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Control System

Course Outline
I. Introduction to Control System------------------------------1wk
II. Review of Laplace Transform---------------------------------1wk
III.Introduction to System Modeling and the Transfer Function---2wks
IV. Models of Industrial Control Devices and System-------------1wk
V. Signal Flow Graphs------------------------------------------1wk
VI. Concept of Stability----------------------------------------1wk
VII.Root Locus--------------------------------------------------2wks
VIII.Frequency Response Analysis--------------------------------2wks
1. Bode Plots
2. Nyquist Diagram
3. Nichols Chart

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 2


Grading System
I. Quizzes, Seatworks, Homeworks,
Recitations, Attendance------------30%
II.Unit Tests------------------------40%
III.Term Test----------------------__30%__
100%

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 3


Lecture Outline
I. Introduction to Control System
1. Overview and Brief Histroy of
Control System
2. Control System Terminologies
3. Introduction to Block Diagram
Algebra

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 4


Overview and Brief History

Control System
In the most abstract sense it, is possible to consider every 1 2

object a control system. But, in engineering…


According Shaum’s, it is an arrangement of physical
components connected or related in such a manner as to
actively command, direct, or regulate, itself or another
system. 3 4

• A collection of components(optical, mechanical,


electronic, electrical, etc.) assembled to form a system
that maintains a desired output/response for a given
input signal. (C. Yap, 2019, EE257 UPD)
5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 5


Overview and Brief History
Visualizing Control System
1 2

3 4

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 6


Overview and Brief History

Types of Control System


• Open Loop Control System 1 2

• Has no automatic correction of the


variation in the output. 4

• Does not consider disturbances in the


observed system, imparting errors in the
system response.
5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 7


Overview and Brief History

Types of Control System


• Open Loop Control System 1 2

• Examples: electric fans, and traffic lights.


• Accuracy of the system depends on the
initial calibration.
• Simpler and cheaper to estimate. 4

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 8


Overview and Brief History

Types of Control System


• Closed Loop Control System 1 2

• Has a feedback loop.


• The output provides an effect to the input 3 4

signal so that the system’s desired


response is maintained.
• Relies on the feedback from the measured
output to automatically correct the
5 6
response with minimal errors.
Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 9
Overview and Brief History

Types of Control System


• Closed Loop Control System 1 2

• Examples: Air-conditioners, generator-turbine


system.
• Less sensitive to disturbances. (Corrective
Effects)
• More complex and more expensive than 3 4

open loop.

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 10


Not in the exam…
Brief History of Control System

1 2

3 4

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 11


Not in the exam…
Brief History of Control System

1 2

3 4

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 12


Control System Terminologies

• Block Diagram – A shorthand, pictorial


representation of the cause-and-effect 1 2

relationship between input and output of a


physical system.
• Components= Elements
• Block contains description or name of an
element. 3 4

• Arrow is the direction of information.

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 13


Control System Terminologies

• Summing Point – A bock associated with


arrows that represent addition and subtraction. 1 2

• Any number of inputs may enter a summing


points.
• Only one outputs.
• Takeoff Point – A point that allows the same 3 4
signal to branch out to different blocks,
summing points

5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 14


Control System Terminologies
Closed- Loop Control System Terminologies
• Plant/Process/Controlled System (g2) – The
system, subsystem, process, or object controlled 1 2

by feedback control system.


• Controlled output (c) – The output variable of
the plant, under control of the feedback control
system.
3 4

• Forward Path – The transmission path from the


summing point to the controlled output c.
• Feedforward/ Control Elements (g1) – The
components of the forward path that generate
the control signal u or m applied to the plant. 5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 15


Control System Terminologies
Closed- Loop Control System Terminologies
• Control Signal/Manipulated Variable (u) –
The output signal of the feedforward elements
1 2
g1 applied as an input to the plant g2
• Feedback Path – The transmission path from
the controlled output c back to the summing
point.
• Feedback elements (h) – Establish the 3 4

functional relationship between the controlled


output c and the primary feedback signal b.
• Reference Input (r) – An external signal
applied to the feedback control system, usually
5 6
at the first summing point. Usually it is the ideal
output behavior of the plant.
Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 16
Control System Terminologies
Discrete-Time and Computer Controlled
System Terminologies
• Discrete-Time Signals – Digital Signals. 1 2

• Continuous-Time Signals – Analog Signals.


• Sampler – Converts continuous-time signals to
discrete-time signals.
• Hold/Data Hold – Converts the digital signal 3 4

output of a sampler to a particular analog


signal.
• Zero-hold/Simple hold (piecewise-continuous
signal) – maintains the value of the signal until
the next sampling time. 5 6

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 17


Block Diagrams Algebra
Introduction to its algebra

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 18


Block Diagram Algebra
Review of the Fundamentals

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 19


Block Diagram Algebra
Review of the Fundamentals

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 20


Block Diagram Algebra
Blocks in Cascade

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 21


Block Diagram Algebra
Blocks in Cascade

• [+10] Find X n / X l for each of the systems in Fig. 7-13.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 22


Block Diagram Algebra
Blocks in Cascade

• [+10] Find X n / X l for each of the systems in Fig. 7-13.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 23


Block Diagram Algebra
Blocks in Cascade

• [+10] Find X n / X l for each of the systems in Fig. 7-13.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 24


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 25


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 26


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 27


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 28


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form +10]

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 29


Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form +10]

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 30


Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 31


Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems
Transformation 2

Transformation 3

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 32


Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 33


Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 5

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 34


Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 35


Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 7

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 36


Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 8

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 37


Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 38


Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 39


Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 40


Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

• +10]Reduce to unity feedback system.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 41


Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

• +10]Reduce to unity feedback system.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 42


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 43


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 44


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 45


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 46


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 47


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

+10]Determine the output C due to Ul, U2,and R

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 48


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

+10]Determine the output C due to Ul, U2,and R

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 49


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

+10]Determine the output C due to Ul, U2,and R

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 50


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

+10]Determine the output C due to Ul, U2,and R

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 51


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

+20] Determine C1, and C2 due to R1, and R2.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 52


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Ignoring C2.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 53


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

R2=0 ; Combining Summing Points

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 54


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 55


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Ignoring C1.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 56


Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 57


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 58


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 59


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 60


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 61


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 62


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 63


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

• We do not apply Step 3 at this time, but go directly to


Step 4, moving takeoff point 1 beyond block G2+ G3.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 64


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

• We may now rearrange summing points I and 2 and


combine the cascade blocks in the forward loop using
Transformation 6 , then Transformation1:

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 65


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

• Step3

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 66


Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

• Finally, we apply Transformation 5 to remove l/(G2 +


G,) from the feedback loop:

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 67


Block Diagram Algebra

+10]Reduce the block diagram then find C if K


is constant.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 68


Block Diagram Algebra

+10]Reduce the block diagram then find C if K


is constant.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 69


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time


isolate K in the forward loop.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 70


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time


isolate K in the forward loop.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 71


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time


isolate K in the forward loop.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 72


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 73


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 74


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 75


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 76


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 77


Block Diagram Algebra

+20]Reduce to open loop form.

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 78


Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 79
Thank You