see equation

(26)]

(40)

where B is the normalized

propagation

vector

along the duct = k,lk

and A =-u/k

is the

normalized attenuation Let

coefficient along the duct.

 
 

-

k;

= (kL)*[(l -

MK)* - K*],

 
 

=

(kL)* [l

-

2MB

+ (M* -

1) (B* - A*) +j2A(M2

B -

B -

M)],

= al +jbl

(say).

 

(41)

Let

 

k,

= cl +jd,

;

then

 

al

=

d;

-

c;

and

br = -

2ci dl.

 

(42)

The solution

of equation

(39) may be written as

 
 

F = D, ekyx+ Dz ebkpx ,

 

(43)

therefore,

 

dy=

k,,[D, ekyX-

Dz emklx]

 

(44)

where D1 and D2 are constants

to be determined

from the boundary

conditions.

 

At the centre

of the duct,

X =

1,

dF/dX=

0 for symmetric

modes

and F=

0 for

anti-

symmetric modes. From equations

(43) and (44), it follows that

ezky,

Dz = fD,

the positive sign referring mode.

to the symmetric

Equations

(43) and (44) now become

mode and the negative sign to the antisymmetric

and

F=

D, e+ky[e-kH-X) f ekWO]

(45)

_d!!d!&k, Di e+kr[e-ky(i-X)7 ekyW’)]_

.

(46)

At the wall, X = 0, the ratio of i,,, the transverse

wall velocity, to P, the pressure is equal

to the normal

specific admittance

of the wall, A. Thus

_=_w_ A i

POC

p

(47)

In problems where there is relative motion between the fluid and the boundary

it is necessary

to use the basic continuity of acoustic particle displacement rather than velocity because of the extra convective terms in the substantial derivative of the displacement. The importance of using the basic boundary condition had been pointed out before by Miles [8], Ribner [9] and Ingard [2]. In the absence of relative motion, continuity of particle displacement also leads to continuity of particle velocity. Let

(48)

represent

5;, = ,Q,)

in the medium.

e-orxeiWt-kxx)

the displacement

40

P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL

Then u, the particle velocity in the medium, is given by

Then u, the particle velocity in the medium, is given by or   v = jw(1

or

 

v = jw(1

 

-

MK) &.

 

(49)

Using continuity

of acoustic particle

displacement,

one may write

 

5;, =

5,

(at the wall),

 
 

V

 

c--

jw(

1 -

MK)

(50)

For the wall,

Therefore,

Substituting

equation

(50) in equation

(47) one obtains

 
 

-= A

1

v

pot

(1 -

MK)P’

 

=(l

&K);.

 

(51)

From

equation

(25), the amplitude

of the transverse

particle velocity is given by

 

G=

j

ldF

 

kL(1

-

MK)PocdX’

 

(52)

Equation

(51) becomes

 

dF/dX

 
 

A=iX(l

kK)2-F.

 

(53)

Substituting for dF/dX and F from equations (45) and (46) in equation (53), one obtains

A =

jkY

kL(1 -

MK)z

[

e-b$& 1

eyky*

tiy

Thus

and

A = kL(1

-jk,

-

MK)2 tanb k,

for symmetric

modes

(54)

A = kL(1

-

MK)2 cotb k,

for antisymmetric

modes.

(55)

Equation (54) has been obtained previously by Ingard [2] and that and equation (55) reduce to the expressions obtained by Morse [lo] when there is no flow. At first sight it seems quite logical to replace the wall admittance by some equivalent wall admittance through the factor (1 - MK)2. Unfortunately Kcontains the attenuation coefficient A, whose computation is the whole object of the analysis. However, a numerical method can be applied. k, and K are related by equation (41). Let A = C +jS where C and S are the conductance and the susceptance of the wall, respectively. Equations (54) and (55) may then be written as

(56)

C + jS = (~2 + jb2) tanb (cl+

jd,)

 

SOUND

PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED

FLUID

41

or

 

C +jS

= (uz +jbJ

coth (cl + jd,)

where u2, b2, cl and dl are functions of B, A and M only. Thus for given values of C and S, B and A can be solved graphically real and imaginary parts of equation (56).

after separating

the

7.2.

When there is shear but the flow occurs within soft walls an analytical solution of the problem is apparently impossible; however, a numerical method can be found. The separated wave equation to be solved is still equation (27), but now that there is wall absorption, K, the normalized wave vector, is complex. Let K = B + jA where A is associated with the attenuation [see equation (26)]. To solve equation (27) it is necessary to separate the real and imaginary parts of the coefficients of dFjdX and F. If this is done the equation can be written in the form

IN PRESENCE

OF SHEAR

 

(57)

The solution of equation (57) will consist of a real and an imaginary part; let it be

 

F=

Yl +jY2.

(58)

If equation

back in equation

(57), one has, after separating

the real and

imaginary

(58) is substituted parts,

Y;+aY;-bY;+cYr-dY2=0

 

and

(59)

Y;+bY;+aY;+cY;!+dYr=O

where dashes denote derivative Let

with respect to X.

Yl

y2

r;

r;

=

=

=

=

Yl,

y2,

Y3,

Y4.

Substituting

and

equation

(60) in equation

(59), one obtains

Y;=-cY1+dY2-aYs+bY‘,

Y;=-dY,-cY,-by,-uY+

In the matrix form, one may write

In general,

In the vector notation,

Y’= Q(x)Y.

(60)

(61)

69

(63)

(64)

42

P. MUNGUR

AND

G. M. L. GLADWELL

 

Equation states that if

(64) may now be solved by a generalization

of the Runge-Kutta

method.

 

g

=fi(X

Yl, y2,

y,,

1

Yn)

then

 

Y(‘+i) = yW + ; (m(i) + 2m’Z’+ 2,,+3’+ &4))

 

where, as before,

 
 

Y(‘) =

Y(rh) = (y@z),

yz(rh),

y,(A)),

 

rn(‘)= f(X,, Ylr)),

 

mc2)= f(X, + j&z,Y(‘) + +hml), mc3)= f(X, + *h, Y(‘) + +hm,), mc4)= f(X, + h, Y(r)+ hm,),

 

and

f(X, Y) = Q(X) Y

[see also equations

(62), (63), (64)].

This

(65)

(66)

As in the case with rigid walls, ( Y: + Y$)can be set equal to unity at the wall. Ysand Y,, being derivatives of Yr and Y2, respectively, and therefore proportional to the transverse particle velocity, can be set equal to the conductance and susceptance of the wall, respectively. Conti- nuity of acoustic particle velocity is used here, because the flow profile assures that there is no relative motion of the fluid and the wall. For symmetric modes, the transverse particle velocity at the centre of the duct must be zero. Two subroutines are used to select values of the real and imaginary parts of K to make (Y$ f Yi)1/2 equal to zero at the centre of the duct. The program computes finally the values of Yr, Y2, Ys and Y4 for various values of X between 0 and 1. From the values of Yr and Y2the magnitude of F is given by

F=

(Y;

+ Y;)1’2.

From the imaginary part of K, the attenuation a can be obtained.

8. CONCLUDING

REMARKS

The results for the pressure profile across a constant gradient shear flow are in good agree- ment with those predicted by Pridmore-Brown using an analytical solution. In the case of the turbulent flow profile, unlike Pridmore-Brown’s results, the present solution does not fail at the wall. In this paper the results of the effect of shear on the first two modes have been presented. By changing the limits on the frequency range in the hunt for eigenvalues to satisfy the boundary conditions, the effect of shear on the other modes can easily be obtained. However, information about the overall pressure profile cannot be obtained from the individual modes until a knowledge of the energy distribution produced by the sound source in the various modes is specified. One basic difference between this and the analytical method is in the calculation of the attenuation due to finite admittance of the wall. In the latter method it is assumed that the pressure profile across the duct will not change from that calculated for rigid walls, whereas in the numerical method, the eigenvalues of K can be found to match the wall admittance and the imaginary part of K will yield the attenuation straightaway.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors

Institute

gratefully

acknowledge

the financial

support

Power

for this research

Constructions

of Sound

and Vibration

Research

by Atomic

given to the

Ltd.,

Sutton,

43

Surrey, England. They also wish to express their thanks to Mr. F. J. Fahy for suggesting the

problem

SOUND PROPAGATION IN A SHEARED FLUID

and making useful comments,

and to Mr. C. L. Morfey for helpful discussions.

REFERENCES

1. E. MEYER, F. MECHEL and G. KURTZE 1958 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 30, 165. Experiments on the influence of tlow on sound attenuation in absorbing ducts.

2. U. INGARD 1959 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 31,1035. Influence of fluid motion past a plane boundary on sound reflection, absorption and transmission.

3. D. C. PRIDMORE-BROWN 1958 J. Fluid. Mech. 4, 393. Sound propagation in a fluid flowing through an attenuating duct.

4. D. H. TACK and R. F. LAMBERT 1965J. acoust. Sot. Am. 38,655. Influence of shear flow on sound attenuation in lined ducts.

5. L. HOWARTH 1964 Modern developments in fluid dynamics-high speed flow, vol. I, p. 379. London: Oxford University Press.

6. R. E. LANGER 1937 Phys. Rev. 51,669. On the connection formula and the solutions of the wave equation.

7. F. B. HILDEBRAND 1956 Introduction to Numerical Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

8. J. W. MILES 1957 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 29, 226. On reflection of sound at an interface of relative motion.

9. H. S. RIBNER 1957 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 29, 435. Reflection, transmission and amplification of sound by a moving medium.

10. P. M. MORSE 1948 Vibration and Sound, p. 369. New York: McGraw-Hill.

11. L. HOWARTH 1964 Modern developments in fluid dynamics-high speed flow, vol. I, p. 55. London: Oxford University Press.

12. H. SCHLICHTING 1955 Boundary Layer Theory, p. 338. London: Pergamon Press.

 

APPENDIX

1: THE

EVALUATION

OF

&#x

AND

+/axay

 

These

two

terms

refer

to

spatial

variation

of the

fluctuating

 

viscosity

in the

viscous

wave

which

accompanies

the

temperature

wave.

The

variation

of

viscosity

with

the

absolute

temperature

may

be expressed

by

[12]

 

r)’= AT’“.

 

(A.1)

Substituting the static and fluctuating components of 7’and T’ in equation (A. 1) one obtains

Time-averaging

equation

q. + 7)= AT:(l

(A.2), one obtains

+ T/To)“.

and by neglecting the products

rlo = AT,“,

of fluctuating

quantities,

one obtains

(A.3

 

rl =a~o(W’o).

(A.3)

From

the equation

of state of the gas, one may write

 

(PO+ P) = (PO+ P) Wo

+ T).

(A.4)

Subtracting

the time average of equation

(A.4) from equation

(A.4), one

obtains

 

P=

R(poT+pTo)

 

or

 

T/To

= P/PO

-

P/PO.

(A.3

Equation

(A.3) may now be written as

17= WOW0

-

P/PO).

(A.6)

44

P. MUNGUR

AND

G. M. L. GLADWELL

It follows that

and

If entropy

877

-=a.Q

( 1 aP PO ax

----_

1 ap

poax )

(A-7)

(AJO

i3X

a27

--=arloax ay

( 1 a2p

-~---.

poaxay

of the

i

azp

Poaxay

>

APPENDIX

2: THE RELATION

the passage

BETWEEN P AND p

sound

wave,

p

and

related

by the adiabatic relation P = pc 2. If there is heat dissipation through viscosity, thermal

conductivity or any other agency, the entropy of the system can no longer be considered constant.

is conserved

during

P

are

Let p’ be a function

of P’ and S’ where S’ refers to the total entropy

which consists of the

sum of So and S, the static entropy and the fluctuating entropy, respectively. Then

6P’= (g$SP

+ (igJ/S~.

(A.9

Denoting

6p’,

6P’ and

65” by p, P

and

S, the fluctuating

parts

of p’, P’ and

S’, one obtains

 

(A. 10)

(i5P’/ap’)s is the adiabatic speed of sound squared, and may be denoted by c2. The expression for (ap’/i%‘), can be obtained as follows.

From

Therefore

Therefore

Thus equation

the first law of thermodynamics,

T’dS’ = dE + P’d(l/p’)

one may write

where E is the internal

energy

=dE-clidp’.

P

= (-g)p(gp-;’

=c,

_TI

(

P’

1

-c

=------7.

P12

for a perfect gas.

(A.lO) now becomes

p=~_!Js.

P

The fluctuating

equation

entropy

S in equation

(A.13) can be obtained

by considering

case is given by [ 1l]

in terms of entropy,

which in the two-dimensional

p’T’g

=

@ +

div (K; grad T’)

(A.ll)

(A.12)

(A.13)

the energy

(A.14)

SOUND PROPAGATION IN A SHEARED FLUID

45

where

Kj = thermal

conductivity

I

of the gas,

FLUID 45 where Kj = thermal conductivity I of the gas, = 77’e& + !C [e?,

=

77’e& + !C [e?, + e& -

3

err e&i

7

the gas, = 77’e& + !C [e?, + e& - 3 err e&i 7 Cp= 17’e&

Cp= 17’e& + f

[(err -

e&*

+ e& + e:,],

Therefore

17’e& + f [(err - e&* + e& + e:,], Therefore and The dashes denote the
17’e& + f [(err - e&* + e& + e:,], Therefore and The dashes denote the

and

The dashes denote the total magnitude of the parameter concerned.

T’ = T,, + T = sum of static temperature and fluctuating temperature and

Ki = &, + Kt = sum of the static and fluctuating thermal conductivity.

Equation

(A. 14) reduces to

thermal conductivity. Equation (A. 14) reduces to (A.15) When there is no mean temperature gradient, c_aT

(A.15)

When there is no mean temperature

gradient,

c_aT

ax

ax

and

-=---* aT’

ay

aT

ay

If S’,

the products

u’, v’, T’,

Ki are replaced

by

S,, +

S,

U + U, v, T,, +

of fluctuating

quantities

neglected, equation

T and

Ko, +

K,,

(A.15) becomes

respectively,

and

(DSODS)

=rl

(au)2

ay

-J(au

8,)

ay+z +Kot

(!?+ $).

and (DSODS) =rl (au)2 ay -J(au 8,) ay+z +Kot (!?+ $). If (p. + p)(To +

If (p. + p)(To

+

T) is written

as poTo

equation

(A. 16) becomes

u a t i o n ( A . 1 6 ) b e c o

(PO+P)VO+T) x+z

+2r) 5

(A.16)

+

From the time average of equation

2770au

--(-+-)+s($+g).

polo

ay

au

ay

au

ax

(A.17), one obtains

Uas,=~o

au2

ax

--.

polo

(

ay

)

(A.17)

(A.18)

46

P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL

It then follows that

46 P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL It then follows that Replacing (g+ W,/ax from

Replacing

(g+

W,/ax

from equation

Ug),onefinds

+ --(-+-)+f$($+g). 2110au au a0 poloay ay ax

(A.18) in the first term and substituting&[1

-

(A.19)

MK] S for

in the first term and substituting&[1 - (A.19) MK] S for (A.20) In Appendix 1 it

(A.20)

first term and substituting&[1 - (A.19) MK] S for (A.20) In Appendix 1 it has been

In Appendix

1 it has been shown that

and

Substitute

the above two expressions;

then equation

(A.20) becomes

the above two expressions; then equation (A.20) becomes (A-21) or 1 s=-x PO To Ml -

(A-21)

or

1

s=-x

POTo Ml

-

E

MN

where Eis defined by equation

(A.21). From

equation

(A. 13), one may now write

p,P_dxIx

c2

C,

=-

P

c2--7-x

(a-

(P+a>

=-

c2

p. To

1)

jw(1

E

jW(1 -

-

E

MK)

MK)’

(A.22)

where

8 = -

(u -

1) x

jW(1 -

MK) *

Equation

(A.22) expresses the relation between p and P; 6 may be considered

acoustic pressure due to entropy no dissipation.

change by dissipation.

It may be noted

that

as a perturbed

6 = 0 if there

is

SOUND PROPAGATION

IN A SHEARED FLUID

APPENDIX

3: THE EVALUATION

OF K IN THE ABSENCE

SHEAR

WITH

RIGID

WALL

In the absence of shear, equation

(27) becomes

OF

$+(kL)“[(l-MK)2-K2]F=0.

For rigid walls, K is wholly real.

Variation

TABLE

1

of K with MO and kL

47

(A.23)

 

m

=

0 = plane

mode

 

Constant gradient flow

 

Turbulent

Flow at

No shear

,

3

flow

centre

freq. indep.

kL=m

kL=2rr

kL=

10

kL=20

kL=20

MO)

(K)

(K)

(K)

(K)

(K)

(K)

0.0

l.oooo

-

-

-

-

-

0.1 0.9091

0.9526

0.9566

0.9633

0.9761

0.9222

0.2 0.8330

0.9095

0.9224

0.9393

0.9618

0.8584

0.3 0.7692

0.8695

0.8932

0.9194

0.9497

0.8033

0.4 0.7143

0.8322

0.8672

0.9015

0.9388

0.7550

0.5 0.6667

0.7970

0.8431

0.8849

0.9286

0.7121

Flow at

r

kL=2?r

m =

1 =jirst

kL=

mode

10

kL=20

,

centre

No

shear

c.g.

flow

No

shear

c.g.

flow

No

shear

c.g.

flow

(MO)

(K)

WI

(K)

00

WI

WI

0.0

0.866

-

0.949

-

0.987

-

0.1

0.775

0.816

0.850

0.894

0.895

0.929

0.2 0.700

0.768

0.776

0.841

0.819

0.886

0.3 0.636

0.724

0.710

0.793

0.755

0.853

0.4 0,582

0.684

0.65

0.751

0.700

0.824

0.5 0.535

0647

0.61

0.713

0.653

0.78

m

=

2 = second

mode

 
 

kL=20

 

Flow at

,

7

centre

No shear

Turbulent flow

(MO)

(K)

(K)

o-o

0.949

-

O*l

0.851

0.8630

0.2

0.776

0.7928

0.3

0.710

0.7326

0.4

0.653

0.6804

0.5

0.616

0.6347

48

P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL

The boundary

conditions

to be satisfied are

 

dF

dX=

0

at X-

0 and X=

1 (the centre of the duct).

 

Let

 

-k:

= (kQ2

[(1 -

MK)2 -

P]

;

then

to

satisfy

the

boundary

conditions

k,

= mn

where

m

determines

the

propagation.

Thus

 
 

=(I

-MK)2-K2

 

or

 

(M2-l)K2-2MK+l+m2R2=0

 

where R = rr/kL.

 

The roots

of equation

(A-26) are given by

 

For the lowest mode,

m=O

For the first mode,

m=l

For the second mode,

m=2

K=M~1/1-m2R2(M2-1)

and

and

and

AI*-1

.

K=(Mfl)/(M2-l)=l/(M*l).

K=M*~1-R2(M2-1)

K=

M+

1/l

W-1

-

4R2(M2 -

W-1

*

1)

-

(A.24)

mode

of

(A.25)

(A.26)

(A.27)

(A.28)

(A.29)

(A.30)

The magnitudes of K given by equations (A.28), (A.29) and (A.30) have been evaluated for various R’s (i.e. kL) and M, and are shown in Table 1.

by equations (A.28), (A.29) and (A.30) have been evaluated for various R’s (i.e. kL) and M,