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AN INTERNSHIP REPORT

ON

AMMONIA - IV (A-IV) PLANT

GUJARAT STATE FERTILIZER AND CHEMICAL LIMITED

VADODARA

BY

Ved U. Choksi Pritesh J. Darji Parth Y. Deshpande


(17BE01009) (17BE01011) (17BE01014)

Pratik Hebbar Aditya R. Pandya Abhishek N. Patel


(17BE01019) (17BE01033) (17BE01037)

Deep T. Patel Jay M. Patel Shridhar V. Patel


(17BE01038) (17BE01042) (17BE01046)

Soham S. Prajapati Darshan R. Shah Darshit Gajera


(17BE01053) (17BE01058) (17BE03004)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Mr. A Srikrishnan, Chemical Engineering, GSFC University

Mr. Shailesh N. Patel, Mr. Satish Patel, Mr. Mehul Patel, GSFC Ltd.

SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY

GSFC UNIVERSITY, FERTILIZERNAGAR


VADODARA-391 750.GUJARAT-INDIA
DECEMBER - 2019
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Chemical Engineering Department
School of Technology
GSFC University
Vadodara
2019

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Ved U. Choksi (17BE01009), Mr. Pritesh J. Darji
(17BE01011), Mr. Parth Y. Deshpande (17BE01014), Mr. Pratik Hebbar (17BE01019), Mr.
Aditya R. Pandya (17BE01053), Mr. Abhishek N. Patel (17BE01037), Mr. Deep T. Patel
(17BE01038), Mr. Jay M. Patel (17BE01042), Mr. Shridhar V. Patel (17BE01046), Mr. Soham
S. Prajapati (17BE01053), Mr. Darshan R.Shah (17BE01058), Mr. Darshit Gajera
(17BE03004), students of B.Tech. 5th Sem Chemical Engineering, have completed their
internship in “Ammonia -IV (A-IV) Plant” and here by submit their report.

Sign: _____________
Sign: _____________
Mr. Shailesh N. Patel
Mr. A Srikrishnan
Sign: _____________
University Mentor,
Mr. Satish Patel
Chemical Engineering,
Sign: _____________
SOT, GSFC University
Mr. Mehul Patel
Industry Mentor
Date: ______________
Ammonia-IV Plant
GSFC Ltd.

Date: ______________

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PREFACE

The objective of the training is to acquire practical and field experience along with the
theoretical experience gained by us. Training in the field of engineering is necessary as
it provides us with required knowledge of the industry and equips us to be better prepared
for work.

The technology is evolving day by day and so we should be well versed with the latest
technology being used in the industries today. So, to build a better tomorrow, it is
imperative that we youth must be trained in our respective fields of education. This fact
was literally reflected in the internship provided by our university at Gujarat State
Fertilizers and Chemical Limited (GSFC).

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It has been upmost privilege to work with Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemical Limited.
The opportunity of training here has given us an enriching learning experience, which is
a necessity in a modern growing world today. We have been fortunate enough to have
trained under immensely knowledgeable people and extremely hardworking staff.

We would like to give our pleasure to GSFC University for providing us such a great
opportunity and let myself to adopt this kind of environment at a very early stage. We
would like to thank Whole H.R department for helping us out with orientation of our
vocational training and their efforts to make the whole process of our training at Gujarat
State Fertilizers and Chemical Limited smooth and faithful experiences. We would like
to extend our thanks to Mr. Shailesh N. Patel, Mr. Satish Patel Mr. Mehul Patel and to
whole Ammonia - IV Plant members for guiding and helping us to solve all kind of
queries regarding project work and providing additional knowledge. We would also like
to mention Mr. A Srikrishnan Sir for his guidance and kind support.

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LIST OF FIGURES
Sr. Pg.
Name of figure
No No.
1 NATURAL GAS PIPELINES 8

2 DESULPHURIZATION 8

3 ISOTHERMAL SHIFT REACTOR 10

4 CO2 REMOVAL SECTION 11

5 RESPONSE FROM PSA COLUMN 13

6 AIR SEPARATION UNIT (COLD BOX) 14

7 LEAN PUMP DATA 16

8 SEMI LEAN PUMP DATA 17

9 COMPRESSOR DATA 18

10 TYPES OF COOLING TOWER 26

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INDEX
Pg.
Sr. No Content
No.

PROESS DISCRIPTION
 HYDROGEN SECTION
 DESULPHURISATION
 STEAM REFORMING
1
 ISR 7-15
 PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION
 AIR SEPARATION UNIT
 AMMONIA SYNTHESIS UNIT
PUMP AND COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS
 LEAN PUMP
2 16-20
 SEMI LEAN PUMP
 SYN GAS COMPRESSOR
REFORMER FLUE GAS HEAT RECOVERY
3 CALCULATION 21-24
 HEAT DUTY CALCULATION
 HEAT RECOVERY
COOLING TOWER COST ANALYSIS
 INTRODUCTION
4  WORKING PRINCIPLE 25-28
 CLASSIFICATION
 POWER CONSUMPTION
UTILITIES
 RAW WATER
 INSTRUMENT AIR
5  LOW PRESSURE NITROGEN 29
 ELECTRICITY
 STEAM

6 CONCLUSION 30

7 REFERENCES 31

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CHAPTER 1: - PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Lined process for ammonia synthesis is use.

Plant capacity (Ammonia):- 1350 MTPD

Raw material:

1. Natural gas:
a. Methane: 84 to 90%
b. Ethane: 5 to 8%
c. CO2: 1 to 5%
d. Propane: 1 to 5%
e. HHV: 9800 to 11000 Kcal/NM3
f. LHV: 8500 to 9000
2. Steam
3. Demineralize water
4. Air

By Product:

1. Carbon dioxide
2. Argon
3. Oxygen

Reaction:-

3 H2 + N2  2 NH3 (exothermic reaction)

Axial-radial flow convertor is use for convert hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia.

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HYDROGEN SECTION:-

 Hydrogen which is obtained from NG (Natural gas) and NG is export from GAIL (Gas
Authority of Indian Limited) and GSPL (Gujarat State Petro net Limited) at high and
low pressure which will need to purify (remove organic impurity like mercaptans by
converting it into sulphur compounds ).HPNG use for feed gas and LPNG use for fuel
gas. We get HPNG at 39 bar and LPNG at 4.5 bar.

NG

GAIL GSPC

HPNG LPNG HPNG

Figure 1: - NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

1. Desulfurization:
 High pressure NG goes to COMOx and ZnO chamber where desulfurization takes place.
COMOx is used to convert organic to inorganic component. ZnO use for remove H2S in
form of ZnS.
ZnO + H2S  ZnS + H2O (exothermic reaction)
 We can’t regenerate the bed it has to be replaced.

Figure 2: - DESULPHURIZATION

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 During this process above 350 ºC temperature is maintain and it is less than 450ºC
because above this temperature catalyst life start to decrease.
 As pressure increase absorption increase and as space velocity increase absorption
decrease.
2. Steam reforming:
 Steam reformer contains 108 burners and 408 tubes. Here, in tubes of reformer HPNG is
used with 1: 3 ratio of NG to steam. The tubes of reformer are filled with nickel based
catalyst having few amount of potash. The heat is given by burner with the help of
LPNG and air which is given by forced draft fan. And temperature is maintaining
around 830 ºC and pressure is 23-35 bar g. Moreover, excess steam in reformer is a
good insurance against C formation. It gives 75% conversion..

CH4 + H2O  3H2 + CO (endothermic reaction)

 Length of reformer tube is 13m and total volume is 42m3.Upper 21m3 volume filled with
aluminium and nickel catalyst with potash and remaining bottom portion is filled with
nickel and aluminium catalyst.
 We use super-heated and MP steam in reformer because of endothermic reaction and
volume is double after reaction.
 Carbon formation occur due to deficiency of steam which can plugs tubes and form layer
on catalyst so it decrease the catalyst life.
 Resist carbon formation by maintain minimum steam to carbon ratio.
 And sooty carbon is removing by steam.
 Use of potash in catalyst.
 Acidity in the support facilitates cracking and polymerization of hydrocarbons
through which C is formed so alkali compound is introduced which not only
neutralizes acidity but also accelerates C removing reaction
 Most effective alkali is found to be K2O which is filled at top part of the reaction
because most of the complex reactions associated with the higher carbon are
complete at top part of reformer.
 Flue gases from the reformer are at 950 ºC which send to heat recovery section where
heat is transfer from flue gas to six heat exchanger which are in series connection and
after pass from heat exchanger flue gas temperature is around 95 ºC then flue gas leave
to environment.

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 Six heat exchanger working in convection bank
1. Feed superheater
2. HP steam superheater
3. Feed pre-heater
4. HP steam generator
5. HP BFW pre-heater
6. Air pre-heater
 Product gas which is at 850 ºC is send to boiler section at which HP and LP steam are
generate by using product gas heat.
 Outlet of reformer contains CO, H2O, CO2 and methane which are further send to ISR
(Isothermal shift reactor).

3. ISR (Isothermal shift reactor):


 In ISR copper based catalyst is used. Aluminium balls are used to support the copper
based catalyst. Process gas enters in shell side and as it is exothermic reaction water is
supplied on tube side to maintain the temperature of the reactor. ISR itself suggest
constant temperature in the reactor. The reaction which occurs is called water gas shift
reaction. Here the CO is converted to CO2 and maximum amount of H2 is produce from
the process gas.

CO + H2O  H2 + CO2 (exothermic reaction)

Figure 3: - ISOTHERMAL SHIFT REACTOR

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 There are ------ number of tube in which water is continuously circulate for maintain
constant temperature. Because of exothermic reaction heat is liberate which convert water
into the steam and steam is collect form the upper portion of water drum.
 For circulation of water pump is used after steady state gain water circulation is done by
thermo siphon effect.
 Outlet stream is pass from the series of heat exchanger in which heat exchange with
MDEA solution of stripping section(CO2 absorber) and temperature is down around 50-
55 ºC and send to CO2 absorption tower for CO2 removal process.

4. CO2 removal section:


 Absorption is carried out in a column with counter current flow of liquid (MDEA) and
gas. Some amount of piperazine (3 wt %) is used to improve the CO2 mass transfer.
MDEA (methyl di ethanol amine) section has trays and packing rings for absorption.
From the top of the absorption tower BFW is feed which flow through the trays.
 Lean MDEA having 37 wt % and semi lean MDEA having 34 wt. % of MDEA is flow
through the packing material. This is because as in the bottom, semi lean is used which
first take away the CO2 and rest left will be taken by lean solution.

Figure 4: - CO2 REMOVAL SECTION

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Gas component Inlet gas composition Outlet gas composition
(%) (%)
H2 75 90
CO2 19-20 0.2
CH4 6 7
CO 0.5 0.05

 Late on the CO2 rich MDEA solution is been recovered in flash column which is divide
in to two parts. Bottom part operates at 5.5 bar g and top part operates at 0.5 bar g where
the solution is flashed on a plate. From the top of the flash tower CO2 is released and
MDEA is send back to absorption section.
 Mainly portion of MDEA (80%) is directly send to the absorption tower which is known
as semi-lean MDEA and remaining (20%) is send to the stripping section.
 In stripping section CO2 is stripped out with the use of heating at 1atm pressure and 110
ºC temperature. Because of heating more CO2 is liberated which is send to the MDEA
pool at top part of flashing section for heat recovery and lean MDEA solution is send to
the absorption tower.

5. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA):


 After the CO2 removal section mixture of gases is send to the adsorption section where
remove the impurities like CO, CO2, CH4 and we get 99.99% pure hydrogen from outlet.
 PSA consist total 12 adsorption column from which 4 are inline and other are in
purging, regeneration, pressurising process.
 Graph of Pressure vs time is as shown below which shows adsorption process is done at
23 bar and then depressurizing process occur and pressure reach till the 0.6 bar. At 0.6
bar pressure purging occur and then column is start to pressurizing. For handling 12
column total 108 valve which all are PLC base.
 The purge gas is sent to the buffer vessel and then it will be send to the reformer as a
fuel.

12 | P a g e
Figure 5: - RESPONSE OF PSA COLUMN
6. AIR SEPARATION UNIT
Nitrogen is obtained from atmospheric air in air separation unit. Air separation plant is
based on low temperature process. Air separation unit separates the nitrogen from other
components such as oxygen and argon which are present in considerable amount in Air. Air
separation unit not just produced raw material for ammonia synthesis but also produces
oxygen which is sent to other plants such as Methanol and CEP.

First of all air is taken from the atmosphere and filtered it in Suction filter which
removes all the dust particles and suspended solids from air. After filtration Air is
compressed to 5.2 barg pressure with the help of 3 compressor. All the three compressors are
electric motor driven compressors. After all the compressors after cooler are installed to
reduce the temperature of the air. After increasing pressure to 5.2 barg and temperature
reduction stage air is chilled in Air Chiller by chilled water. Chilled water not only absorb
impurities such as Carbon dioxide and other soluble gases but also reduce the temperature of
process air to about 2-4 °C. Water taken from the bottom of the air chiller is chilled with
refrigerated ammonia. Blow done and make up is also done to maintain pH of water which
can be decreased due to absorption of CO2 in it. After that process air goes to two absorbers
which consists of beds of zeolite molecular sieve which removes all traces of carbon dioxide
and other components. Then process gas mainly consists of nitrogen, oxygen and argon is
split down into two streams. One stream is sent to the main heat exchanger inside cold box
and the other is sent to the compressor for further compression up to 9.2 barg. The stream
which is compressed is sent to main heat exchanger to lower down its temperature and further
sent to expansion turbine in which its pressure drops to 0.37 bar. Due to the large pressure
reduction temperature of the air is reached to very low sufficient for the liquefaction of the
components into the air. The steam of air which is directly sent for liquefaction in main heat
exchanger is flashed into medium pressure column. In which pressure is 5.2 barg.

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Figure 6: - AIR SEPARATION UNIT (COLD BOX)

Due to flashing nitrogen being more volatile components evaporate and oxygen and argon
being less volatile components remains in the liquid state. The nitrogen which is taken from
the top of MP column is sent to L.P. column in which nitrogen is condensed. The stream that
are at low pressure is sent directly to Low pressure column. The liquefied gas in the L.P.
column is vaporized and the nitrogen stream which comes from M.P. drum is condensed. The
nitrogen which is vaporized in Low pressure drum is recovered. The liquid pool is maintained
at different levels in which one is of Argon and the other is Oxygen. There is one level in
column in which Argon content is maximum. At that level argon is maximum, stream is
taken out and sent to Argon recovery section.

In argon recovery section, Argon is recovered and concentrated with the help of two
columns, one is Crude argon column and second is pure argon column. The point which has
the highest argon content (10%) is taken out from low pressure column and sent to crude
argon column. Due to nearer the boiling point of Oxygen (-183 °C) and Argon (-185.8 °C) it
is desired to use a high number of stages. So in crude argon column oxygen is separated as
down product and argon as top product. Most of the distillate taken as top product is refluxed
back to column and small amount is taken out as product and sent to pure argon column.
Finally argon is taken out as bottom product in pure argon column. Rest nitrogen is taken out
from the top of the column. Nitrogen is vent out. In this way the N2, O2 and Ar are separated.
N2 further goes to the 500 section that is Ammonia Synthesis Unit whereas Ar is stored in the
column as by-product.

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7. AMMONIA SYNTHESIS UNIT

In ammonia synthesis section ammonia is produced from Nitrogen and hydrogen


produced in Hydrogen section and Nitrogen section. First of all the feed is compressed in
three stages in Syngas Compressor in the molar ratio of 3 moles of hydrogen to 1 mole of
nitrogen. After third compressor pressure of syn-gas is increased to 135.20 barg. At this
pressure recycle stream is mixed with the inlet stream and further compressed in fourth stage
up to 143.20 barg. At this pressure feed is heated upto 185 °C in Hot Exchanger and sent to
Reactor intercoolers to reduce the temperature inside the reactor then feed is introduced
inside reactor. Reactor is Radial-Axial Flow Type Reactor also called CASALE converter
named on the company provided reactor. As the reaction proceeds the temperature of the gas
is increased due to the exothermic nature of the reaction. After the reaction temperature of the
product gas is 432 °C and pressure is 140 barg. The per pass conversion of ammonia is 17%
so recycling is mandatory.

After product gas heat is recovered in further stages. First of all the product gas is
used to H.P. steam generator. H.P. steam generator produces steam pressure 111 bar and 320
°C. Outlet temperature of product gas from H.P. steam generator is 329 °C. Then product gas
enters H.P. Boiler preheater in which it heats the water which is used to produce steam to
some extent and cooled down to 212 °C. Then product gas enters hot hot exchanger and cools
down by the feed stream of the reactor up to 85°C. Then product gas enters ammonia
condenser and cools down to about 40°C by cooling water. Then product gas enters into Cold
exchanger and cooled down to 32°C by vapours leaving H.P. separator. After that product gas
is cooled down to 0°C by liquid ammonia comes from refrigeration section in two chillers.
Then it is sent to H.P. separator in which mixture is splashed into flash drum and unreacted
vapours get liberated from liquid ammonia. Then it is sent to M.P. flash drum by which
unreacted gas is separated and vented to the atmosphere. The liquid that got from M.P. flash
drum is sent to refrigeration section for further refrigeration.

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CHAPTER 2: - PUMP AND COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS

PUMP CALCULATIONS

1. Semi Lean Pump Data

Quantity Value

Volumetric Flow Rate (m3/hr) 980

Density of Fluid (kg/m3) 1078

cos ∅ 0.90

Net Head (meters of liquid column) 274.58

Current (A) 63.3

Voltage (kV) 11

Figure 7: - LEAN PUMP DATA


Step 1 Power Calculations

P cos ∅

= 1085.42 kW

Step 2 Efficiency Calculations

η= ρ* Q*h
3.67*105 *P

η=

η = 0.7282 = 72.82 %

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2. Semi Lean Pump Data

Quantity Value

Volumetric Flow Rate (m3/hr) 325

Density of Fluid (kg/m3) 1035

cos ∅ 0.95

Net Head (meters of liquid column) 298.55

Current (A) 98.8

Voltage (kV) 3.3

Figure 8: - SEMI LEAN PUMP DATA


Step 1 Power Calculations

P cos ∅

= 536.482 kW

Step 2 Efficiency Calculations

η= ρ* Q*h
3.67*105 *P

η=

η = 0.5100 = 51 %

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SYN GAS CENTRIFUGAL TURBINE DRIVEN COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS

Compressor stage 1 2 3 4

Mass flow kg/ hr 56620 56620 56620 214824

Molecular weight
8.528 8.528 8.528 9.223
kg/ kmol

Suction pressure
24.2 41.7 70.6 135.3
bar G

Suction
24.4 41 41 61.6
temperature 0C

Discharge
41.9 70.8 135.8 143.5
pressure bar G

Discharge
117.7 113.4 135.3 69.4
temperature 0C

Compression ratio 1.731 1.698 1.903 1.060

Power 4173 4126 5560 1584

Z
1.009 1.018 1.034 1.072
(Compressibility)

Figure 9: - COMPRESSOR DATA

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ADIABATIC POWER CALCULATION
Adiabatic efficiency
k
P k−1
[(P2 ) − 1]
1
ηad = n
P n−1
(P2 ) −1
1

η1 = 0.7263
η2 = 0.7078
η3 = 0.6873
η4 = 0.7271

Adiabatic head
K 𝐾−1
had = ZRT1 ( ) [𝑟𝑝 − 1]
K−1 𝐾

m3
had1 = 1574.69 ∗ 103 Pa
Kmol

3
m3
had2 = 1519.78 ∗ 10 Pa
Kmol
m3
had3 = 1907.66 ∗ 103 Pa
Kmol

3
m3
had4 = 175.3 ∗ 10 Pa
Kmol

POWER
had ṁ
P=
η
1574.69 ∗ 103 ∗ 1.844
P1 = = 3997.97 kW
0.7263
1519.78 ∗ 103 ∗ 1.844
P2 = = 3959.41 kW
0.7078
1907.66 ∗ 103 ∗ 1.844
P3 = = 5118.17 kW
0.6873

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175.3 ∗ 103 ∗ 6.47
P4 = = 1559.88 kW
0.7271

Total power consumption = 3997.97 + 3959.41 + 5118.17 + 1559.88 = 14635.43 Kw


POLYTROPIC POWER CALCULATION
n
P1 T1 n−1
=( )
P2 T2
n1 = 1.62
n2 = 1.645
n3 = 1.667
n4 = 1.644

Polytrophic Efficiency: Polytrophic Head Calculations:


𝑝
𝑙𝑛 𝑙𝑛 (𝑝1 ) 𝐾
ℎ𝑝 = 𝑍𝑅𝑇1 (𝐾−1) [𝑟𝑝
𝐾−1
− 1]
2 𝐾
𝜂=
𝑝1 𝑇2
𝑙𝑛 𝑙𝑛 (𝑝 ⋅ 𝑇 ) m3
2 1 hpt1 = 1.62* 106 Pa Kmol

m3
hpt2 = 1.567* 106 Pa
Kmol
𝜂1 = 0.7465
m3
𝜂2 = 0.7286 hpt3 = 1.981* 106 Pa Kmol

𝜂3 = 0.7140 m3
hpt4 =1.75 * 106 Pa Kmol
𝜂4 = 0.7293

Power Calculation:
𝑯 𝒏 𝒎𝒏
𝑷𝒏 = =
𝜂𝑛
P1 = 4003 kW
P2 =3962.144 kW
P3 = 5119.84 kW
P4 = 1559.93 kW

20 | P a g e
CHAPTER 3:- REFORMER FLUE GAS HEAT RECOVERY
CALCULATION

 Heat duty of flue gas

Flue gas flow assuming


5800Nm3/hr NG (100% methane)
30000 Nm3/hr purge gas (60% hydrogen and 40% methane)
3000 Nm3/hr flash gas (60% carbon dioxide + 26 % hydrogen +2% methane +rest water)

NOW,
Theoretical air requirement

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O


1 : 2 1 : 2

Total methane (Nm3/hr) = 5800+ (0.4*30000) + (0.02*3000) =178660

H2 + 1/2O2 H2O
1 : 0.5 1

Total H2 (Nm3/hr) =0.6*30000 + 0.26*3000 =18780


Total O2 required =2*17860+0.5*18780 = 45110 Nm3/hr

For 21 Nm3/hr of O2 = 100 Nm3 / hr of Air


45110 Nm3/hr = (?) Nm3 / hr of Air
= 214809.524 Nm3/hr of Air required
Now taking % excess air of 3.595% O2 remaining
Actual air required 265352 Nm3/hr

Total Flue Gas =19660 +54860 +209582+ 10601.7847 = 294824.1176

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TOTAL CO2 IN FLUE GAS
17860 +1800 = 19660 Nm3/hr
TOTAL WATER VAPOUR IN FLUE GAS
18780+2*17860+360=54860Nm3/hr
TOTAL N2 IN FLUE GAS
209582.3529 Nm3/hr
TOTAL O2 IN FLUE GAS
10601.7647 Nm3/hr
 Fraction of components in flue gas;
O2= 0.03595
H2O = 0.18669
CO2= 0.0668
N2=0.7108

 Assuming flue gas as ideal gas;


Now, at NTP
ƍ=PM/RT=1.1184Kg/M3
Mass flow rate = ƍv = 1.1184*294824.1174=329731.293 Kg/hr
Now,
Cp avg (combined)
O2= 1.12 KJ/KgK
H2O = 2.4343 KJ/KgK
CO2= 1.29 KJ/KgK
N2=1.212 KJ/KgK

Cp avg (combined) = 0.03595*1.12+0.18669*2.434+0.0668*1.29+1.212*0.7108


=1.4064 KJ/KgK
Now,
Q=m*Cp∆T
= (329731.293*1.4064*(950-100))/3600
= 1094492.771 kW
= 94.1491 Giga cal/hr

22 | P a g e
 Heat recovery

Here,

We know Q (heat duty) and Texit (776 ºC)

− 𝐴𝑠ℎ
Texit = Ts – [(Ts-Tin) exp ( )]
𝑚𝐶𝑝

Here,

Texit = 776 ºC

Tin(tube)− Tout(tube) 380+550


Ts = = = 465 ºC
2 2

Tin (shell) = 950 ºC


− 𝐴𝑠ℎ
776 = 465 – [(465 - 950) exp ( )]
𝑚𝐶𝑝

𝐴𝑠ℎ
log 𝑒 776 = log 𝑒 465 + log 𝑒 485 −
𝑚𝐶𝑝

𝐴𝑠ℎ
− = − 5.6723
𝑚𝐶𝑝

𝐴𝑠ℎ
= 5.6723
𝑚𝐶𝑝

Ash =5.6723*91.5920*1406.4

Ash = 730677.466 W/K


𝑊 𝜇 𝐶𝑝 0.0255 ∗ 1.4064
k = 0.0691
𝑚𝐾
Pr = = = 0.4579
𝑘 0.0691
𝜇= 0.0225 cp 𝑉∗𝑆T 10∗0.2032 𝑚
Vmax = = = 40
𝑆𝑇 − 𝐷 0.2032−0.1524 𝑠
𝑘𝑔
𝜌= 0.356 𝜌∗𝑉𝑀𝐴𝑋∗𝐷 0.356∗40∗0.1524
𝑚3 ReD = = = 96452.2667
𝜇 0.0225
𝑚
V = 10
𝑠 Avg. NuD = 0.27 Re0.63 Pr0.36 = 0.27 * 1380.75567 *
D= 6 in = 0.1524 m 0.7549 = 281.4220
ℎ𝐷 𝑁𝑢∗𝑘 𝑊
SL = ST = 0.2032 m Nu = ⇒ h= = 128
𝑘 𝐷 𝑚2 𝐾

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𝑘𝐽
Cp = 1.4064
𝑘𝑔 𝐾

730677.466 730677.466
𝐴𝑠 = = = 5708.4177 𝑚2
ℎ 128
Now, 𝐴𝑠 = 𝑁𝜋𝐷𝐿
𝐴𝑠 5708.4177
𝑁= = 3.14×0.1524×5 = 2385.784 ≈ 2386 𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒𝑠
𝜋𝐷𝐿

Taking L = 5 m
NL = 48
NT = 49, f =0.86,
𝑘𝑔
𝜌 = 0.356
𝑚3
Nl × 𝑓 × 𝜌 × 𝑣 2
∆𝑝 = = 2187.264 𝑝𝑎
2

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CHAPTER 4: - COOLING TOWER COST ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION:
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere though
the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. The type of heat rejection in a cooling
tower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the water being cooled to
evaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest of that water stream.
The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises the air's temperature and its
relative humidity to 100%, and this air is discharged to the atmosphere.

WORKING AND PRINCIPLE:


The basic working principle of cooling tower is is to cool the hot water with the help of
atmospheric air.
It is a special type of heat exchanger that allows water and air to come in contact with each
other to lower the temperature of the hot water. During this process, small volumes of water
evaporate, lowering the temperature of the water that’s being circulated throughout the cooling
tower. In a short summary, a cooling tower cools down water that gets over heated by industrial
equipment and processes.

The hot water is usually caused by air conditioning condensers or other industrial processes.
That water is pumped through pipes directly into the cooling tower. Cooling tower nozzles are
used to spray the water onto to the fill media, which slows the water flow down and exposes
the maximum amount of water surface area possible for the best air-water contact. The water
is exposed to air as it flows throughout the cooling tower. The air is being pulled by a motor-
driven electric cooling tower fan.

AIR TO WATER FLOW SUCTION:

1. Cross flow: Air passes perpendicular to the water flow in the cooling tower by entering
vertical vents and enters the fill inside the tower. The hot water enters the basin over
the tower and is spread by nozzles across the fill vents. A blower blows out excess heat
and the exposure of water through the fill with air cools it down. The hot air is extracted
out for the forced draft system. This system has lower operating cost and less
maintenance with low energy consumption. But it attracts dirt in the tower fill. This
method is used in chemical industries and aluminium die casting.

2. Counter flow: In this cooling tower type, air is sucked up from the tower's bottom
passing near the fills into an open space in the tower. Simultaneous, the water droplets
flowing down the fills opposite to the air direction triggers faster heat transfer by
clashing with the rapidly flowing air making water cooler by counterflow affect. Water
droplets ease quick heat transfer but create noise by spraying and falling of water. It is
also a difficult to clean system however, used commonly in refineries and natural gas
plants.

25 | P a g e
CLASSIFICATION OF COOLING TOWERS:

Cooling towers can be classified in the following ways as shown below:

Figure 10: - TYPES OF COOLING TOWER

AIR THROUGH TOWER SUCTION:

1. Natural draft: In this Cooling tower type, pumps are installed on the tower top that
pull up hot water from hot water inlet and it is ejected out using nozzles that spray
water over film fills. When water is trickling down from the fills, it contacts air from
the tower bottom coming upwards. This exposure of water with air cools it down by
natural convection causing heat escape in vapors going up the atmosphere. Finally,
cooled water collects into the basin to cool down equipment. Natural draft towers
have low maintenance, operations and energy saving yet use large space to install and
depend upon climatic conditions to a degree. They are highly used in power stations
and plant cooling.

2. Mechanical draft type: These towers use mechanical devices such as cooling tower
fan or blower to circulate air through the tower. It is of two kinds namely:
a). Forced Draft cooling tower
b). Induced draft towers.

i) Forced Draft mechanical tower: In this tower type, counter flow of air and
heat cause heat transfer. The fan at tower base blows up air that comes in
contact with water dropping down the fills. This air and water meet causes
atmospheric cooling with wet technology. This system is low on cost as the
fan and motors can be easily maintained but a powerful fan needs more power
to operate and might need recirculation due to the cooling tower

26 | P a g e
design. Anyways, the petrochemical industry makes good use of this
technology.

ii) Induced Draft mechanical tower: This tower method is similar to the forced
draft mechanism but the cooling tower fan is located on top of the tower which
pulls air from the bottom and exposes it to water at a high level through the
fills. In this draft system, water to air exposure is greater which fastens heat
transfer.

Some plants where cooling towers are used: -

i) Refrigeration & Chilling Plant


ii) Diesel Engine & Gas Engine
iii) Natural Gas Engine
iv) Induction Melting Steel Furnace (Ferrous & Non Ferrous Metal)
v) Induction Heating Steel Furnace (Ferrous & Non Ferrous Metal)
vi) Plastic Injection & Blow Moulding Machine
vii) Water Cooled Air Conditioning systems & VAM Machines
viii) Cold Storage.

 In Ammonia IV Plant the type of Cooling Tower is: Induced Draft Counterflow Cooling
tower.

COOLING TOWER FAN POWER CALCULATIONS:

GIVEN DATA:

i) Temperature:

Tin = 34.80C

Tout = 29.60C

ii) Flow rates and Volumes:


3 3
Volumetric flow rate = 16,500 𝑚 ⁄ℎ𝑟 = 4.983 𝑚 ⁄𝑠

Make up volume per day: 3500 m3

iii) Electrical Data: (for fans in cooling tower)

Voltage: 440V

Current: 70A

Cos φ : 0.95

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No. of fans in cooling tower (n) = 6

Power Calculations of all the fans:

𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 = 𝑛 ∗ √3 ∗ 𝑉𝐼 Cos φ

𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 = 6 * √3 *440*70*0.95

𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 = 304.078 kW

Now, Heat removed by this much power of fan

𝑄 = 𝑚 ∗ 𝐶𝑝 𝑎𝑣𝑔. ∗ ∆𝑇

m = 𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑔. * V

𝑘𝑔⁄
Density of water at 34.80C = 994.103 𝑚3

𝑘𝑔⁄
Density of water at 29.60C = 995.770 𝑚3

𝑘𝑔⁄
Average Density (𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑔. ) = 994.936 𝑚3

Now,

𝑘𝐽
Specific Heat of water at 34.80C = 4.178 ⁄𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑘𝐽
Specific Heat of water at 29.60C = 4.178 ⁄𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

𝑘𝐽
Average Specific Heat = 4.178 ⁄𝑘𝑔. 𝐾

Now,

m = 𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑔. * V

𝑘𝑔 3
= 994.936 ⁄𝑚3*4.983 𝑚 ⁄𝑠

𝑘𝑔⁄
= 4957.766 𝑠

Now,

𝑄 = 𝑚 ∗ 𝐶𝑝 𝑎𝑣𝑔. ∗ ∆𝑇

𝑘𝑔⁄ 𝑘𝐽
= 4957.766 𝑠*4.178 ⁄𝑘𝑔. 𝐾*(34.8-29.6)K

28 | P a g e
= 94.7410 kW

Now Given Data,

Cost of Raw Water = ₹25 per m3

Cost of Electricity = ₹7 per unit

Now we know that,

Make up water volume = 3500 m3 per day

Cost of water required = ₹25* 3500

= ₹87,500 per day

= ₹3,645.83/hr

Cost of electricity = 𝑃𝑓𝑎𝑛 (kWh) *₹7

= 7297.872 kWh *₹7

= ₹51,085.104 kWh

Total Cost = Cost of electricity + Cost of water required

= ₹51085.104 + ₹3645.83

=₹54,770.934 per hour

Now,
3
3500 m3 per day of water is needed to cool 16,500 𝑚 ⁄ℎ𝑟 of water in cooling tower

So, the total Volume cooled = 16,500 – (3500/24)


= 13,000 m3
So,
The cost for 13,000 m3 of raw water = 16354.17*₹25

= ₹4,08,854.25
Total Cost Saved = ₹4,08,854.25- ₹54,770.934
= ₹3,54,083.316

29 | P a g e
CHAPTER 6: -UTILITIES
a. Raw water
b. Instrument air
c. Low pressure nitrogen
d. Electricity
e. Steam

Raw water
Raw water main header is connected with three place.
a. Pratham pura (savli)
b. Chhani(pond)
c. IOCL

Use of raw water


a. Cooling tower (3500 m3/day)
b. Drinking water
c. Fire water
d. Cleaning water
e. Safety shower

Instrument air
Air is first pass through the air purification section at which CO2 and H2O are removed (dry
air) and then send to the compressor. It will compress into compressor up to 3-3.5 bar and
then use for instrument operation.

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CONCLUSION

The conclusion that we made that the performance of the centrifugal pump can be shown
graphically on the characteristics curve. A typical characteristics curve shows the total dynamic
head, brake horsepower, efficiency and net positive suction head. For any pump, it should be
operated at an operating point which is intersection point of the system curve and the
performance curve of the pump to achieve the best efficiency. The pump performance
parameters such as head, flow rate, power, and efficiency change with varying rotational speed
and change of impeller diameter. The performance or the characteristics curve of the pump
provides the information on the relationship between total head and flow rate. There are three
important points on this curve.

For the compressor of the compressor we conclude that as the compressor pressure and
temperature ratio increase the power consumption of the compressor increases. For the
compression system isothermal compression work is minimum and adiabatic compression
work is maximum. So we will try to operate the compressor at the isothermal condition but
isothermal operation is an idle operation so it is never achieved. In actual condition compressor
operated at a polytrophic operation. To achieve the nearly isothermal operation, as an
isothermal compression consumes less power, the efficiency of the inter stage cooler should be
maximum.

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REFERENCES
 Linde Ammonia Concept GSFC Plant Manual
 https://www.mech4study.com/2017/11/centrifugal-compressor.html
 https://nptel.ac.in/courses/112105129/pdf/R&AC%20Lecture%2021.pdf
 https://www.pumpfundamentals.com/download/calc_example-blank.pdf
 unit operation 7TH edition mccab smith

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