J. Sound Vib. (1969) 9 (l), 2848
ACOUSTIC
WAVE
PROPAGATION
CONTAINED
IN
A
IN
A
DUCT
SHEARED
FLUID
P. MUNGURAND G. M. L. GLADWELL
Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO9 5NH, England
(Received 12 June 1968)
In assessing the propagation of an acoustic wave in a sheared fluid, first, the derivation of the linearized waveequation for twodimensional viscous flow is presented. Interactions with the acoustic wave of the mean flow, the shear and the viscosity of the fluid through
shear have been included. This is followed by a numerical solution to the inviscid case, using a constant gradient and a turbulent velocity profile, for the first three symmetric modes. The “plane” mode is compared with results obtained by PridmoreBrown using an
analytical approach;
Methods of solution are also presented for the problems of acoustic wave propagation in a flowing medium, both with and without shear, contained in ducts with fmite wall
admittance.
there is good agreement for the case with constant gradient profile.
1. INTRODUCTION
The stimulus for these theoretical investigations of the propagation of acoustic disturbances in a fluid contained in a duct and having mean velocity gradients normal to the flow direction, was the observation that high intensity sound produced in the currents of gascooled nuclear reactors appeared to be most strongly attenuated in those regions of the flow where high
shear gradients, associated with turbulent boundary layer flow, were produced for the purpose of efiicient heat transfer. It was also interesting to determine whether mean shear effects could produce significantly greater attenuation of sound in gas flowing in pipes and ducts than the classical diffusion and molecular relaxation effects associated with propagation in the quiescent fluid. Meyer, Mechel and Kurtze [I] experimented on the influence of flow on sound attenuation in absorbing ducts. Ingard [2] investigated the effect of uniform flow (no shear) on the pro pagation and attenuation in lined ducts. The effect of shear in lined ducts has been considered by PridmoreBrown [3] and Tack and Lambert [4]. In all the works referred to above, the effect of viscosity has been neglected altogether. When a fluid flows past a solid boundary, the fluid immediately in contact with the wall is
at rest. However, the velocity rises rapidly
stream, the rise taking place within the thin viscous boundary layer next to the wall. In this layer the velocity gradient is very large, so that even if the viscosity is small, the tangential stresses cannot be ignored. The paper presents a derivation of the linearized wave equation for twodimensional viscous flow. This is followed by a numerical solution to the inviscid case for comparison with PridmoreBrown’s results. Methods of solution are also presented for the problems of acoustic wave propagation in a flowing fluid, both with and without shear, contained in ducts with finite wall impedance.
28
from zero at the wall to its value in the main
SOUND
PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED
FLUID
29
The projected 
sequel to this paper 
will present 
results of numerical 
solution 
for acoustic 
wave propagation 
in viscous flows. 
To reduce
the complexity
2. THE WAVE EQUATION
of the problem,
the present
analysis
will be confined
to two
dimensions only. The mean flow will be taken to be in the x direction and will be assumed to be a function of y only, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Pressure profile for lowest mode constant gradient flow. M = ik&(y/L).
The exact twodimensional
NavierStokes
equation
is given by (see Howarth
[5])
and
$
[
;+p+$s
ay1 
in the x direction
ap’+qy(vy+fa
aY
3 ay
f!L+!c 
(
ax
ay
1
2a4
^{}^{}^{} 3 ay
+_ ad
(
ax
ad
ay
1
+.+ 2aql ad
ay
ay
aqf
ax
(
in they
+& ad
ay
ad
1
direction.
_{(}_{1}_{)}
_{(}_{2}_{)}
The dashes denote the total magnitude of the parameters concerned, and V: = the two
dimensional Laplacian operator = gz
+
ay2 !? *
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{P}_{'}_{=} _{P}_{O}_{+} _{P} (POis the mean pressure and P is the fluctuating pressure);
_{u}_{’}_{=}
_{U} _{+} _{u}
(U is the mean flow velocity
function of y only depending on the flow profile and u is the fluctuating
velocity in x direction) ;
in the x direction
and is assumed
to
be
a
v’= V + v = v (since there is no mean flow in y direction in that direction);
and v is the fluctuating
velocity
_{p}_{’}_{=} _{p}_{.}
_{q}_{’}_{=} _{q}_{.}
_{+} _{p}
_{+} _{1}_{7}
(p. is the static density and p is the fluctuating
(y. is the mean viscosity and 11is the fluctuating viscosity).
density);
In a duct of uniform
the variation
crosssection
with fully developed
flow, under
with x of any of the mean parameters
will be zero.
steadystate
conditions,
30
(1) and (2)
by subtracting the timeaverage of equations (1) and (2) from equations (1) and (2). If this is
done, and the products of fluctuating components are neglected, one obtains
P. MUNGUR
The acoustic part of the NavierStokes
AND
G.
M.
L.
GLADWELL
equation
can be filtered from equations
and
_{P}_{o}_{k}_{+}_{~}_{&}_{]}_{=}_{}_{$}_{+}
rloV;v+
1)30:(:; _+au
aX)
+YE* axay
in the x direction
mtheydirection.
_{(}_{3}_{)}
(4)
The twodimensional
conservation
of mass yields
aP'
Yg+ujy+vay+
,aPf
,aPf
p’ !T!Ic+~=o*
(
ax
>
ay
(5)
As before,
average of equation (5) is substracted from equation (5), and the products of fluctuating
components
if the mean
and fluctuating
one obtains
components
of the parameters
are used, the time
are neglected,
aP
aP
z+uax+po
au+%=o.
(
ax
ay 1
(6)
be denoted
by 4, then
+J($+ u$).
(7)
Differentiating
equations
(3) and (4) with respect to x and y, respectively,
one obtains
and
zE+ ua~+2au
ax
_{a}_{y} _{I} 2$+~,&+3%!+lp+!5L~
_{a}_{x} _{a}_{y}_{2}
a2v +auao mu a2v
L
ayax
I
~_azp+90a,~v+
ay
^{~}
axay ay2
po ay at
_{T}_{O}_{a}
+
3 _{a}_{y}_{2}
Differentiating
equation
(6) with respect to t, one obtains
axayay
a2rlau
ZSjjay’
C&U
a2P
a4
axat+PO~=O
^{(}^{8}^{)}
^{(}^{9}^{)}
(10)
If all the terms in equations
(8) and (9) are brought
and equated
to equation
(10) one obtains
to the left and the two equations
g+ugt
=v~P+pouax+2podt’~~770v~~~~2~y~.
_{a}_{x}_{a}_{y}
a+
^{2}
a211au
added
(11)
4 may be eliminated from the above expression by using equation
W=;
au ^{a}^{2}^{p}
[ &(v:P)+U$$i7:p)+2ayaxay+~~~
(7) and the derived relation
_{1}
(12)
Substituting
equations
a2P 
at2
=v:P2Ua~~
arla2u

ax
ay2
SOUND
PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED
FLUID
(12) and (7) in equation
UZ$$+2po
av au
ax+
(1l), one obtains
4r10
[
a
_(v:p)+2aua
at
+
3po
2a211au
_{4}_{7}_{1}_{0}
,,,,,,+g+g:P).
a
_{2}_{P}
_{a}_{y} _{a}_{x}_{a}_{y}
a2uap
+ay2ax
1 
31
(13)
To obtain a convenient wave equation, p, 7 and v must be expressed in terms of P in equation (13). In the simpler case of an inviscid fluid with no thermal conductivity, propaga tion may be considered to take place adiabatically and isentropically, and the fluctuating density and pressure to be related by
(14)
where c is the sound velocity. However, in viscous fluids, where the isentropic condition is no longer valid due to energy dissipation by viscosity, the change in entropy must be taken into account. Thus, via the mechanism of viscosity, the sound wave gives rise to an entropy wave. Through the equation of state of the fluid, the pressure wave is accompanied by a temperature wave which in turn leads to a viscous wave. In Appendix 2, it has been shown that when entropy is not conserved due to viscous dissipation, the fluctuating pressure and density are related thus :
where
pJp+@
_{}
C2
[compare with equation
s=(U_)X
_{j}_{W}_{(}_{1} _{_}_{‘}_{M}_{K}_{)}
(14)] 
(15) 
(16) 
and E is a function of viscosity, thermal conductivity, shear, etc., o = angular frequency,
u = ratio of the principal specific heats (cP/cy). M = U/c, and K is defined in equation (26) below.
In Appendix
1, it has been shown that
y=qO
(PO
P_P
_{P}_{O}_{)}
(17)
where a is the index relating viscosity and temperature,
and is about 0.72 to 0.75 for gases.
If p is replaced
by (P + S)/c2, equation
(17) becomes
Substituting equations (15) and (18) in equation (13), and denoting (4yo)/(3poc2) by T, the viscous relaxation time, and (aqo)/(po c’) by TV,one obtains
32
For harmonic variation with time, a/at = jw and, in this case, denoting U/c by A4, the Mach number, one finds
P. MUNGUR
AND
G. M. L. GLADWELL
_{2}_{~} ayp+ 6)

c
axat fTC M$V:(P+6)+2
[
~2c~+rl)%gLrq
dhfaqP+6)+awa(P+q _{}_{~}_{}
dy axay
ay
ax _{I}
27,eg
[ _{(}_{u}_{} _{1}_{)} ^{a}^{q}^{p}^{+} ^{8}^{)} axay
CT. _{a}_{x}_{a}_{y} a26 1
_{(}_{2}_{0}_{)}
This is the wave equation governing the propagation of sound in a viscous flowing fluid in the presence of shear. Terms involving aM/ay represent the interaction of shear with the acoustic wave and those containing T and 72 are due to viscosity. Terms in M represent interaction of the mean flow with the acoustic wave and those involving the products of T or 72 and aM/ay or a2M/ay2 represent interaction with viscosity through shear. The above equation simplifies to the one used by PridmoreBrown [3] if the terms containing T and r2 are suppressed. Further, if the terms containing aM/ay and a2M/ay2 are suppressed, the equation reduces to a wave equation obtained by Ingard [2] for the case of uniform flow in an inviscid fluid. It must be stressed that the solution to equation (20) is subject to the following limitation. Although the effect of shear has been taken into account, it has been assumed that variations with x of PO, U, v. and p. are zero; this assumption is valid only under steadystate conditions and constant crosssection. In Appendix 2, while deriving the effect of the fluctuating entropy on the fluctuating density, it has been assumed that there is no mean temperature gradient. Equation (20) cannot be solved by the normal separation of variable method because of the presence of coupled terms. Substitution for 6 transforms the equation from second order to one of fourth order. Of course, in an inviscid fluid, 6 3 0, the equation retains its second order wave equation characteristic. It may be noted that shear affects the propagation even in the absence of viscosity [see fourth term on the right of equation (20)]. To find the contribu tion of viscosity to the attenuation, the effect of shear in the fluid with no viscosity must first be determined. The following section therefore deals with the solution of equation (20) for the inviscid case. The general solution taking viscosity into account will follow in another paper.
3. THE INVISCID
CASE
When the viscosity is zero, T, 72 and 6 are also zero, and equation
(20) becomes
As the problem
;!$41
M3$+~+2poc;$~$~.
is now one involving the effect of shear on the propagation,
^{a} ^{s}^{o}^{l}^{u}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} 
^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{f}^{o}^{r}^{m} 

p 
= F(y) 
eax elwkxx) 

^{a}^{n}^{d} 
U= G(y) eCcXeJ(wtkxX)_
_{(}_{2}_{1}_{)}
one may assume
_{(}_{2}_{2}_{)}
_{(}_{2}_{3}_{)}
Here F(y) and G(y) are the amplitudes of the pressure wave and the transverse particle velocity, respectively, and a, k, are respectively the attenuation and the propagation constants
SOUND
PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED
FLUID
33
in the x direction. As there is no viscosity, the attenuation would be due to finite wall admit tance. For rigid walls CLwould tend to zero.
Substituting
From
$E=(l
equation
equations
(22) and (23) in (21), one obtains
M3(~+j/~,)~F+~~2p~c~~(~+j~JG+j+~.+j~~)F.
(4), in absence of viscosity,
(24)
or
[jw(u+jk,)U]G=;z
and
where
G=_
1
jccJpo(1 
aF
MK) ay
K = (g + jk,) jw/c
_{’}
the normalized
complex wave vector in the x direction and k = w/c.
in equation
If one substitutes
the expression
(25) for G, equation
(24) becomes
d2F
@+
&Kdr;$+k2[1
K2(1
M2) 
2MK]F=O.
^{(}^{2}^{5}^{)}
(26)
_{(}_{2}_{7}_{)}
if Kis taken to be wholly real
(that is if the walls are rigid). Once the flow profile M which is a function of y has been chosen,
equation (27) may be solved to yield the pressure profile across the duct. In order to obtain an explicit solution, the boundary conditions at the walls or at one wall and the centre of the duct must be specified. This leads to specific eigenvalues of K, the imaginary part of which yields the attenuation.
This equation
is identical to that obtained by PridmoreBrown
4. SOLUTION
FOR RIGID
WALLS
PridmoreBrown
obtained
by Langer
[6]. For a constant
an approximate
solution to equation
(27) by a method proposed
gradient
boundary
layer, he obtained
where
e=KIM,
q=fP1
F=
_{,}
d~“~q~‘~f (H)
_{(}_{2}_{8}_{)}
andf(H)
s = _{f} ‘q112de = +{8(e2 
1
H = (3clK~/2)“~,
d = kl(dMdy),
1)“2 
cash’ B},
is the general solution
of Airy’s differential
equation,
namely,
f”(H)
+ Hf(H)
= 0.
34
P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL
In the case of a turbulent
boundary
independent
variable,
one obtains
layer,
taking
M = M,,(J&)~/~, and using M as the
d2F
^{}^{} _{d}_{M}_{2}
dg+49(kL)2M,14M12{(1
MIQ2K2}F=0.
A solution
to the above equation,
obtained
by PridmoreBrown,
is
F= M3 t9s”6q“4f (H)
where q = M12(e2 
A = 7kLMG7,
and the remaining symbols are defined as above.
l),
Due to the singularity in equation
(29) at M = 0, the solution given by equation
_{(}_{2}_{9}_{)}
(30)
(30) breaks
down at the wall. However, the solution is valid asymptotically for (1 f w in the neighbour
hood of y = 0. Values of F across the flow profile were obtained using Laurent series and involved tedious calculations and approximations.
5. NUMERICAL
SOLUTION
Equation
(27) has been solved numerically
for a number of different velocity protjles M(y).
The method used was the fourthorder
RungeKutta,
a good description
of which is given by
Hildebrand [7]. Equation (17) may be written in the form 

d2 Y 

@ 
+fi(X)dr;+f2(X) Y= 
0 
_{(}_{3}_{1}_{)} 

where Y = F, X E y/L. 

Equation (31) may be rewritten 
as a pair of equations 

dY 

dx=Z 
and 
g=fi(X)Zf2(X) 
Y=f(X, 
Y,Z) 
(32) 

for which the RungeKutta 
method 
gives the approximate 
solution 

Y(‘+‘) = Y(‘) + hZ”’ + &?, + rnz + _{m}_{3}_{)} 
_{+} 
_{O}_{(}_{V}_{)} 
(33) 

and 

ZCr+‘)= Z@)+ *(ml + 2m2 + 2m3 + m4) + O(h5) 

where Y(‘) = Y(rh), Ztr) = Z(rh), the interval 0 G X G 1 is divided into n intervals 
of length 

h = 
l/n, and 

m, 
= h x f (X@), Y(‘), Z@)), 

m2 = h x f (X(r) + +h, Y(r) + +hZ(‘), Z(r) + *ml), 

m3 = h x f (Xc’) + *h, Y(‘) + 3hZ(‘) + ihm,, 
Zcr) + Jm2), 

m4 = h x f (Xc’) + h, Y(‘) + hZ(‘) + +hm2,Zcr) + m3). 
_{(}_{3}_{4}_{)} 
6. APPLICATION
OF
RUNGEKU’ITA
TO THE
Tack and Lambert
[4] showed that the velocity profiles M(y)
INVISCID
CASE
in a duct can be approximated
either by an exponential function or by a fractional power. In the present analysis a power law will be assumed, namely,
M=
Mo(y/L)‘lN = MOX1’N
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{0} _{G} _{X}_{G}
_{1}
_{(}_{3}_{5}_{)}
35
where L is the value of y at the centre of the duct, Me is the midstream Mach number, and N is a positive number whose value depends on the nature of the wall. For flow without shear, the velocity profile is uniform so that N + co. In the case of a constant velocity gradient, N = 1, and for a fullydeveloped turbulent flow, N is approximately equal to 7. It follows that
SOUND
PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED
FLUID
Equation
(28) now becomes
dM 1 MOX”‘N’’
^{}^{=}^{} dy N
L
’
_{d}_{2} _{Y}
_{d}_{X}_{Z}_{=}_{d}_{X}_{=}_{}
_{d}_{Z}
2Kjj,f,,X”‘N’1
_{N}_{(}_{l}
_{}_{M}_{O}
_{X}_{’}_{I}_{N}_{)} _{Z} _{}
’[(1 
M,, KX”N)2 
K2] Y,
^{(}^{3}^{6}^{)}
_{(}_{3}_{7}_{)}
= _f&w
=f(X
.lxX)
K
_{(}_{3}_{8}_{)}
where Y G F, X E y/L and Z = (d Y/dZ). Equation (37) is of the same form as equation (32),
the solution of which is given by equation (33). The boundary conditions that must be satisfied in solving equation (38) are as follows:
at the wall X = 0, Y may be set equal to unity. Z, being actually (d Y/dX), is proportional to the particle velocity normal to the flow and is therefore equal to zero at a rigid wall. Also at X= 1, the centre of the duct, Z is zero for symmetric modes and Y is zero for antisymmetric modes. Several values of K may be found to satisfy the above boundary conditions ; the mode of propagation depends on the magnitude of K. For plane wave propagation in the absence of flow K is unity in the lowest mode.
K a,
A computer program was written to evaluate Y and Z at various steps of X between
0 and 1 for various values of (wL/c), Me and N. A subroutine selects the appropriate value of K
to satisfy the boundary
in this way. However, the effect due to shear or viscosity is best demonstrated by comparing
the results for the lowest mode of propagation. In the absence of shear, that is for uniform flow, the pressure is uniform across the flow. The way in which shear alters the pressure
profile is shown in Figures 2 and 3 where N has been set equal to unity, equivalent to a constant gradient flow. The results are in good agreement with those predicted by PridmoreBrown using an analytical solution. Figure 4 shows the pressure profile for a turbulent flow; in this case, unlike PridmoreBrown’s results, the present solution does not break down at the wall. Figures 6 and 7 show the effect of flow on the pressure distribution for the next two higher symmetric modes. In Appendix 3 an expression is obtained for K, the normalized wave vector in the x direction when shear is absent, and the magnitude of K so deduced is compared
in Table 1 with those obtained when
(that is mode zero) Kis a function of the mean flow only for the noshear case, but the presence
on the frequency as well. Figure 5 shows
of shear brings in dispersion by making K dependent the variation of K with MO and kL.
condition
at
X = 1. Various modes of propagation may be investigated
shear is present. It may be noted that for the lowest mode
7. SOLUTION
FOR
WALLS
WITH
FINITE
ADMITTANCE
Before the general
numerical
solution
of this class of problem
is described,
the slightly
simpler case of absence of shear will be discussed as this can be solved analytically.
7.1. 
IN ABSENCE 
OF SHEAR 

In 
this case the separated 
wave equation 
becomes 
f$
+ (kL)2
[(1 
MK)2

K2] F
=
0.
_{(}_{3}_{9}_{)}
P.00.1
fi _{3}
m”
_\
‘0
8.0
_{0}
\
II
^{I}^{I}
f(7/10 (qJ2
0
\
9.0
0
\
^{I}
a)@3
0
\
_{0}
\
I
^{I}
_{2}_{.}_{0}
0
i
\
OE=
,.,=o,0s
Olo
7n
0E

_{}
02
= 5
0
_{o}_{t}
09
O!
I II
I
]uagx?B wn?~suo~ apow
no14 ou
7
=
_{I}
6
(0
amsald
.
I
‘(7/4’AC = A!
=
$j
ysamoI .IOJqgo.Id amssaa
I
‘MoI3
I
I
‘2 am+I
^{8}^{1}
l
I
I
I
I

0

0,
6
0
k
al
0
([b/d)
601
02
I
p
I
al
I
u)
I
P
I
_{(}_{u}
_T
0
o
IPM
SOUND
PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED
39
of the sound wave and this makes K
FLUID
The finite admittance of the wall leads to attenuation necessarily complex. Let
K = B +jA 
[see equation 
(26)] 
_{(}_{4}_{0}_{)} 

where B is the normalized 
propagation 
vector 
along the duct = k,lk and A =u/k 
is the 

normalized attenuation Let coefficient along the duct. 

 
k; 
= (kL)*[(l  MK)*  K*], 

= 
(kL)* [l 
 2MB + (M*  
1) (B*  A*) +j2A(M2 
B  B  
M)], 

= al +jbl 
(say). 
_{(}_{4}_{1}_{)} 

Let 

k, 
= cl +jd, 
; 

then 

al 
= 
d; 
 
c; 

_{a}_{n}_{d} 
br =  2ci dl. 
(42) 

The solution 
of equation (39) may be written as 

F = D, ekyx+ Dz ebkpx _{,} 
(43) 

therefore, 

dy= 
k,,[D, ekyX 
Dz emklx] 
_{(}_{4}_{4}_{)} 

where D1 and D2 are constants 
to be determined 
from the boundary conditions. 

At the centre 
of the duct, 
X = 
1, dF/dX= 
0 for symmetric modes and F= 
0 for 
anti 
symmetric modes. From equations
(43) and (44), it follows that
ezky,
Dz = fD,
the positive sign referring mode.
to the symmetric
Equations
(43) and (44) now become
mode and the negative sign to the antisymmetric
and
F=
D, e+ky[ekHX) f ekWO]
(45)
_d!!d!&k, Di e+kr[eky(iX)7 ekyW’)]_
.
_{(}_{4}_{6}_{)}
At the wall, X = 0, the ratio of i,,, the transverse
wall velocity, to P, the pressure is equal
to the normal
specific admittance
of the wall, A. Thus
_=_w_ A i
POC
p
(47)
In problems where there is relative motion between the fluid and the boundary
it is necessary
to use the basic continuity of acoustic particle displacement rather than velocity because of the extra convective terms in the substantial derivative of the displacement. The importance of using the basic boundary condition had been pointed out before by Miles [8], Ribner [9] and Ingard [2]. In the absence of relative motion, continuity of particle displacement also leads to continuity of particle velocity. ^{L}^{e}^{t}
_{(}_{4}_{8}_{)}
represent
5;, = ,Q,)
in the medium.
eorxeiWtkxx)
the displacement
40
P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL
Then u, the particle velocity in the medium, is given by
or
v = jw(1 
 
MK) &. 
(49) 

Using continuity of acoustic particle 
displacement, 
one may write 

5;, = 
5, 
(at the wall), 

V 

^{c}^{}^{} 
jw( 
1  
MK) ’ 
(50) 

For the wall, 

Therefore, 

Substituting equation (50) in equation (47) one obtains 

= A 
1 
v 

pot 
(1  
MK)P’ 

=(l 
&K);. 
(51) 

From equation (25), the amplitude 
of the transverse 
particle velocity is given by 

G= 
j 
ldF 

kL(1 
 
MK)PocdX’ 
(52) 

Equation (51) becomes 

dF/dX 

A=iX(l 
kK)2F. 
^{(}^{5}^{3}^{)} 
Substituting for dF/dX and F from equations (45) and (46) in equation (53), one obtains
_{A} _{=}
jkY
kL(1 
MK)z
[
eb$& 1
eyky*
tiy
’
Thus
and
_{A} _{=} _{k}_{L}_{(}_{1}
jk,
_{}
_{M}_{K}_{)}_{2} _{t}_{a}_{n}_{b} _{k}_{,}
for symmetric
modes
_{(}_{5}_{4}_{)}
_{A} _{=} _{k}_{L}_{(}_{1}
_{}
_{M}_{K}_{)}_{2} _{c}_{o}_{t}_{b} _{k}_{,}
for antisymmetric
modes.
_{(}_{5}_{5}_{)}
Equation (54) has been obtained previously by Ingard [2] and that and equation (55) reduce to the expressions obtained by Morse [lo] when there is no flow. At first sight it seems quite logical to replace the wall admittance by some equivalent wall admittance through the factor (1  MK)2. Unfortunately Kcontains the attenuation coefficient A, whose computation is the whole object of the analysis. However, a numerical method can be applied. k, and K are related by equation (41). Let A = C +jS where C and S are the conductance and the susceptance of the wall, respectively. Equations (54) and (55) may then be written as
_{(}_{5}_{6}_{)}
C + jS = (~2 + jb2) tanb (cl+
jd,)
SOUND PROPAGATION 
IN A SHEARED 
FLUID 
41 

or 

C +jS 
= (uz +jbJ 
coth (cl + jd,) 

where u2, b2, cl and dl are functions of B, A and M only. Thus for given values of C and S, B and A can be solved graphically real and imaginary parts of equation (56). 
after separating 
the 
7.2.
When there is shear but the flow occurs within soft walls an analytical solution of the problem is apparently impossible; however, a numerical method can be found. The separated wave equation to be solved is still equation (27), but now that there is wall absorption, K, the normalized wave vector, is complex. Let K = B + jA where A is associated with the attenuation [see equation (26)]. To solve equation (27) it is necessary to separate the real and imaginary parts of the coefficients of dFjdX and F. If this is done the equation can be written in the form
IN PRESENCE
OF SHEAR
(57) 

The solution of equation (57) will consist of a real and an imaginary part; let it be 

F= Yl +jY2. 
_{(}_{5}_{8}_{)} 

If equation 
back in equation 
(57), one has, after separating 
the real and 

imaginary 
(58) is substituted parts, 

Y;+aY;bY;+cYrdY2=0 

and 
(59) 
Y;+bY;+aY;+cY;!+dYr=O
where dashes denote derivative Let
with respect to X.
Yl
y2
r;
r;
=
=
=
=
Yl,
y2,
Y3,
Y4.
Substituting
and
equation
(60) in equation
(59), one obtains
Y;=cY1+dY2aYs+bY‘,
Y;=dY,cY,by,uY+
In the matrix form, one may write
In general,
In the vector notation,
Y’= Q(x)Y.
(60)
(61)
69
(63)
(64)
42 
P. MUNGUR 
AND 
G. M. L. GLADWELL 

Equation states that if 
(64) may now be solved by a generalization 
of the RungeKutta 
method. 

g =fi(X 
Yl, y2, 
y,, 
1 
Yn) 

then 

Y(‘+i) = yW + ; (m(i) + 2m’Z’+ 2,,+3’+ _{&}_{4}_{)}_{)} 

where, as before, 

Y(‘) = Y(rh) = (y@z), 
yz(rh), 
y,(A)), 

rn(‘)= f(X,, Ylr)), 

mc2)= f(X, + j&z,Y(‘) + +hml), mc3)= f(X, + *h, Y(‘) + +hm,), mc4)= f(X, + h, Y(r)+ hm,), 

and 
f(X, Y) = Q(X) Y [see also equations 
(62), (63), (64)]. 
This
(65)
_{(}_{6}_{6}_{)}
As in the case with rigid walls, ( Y: + Y$)can be set equal to unity at the wall. Ysand Y,, being derivatives of Yr and Y2, respectively, and therefore proportional to the transverse particle velocity, can be set equal to the conductance and susceptance of the wall, respectively. Conti nuity of acoustic particle velocity is used here, because the flow profile assures that there is no relative motion of the fluid and the wall. For symmetric modes, the transverse particle velocity at the centre of the duct must be zero. Two subroutines are used to select values of the real and imaginary parts of K to make (Y$ f Yi)1/2 equal to zero at the centre of the duct. The program computes finally the values of Yr, Y2, Ys and Y4 for various values of X between 0 and 1. From the values of Yr and Y2the magnitude of F is given by
F=
(Y;
+ Y;)1’2.
From the imaginary part of K, the attenuation a can be obtained.
8. CONCLUDING
REMARKS
The results for the pressure profile across a constant gradient shear flow are in good agree ment with those predicted by PridmoreBrown using an analytical solution. In the case of the turbulent flow profile, unlike PridmoreBrown’s results, the present solution does not fail at the wall. In this paper the results of the effect of shear on the first two modes have been presented. By changing the limits on the frequency range in the hunt for eigenvalues to satisfy the boundary conditions, the effect of shear on the other modes can easily be obtained. However, information about the overall pressure profile cannot be obtained from the individual modes until a knowledge of the energy distribution produced by the sound source in the various modes is specified. One basic difference between this and the analytical method is in the calculation of the attenuation due to finite admittance of the wall. In the latter method it is assumed that the pressure profile across the duct will not change from that calculated for rigid walls, whereas in the numerical method, the eigenvalues of K can be found to match the wall admittance and the imaginary part of K will yield the attenuation straightaway.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors
Institute
gratefully
acknowledge
the financial
support
Power
for this research
Constructions
of Sound
and Vibration
Research
by Atomic
given to the
Ltd.,
Sutton,
43
Surrey, England. They also wish to express their thanks to Mr. F. J. Fahy for suggesting the
problem
SOUND PROPAGATION IN A SHEARED FLUID
and making useful comments,
and to Mr. C. L. Morfey for helpful discussions.
REFERENCES
1. E. MEYER, F. MECHEL and G. KURTZE 1958 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 30, 165. Experiments on the influence of tlow on sound attenuation in absorbing ducts.
2. U. INGARD 1959 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 31,1035. Influence of fluid motion past a plane boundary on sound reflection, absorption and transmission.
3. D. C. PRIDMOREBROWN 1958 J. Fluid. Mech. 4, 393. Sound propagation in a fluid flowing through an attenuating duct.
4. D. H. TACK and R. F. LAMBERT 1965J. acoust. Sot. Am. 38,655. Influence of shear flow on sound attenuation in lined ducts.
5. L. HOWARTH 1964 Modern developments in fluid dynamicshigh speed flow, vol. I, p. 379. London: Oxford University Press.
6. R. E. LANGER 1937 Phys. Rev. 51,669. On the connection formula and the solutions of the wave equation.
7. F. B. HILDEBRAND 1956 Introduction to Numerical Analysis. New York: McGrawHill.
8. J. W. MILES 1957 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 29, 226. On reflection of sound at an interface of relative motion.
9. H. S. RIBNER 1957 J. acoust. Sot. Am. 29, 435. Reflection, transmission and amplification of sound by a moving medium.
10. P. M. MORSE 1948 Vibration and Sound, p. 369. New York: McGrawHill.
11. L. HOWARTH 1964 Modern developments in fluid dynamicshigh speed flow, vol. I, p. 55. London: Oxford University Press.
12. H. SCHLICHTING 1955 Boundary Layer Theory, p. 338. London: Pergamon Press.
APPENDIX 
1: THE 
EVALUATION 
OF 
&#x 
AND +/axay 

These 
two 
terms 
refer 
to spatial 
variation 
of the 
fluctuating 
viscosity 
in the 
viscous 
wave 

which 
accompanies 
the 
temperature 
wave. 
The 
variation 
of 
viscosity 
with 
the absolute 

temperature 
may be expressed 
by 
[12] 

r)’= AT’“. 
_{(}_{A}_{.}_{1}_{)} 
Substituting the static and fluctuating components of 7’and T’ in equation (A. 1) one obtains
Timeaveraging
equation
q. + 7)= AT:(l
(A.2), one obtains
+ T/To)“.
and by neglecting the products
rlo = AT,“,
of fluctuating
quantities,
one obtains
_{(}_{A}_{.}_{3}
rl =a~o(W’o). 
(A.3) 

From 
the equation 
of state of the gas, one may write 

(PO+ P) = (PO+ P) Wo 
+ T). 
(A.4) 
Subtracting
the time average of equation
(A.4) from equation
(A.4), _{o}_{n}_{e}
_{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{s}
P= 
R(poT+pTo) 

or 

T/To 
= P/PO 
 
P/PO. 
(A.3 

Equation 
(A.3) may now be written as 

17= WOW0 
 
P/PO). 
(A.6) 
44
P. MUNGUR
AND
G. M. L. GLADWELL
It follows that
and
If entropy
877
_{}_{=}_{a}_{.}_{Q}
( 1 aP PO ax
_
1 ap
poax _{)}
(A7)
(AJO
i3X
a27
=arloax ay
( 1 a2p
~.
poaxay
of the
i
azp
Poaxay
>
APPENDIX
2: THE RELATION
the passage
BETWEEN P AND p
sound
wave,
p
and
related
_{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{P} _{=} _{p}_{c} _{2}_{.} If there is heat dissipation through viscosity, thermal
conductivity or any other agency, the entropy of the system can no longer be considered constant.
is conserved
during
P
are
Let p’ be a function
of P’ and S’ where S’ refers to the total entropy
which consists of the
sum of So and S, the static entropy and the fluctuating entropy, respectively. Then
6P’= (g$SP
+ (igJ/S~.
(A.9
Denoting 
6p’, 
6P’ and 
65” by p, P 
and 
S, the fluctuating 
parts 
of p’, P’ and 
S’, one obtains 
(A. 10) 
(i5P’/ap’)s is the adiabatic speed of sound squared, and may be denoted by c2. The expression for (ap’/i%‘), can be obtained as follows.
From
Therefore
Therefore
Thus equation
the first law of thermodynamics,
T’dS’ = dE + P’d(l/p’)
one may write
where E is the internal
energy
=dEclidp’.
P
= (g)p(gp;’
=c,
_TI
(
P’
1
c
=7.
P12
for a perfect gas.
(A.lO) now becomes
p=~_!Js.
P
The fluctuating
equation
entropy
S in equation
(A.13) can be obtained
by considering
case is given by [ 1l]
in terms of entropy,
which in the twodimensional
p’T’g
=
@ +
div (K; grad T’)
(A.ll)
(A.12)
(A.13)
the energy
(A.14)
SOUND PROPAGATION IN A SHEARED FLUID
45
where
Kj = thermal
conductivity
I
of the gas,
=
77’e& + !C [e?, + e& 
3
err e&i
7
Cp= 17’e& + f
[(err 
e&*
+ e& + e:,],
Therefore
and
The dashes denote the total magnitude of the parameter concerned.
T’ = T,, + T = sum of static temperature and fluctuating temperature and
Ki = &, + Kt = sum of the static and fluctuating thermal conductivity.
Equation
(A. 14) reduces to
(A.15)
When there is no mean temperature
gradient,
c_aT
ax
ax
and
=* aT’
ay
aT
ay
If S’,
the products
u’, v’, T’,
Ki are replaced
by
S,, +
S,
U + U, v, T,, +
of fluctuating
quantities
neglected, equation
T and
Ko, +
K,,
(A.15) becomes
respectively,
and
(DSODS)
=rl
(au)2
ay
J(au
8,)
ay+z +Kot
(!?+ $).
If (p. + p)(To
+
T) is written
as poTo
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
_{(}_{A}_{.} _{1}_{6}_{)} _{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{s}
(PO+P)VO+T) x+z
+2r) 5
(A.16)
+
From the time average of equation
2770au
(+)+s($+g).
polo
ay
au
ay
au
ax
(A.17), one obtains
Uas,=~o
au2
ax
.
polo
_{(}
ay
_{)}
(A.17)
(A.18)
46
P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL
It then follows that
Replacing
(g+
W,/ax
from equation
Ug),onefinds
+ (+)+f$($+g). 2110au au a0 poloay ay ax
(A.18) in the first term and substituting&[1

(A.19)
MK] S for
(A.20)
In Appendix
1 it has been shown that
and
Substitute
the above two expressions;
then equation
(A.20) becomes
(A21)
or
1
s=x
POTo Ml

E
MN
where Eis defined by equation
(A.21). From
equation
(A. 13), one may now write
p,P_dxIx
c2
C,
=
P
^{c}^{2}^{}^{}^{7}^{}^{x}
(a
(P+a>
=
c2
’
p. To
1)
jw(1
_{E}
jW(1 

E
MK) ’
MK)’
(A.22)
where
8 = 
(u 
1) x
jW(1 
’
MK) *
Equation
(A.22) expresses the relation between p and P; 6 may be considered
acoustic pressure due to entropy no dissipation.
change by dissipation.
It may be noted
that
as a perturbed
6 = 0 if there
is
SOUND PROPAGATION
IN A SHEARED FLUID
APPENDIX
3: THE EVALUATION
OF K IN THE ABSENCE
SHEAR
WITH
RIGID
WALL
In the absence of shear, equation
(27) becomes
OF
$+(kL)“[(lMK)2K2]F=0.
For rigid walls, K is wholly real.
Variation
TABLE
1
of K with MO and kL
47
(A.23)
m 
= 
0 = plane 
mode 

Constant gradient flow 
_{T}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{u}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} 

Flow at 
No shear 
, 
3 
flow 

centre 
freq. indep. 
_{k}_{L}_{=}_{m} 
kL=2rr 
kL= 
10 
kL=20 
kL=20 

MO) 
(K) 
(K) 
(K) 
(K) 
(K) 
(K) 
0.0
l.oooo





0.1 0.9091 
0.9526 
0.9566 
0.9633 
0.9761 
0.9222 
0.2 0.8330 
0.9095 
0.9224 
0.9393 
0.9618 
0.8584 
0.3 0.7692 
0.8695 
0.8932 
0.9194 
0.9497 
0.8033 
0.4 0.7143 
0.8322 
0.8672 
0.9015 
0.9388 
0.7550 
0.5 0.6667 
0.7970 
0.8431 
0.8849 
0.9286 
0.7121 
Flow at
r
kL=2?r
m =
1 =jirst
kL=
mode
10
kL=20
,
centre 
No 
shear 
c.g. 
flow 
No 
shear 
c.g. 
flow 
No 
shear 
c.g. 
flow 
(MO) 
(K) 
WI 
(K) 
00 
WI 
WI 
0.0 
0.866 
 
0.949 
 
0.987 
 

0.1 
0.775 
0.816 
0.850 
0.894 
0.895 
0.929 

0.2 0.700 
_{0}_{.}_{7}_{6}_{8} 
_{0}_{.}_{7}_{7}_{6} 
0.841 
0.819 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{8}_{6} 

0.3 0.636 
0.724 
0.710 
0.793 
0.755 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{5}_{3} 

0.4 0,582 
_{0}_{.}_{6}_{8}_{4} 
0.65 
0.751 
0.700 
_{0}_{.}_{8}_{2}_{4} 

0.5 0.535 
0647 
0.61 
0.713 
0.653 
0.78 

m 
= 2 = second mode 

kL=20 

Flow at 
, 
7 

centre 
No shear 
Turbulent flow 

(MO) 
(K) 
(K) 
oo 
0.949 
 
O*l 
0.851 
0.8630 
0.2 
0.776 
0.7928 
0.3 
0.710 
0.7326 
0.4 
0.653 
0.6804 
0.5 
0.616 
0.6347 
48
P. MUNGUR AND G. M. L. GLADWELL
The boundary 
conditions 
to be satisfied are 

dF 

_{d}_{X}_{=} _{0} 
at X 
0 and X= 
1 (the centre of the duct). 

Let 

k: 
= (kQ2 [(1  
MK)2  
P] 
; 

then 
to satisfy 
the 
boundary conditions 
k, 
= mn 
where 
m 
determines 
the 

propagation. Thus 

=(I 
MK)2K2 

or 

(M2l)K22MK+l+m2R2=0 

where R = rr/kL. 

The roots of equation (A26) are given by 
For the lowest mode,
m=O
For the first mode,
m=l
For the second mode,
_{m}_{=}_{2}
K=M~1/1m2R2(M21)
and
and
_{a}_{n}_{d}
AI*1
.
K=(Mfl)/(M2l)=l/(M*l).
K=M*~1R2(M21)
_{K}_{=}
M+
1/l
W1

4R2(M2 
W1
_{*}
1)
_{}
_{(}_{A}_{.}_{2}_{4}_{)}
mode
of
_{(}_{A}_{.}_{2}_{5}_{)}
_{(}_{A}_{.}_{2}_{6}_{)}
(A.27)
(A.28)
(A.29)
(A.30)
The magnitudes of K given by equations (A.28), (A.29) and (A.30) have been evaluated for various R’s (i.e. kL) and M, and are shown in Table 1.
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