Sunteți pe pagina 1din 80

# Control System

Course Outline
I. Introduction to Control System------------------------------1wk
II. Review of Laplace Transform---------------------------------1wk
III.Introduction to System Modeling and the Transfer Function---2wks
IV. Models of Industrial Control Devices and System-------------1wk
V. Signal Flow Graphs------------------------------------------1wk
VI. Concept of Stability----------------------------------------1wk
VII.Root Locus--------------------------------------------------2wks
VIII.Frequency Response Analysis--------------------------------2wks
1. Bode Plots
2. Nyquist Diagram
3. Nichols Chart

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 2

I. Quizzes, Seatworks, Homeworks,
Recitations, Attendance------------30%
II.Unit Tests------------------------40%
III.Term Test----------------------__30%__
100%

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 3

Lecture Outline
I. Introduction to Control System
1. Overview and Brief Histroy of
Control System
2. Control System Terminologies
3. Introduction to Block Diagram
Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 4

Overview and Brief History

Control System
In the most abstract sense it, is possible to consider every 1 2

## object a control system. But, in engineering…

According Shaum’s, it is an arrangement of physical
components connected or related in such a manner as to
actively command, direct, or regulate, itself or another
system. 3 4

## • A collection of components(optical, mechanical,

electronic, electrical, etc.) assembled to form a system
that maintains a desired output/response for a given
input signal. (C. Yap, 2019, EE257 UPD)
5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 5

Overview and Brief History
Visualizing Control System
1 2

3 4

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 6

Overview and Brief History

## Types of Control System

• Open Loop Control System 1 2

## • Has no automatic correction of the

variation in the output. 4

## • Does not consider disturbances in the

observed system, imparting errors in the
system response.
5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 7

Overview and Brief History

## Types of Control System

• Open Loop Control System 1 2

## • Examples: electric fans, and traffic lights.

• Accuracy of the system depends on the
initial calibration.
• Simpler and cheaper to estimate. 4

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 8

Overview and Brief History

## Types of Control System

• Closed Loop Control System 1 2

## • Has a feedback loop.

• The output provides an effect to the input 3 4

## signal so that the system’s desired

response is maintained.
• Relies on the feedback from the measured
output to automatically correct the
5 6
response with minimal errors.
Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 9
Overview and Brief History

## Types of Control System

• Closed Loop Control System 1 2

## • Examples: Air-conditioners, generator-turbine

system.
• Less sensitive to disturbances. (Corrective
Effects)
• More complex and more expensive than 3 4

open loop.

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 10

Not in the exam…
Brief History of Control System

1 2

3 4

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 11

Not in the exam…
Brief History of Control System

1 2

3 4

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 12

Control System Terminologies

## • Block Diagram – A shorthand, pictorial

representation of the cause-and-effect 1 2

## relationship between input and output of a

physical system.
• Components= Elements
• Block contains description or name of an
element. 3 4

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 13

Control System Terminologies

## • Summing Point – A bock associated with

arrows that represent addition and subtraction. 1 2

## • Any number of inputs may enter a summing

points.
• Only one outputs.
• Takeoff Point – A point that allows the same 3 4
signal to branch out to different blocks,
summing points

5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 14

Control System Terminologies
Closed- Loop Control System Terminologies
• Plant/Process/Controlled System (g2) – The
system, subsystem, process, or object controlled 1 2

## by feedback control system.

• Controlled output (c) – The output variable of
the plant, under control of the feedback control
system.
3 4

## • Forward Path – The transmission path from the

summing point to the controlled output c.
• Feedforward/ Control Elements (g1) – The
components of the forward path that generate
the control signal u or m applied to the plant. 5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 15

Control System Terminologies
Closed- Loop Control System Terminologies
• Control Signal/Manipulated Variable (u) –
The output signal of the feedforward elements
1 2
g1 applied as an input to the plant g2
• Feedback Path – The transmission path from
the controlled output c back to the summing
point.
• Feedback elements (h) – Establish the 3 4

## functional relationship between the controlled

output c and the primary feedback signal b.
• Reference Input (r) – An external signal
applied to the feedback control system, usually
5 6
at the first summing point. Usually it is the ideal
output behavior of the plant.
Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 16
Control System Terminologies
Discrete-Time and Computer Controlled
System Terminologies
• Discrete-Time Signals – Digital Signals. 1 2

## • Continuous-Time Signals – Analog Signals.

• Sampler – Converts continuous-time signals to
discrete-time signals.
• Hold/Data Hold – Converts the digital signal 3 4

## output of a sampler to a particular analog

signal.
• Zero-hold/Simple hold (piecewise-continuous
signal) – maintains the value of the signal until
the next sampling time. 5 6

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 17

Block Diagrams Algebra
Introduction to its algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 18

Block Diagram Algebra
Review of the Fundamentals

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 19

Block Diagram Algebra
Review of the Fundamentals

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 20

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 21

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 22

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 23

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 24

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 25

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 26

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 27

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 28

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form +10]

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 29

Block Diagram Algebra
Canonical Form +10]

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 30

Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 31

Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems
Transformation 2

Transformation 3

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 32

Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 33

Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 5

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 34

Block Diagram Algebra
Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 35

Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 7

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 36

Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

Transformation 8

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 37

Block Diagram Algebra Block Diagram Transformation Theorems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 38

Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 39

Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 40

Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 41

Block Diagram Algebra
Unity Feedback Systems

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 42

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 43

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 44

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 45

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 46

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 47

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 48

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 49

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 50

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 51

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 52

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Ignoring C2.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 53

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 54

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 55

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

Ignoring C1.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 56

Block Diagram Algebra
Superposition of Multiple Inputs

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 57

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 58

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 59

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 60

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduction of Complicated Block Diagram

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 61

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 62

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 63

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

## • We do not apply Step 3 at this time, but go directly to

Step 4, moving takeoff point 1 beyond block G2+ G3.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 64

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

## • We may now rearrange summing points I and 2 and

combine the cascade blocks in the forward loop using
Transformation 6 , then Transformation1:

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 65

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

• Step3

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 66

Block Diagram Algebra
Reduce but this time isolate H1

## • Finally, we apply Transformation 5 to remove l/(G2 +

G,) from the feedback loop:

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 67

Block Diagram Algebra

is constant.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 68

Block Diagram Algebra

is constant.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 69

Block Diagram Algebra

## +20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time

isolate K in the forward loop.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 70

Block Diagram Algebra

## +20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time

isolate K in the forward loop.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 71

Block Diagram Algebra

## +20]Reduce it in canonical form but this time

isolate K in the forward loop.

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 72

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 73

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 74

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 75

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 76

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 77

Block Diagram Algebra

## Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 78

Engr. Reynaldo Castro Castillo Jr. REE 79
Thank You