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138 (de) vizualizări6 paginiSeveral efficient algorithms were developed to cope with the popular task of sorting. Kakkot sort is a new variant of Quick and Insertion sort. The Kakkot sort algorithm requires O( n log n ) comparisons for worst case and average case. Typically, Kakkot Sort is significantly faster in practice than other O ( n log n ) algorithms , because its inner loop can be efficiently implemented on most architectures . This sorting method requires data movement, but less than that of insertion sort. This data movement can be reduced by implementing the algorithm using linked list. In this comparative study the mathematical results of Kakkot sort were verified experimentally on ten randomly generated unsorted numbers. To have some experimental data to sustain this comparison four different sorting methods were chosen and code was executed and execution time was noted to verify and analyze the performance. The Kakkot Sort algorithm performance was found better as compared to other sorting methods.

Dec 04, 2010

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Several efficient algorithms were developed to cope with the popular task of sorting. Kakkot sort is a new variant of Quick and Insertion sort. The Kakkot sort algorithm requires O( n log n ) comparisons for worst case and average case. Typically, Kakkot Sort is significantly faster in practice than other O ( n log n ) algorithms , because its inner loop can be efficiently implemented on most architectures . This sorting method requires data movement, but less than that of insertion sort. This data movement can be reduced by implementing the algorithm using linked list. In this comparative study the mathematical results of Kakkot sort were verified experimentally on ten randomly generated unsorted numbers. To have some experimental data to sustain this comparison four different sorting methods were chosen and code was executed and execution time was noted to verify and analyze the performance. The Kakkot Sort algorithm performance was found better as compared to other sorting methods.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

138 (de) vizualizări

Several efficient algorithms were developed to cope with the popular task of sorting. Kakkot sort is a new variant of Quick and Insertion sort. The Kakkot sort algorithm requires O( n log n ) comparisons for worst case and average case. Typically, Kakkot Sort is significantly faster in practice than other O ( n log n ) algorithms , because its inner loop can be efficiently implemented on most architectures . This sorting method requires data movement, but less than that of insertion sort. This data movement can be reduced by implementing the algorithm using linked list. In this comparative study the mathematical results of Kakkot sort were verified experimentally on ten randomly generated unsorted numbers. To have some experimental data to sustain this comparison four different sorting methods were chosen and code was executed and execution time was noted to verify and analyze the performance. The Kakkot Sort algorithm performance was found better as compared to other sorting methods.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Sorting Methods

Rajesh Ramachandran Dr.E.Kirubakaran

Naipunnya Institute of Management & Email: e_kiru@yahoo.com

Information Technology, Pongam, Kerala

Email: ryanrajesh@hotmail.com

developed to cope with the popular task of

sorting. Kakkot sort is a new variant of Sorting is any process of arranging items in

Quick and Insertion sort. The Kakkot sort some sequence and/or in different sets, and

algorithm requires O( n log n ) accordingly, it has two common, yet distinct

comparisons for worst case and average meanings:

case. Typically, Kakkot Sort is significantly

faster in practice than other O ( n log n ) 1. ordering: arranging items of the

algorithms , because its inner loop can be same kind, class, nature, etc. in some

efficiently implemented on most ordered sequence,

architectures . This sorting method requires 2. categorizing: grouping and labeling

data movement, but less than that of items with similar properties together

insertion sort. This data movement can be (by sorts).

reduced by implementing the algorithm

using linked list. In this comparative study In computer science and mathematics, a

the mathematical results of Kakkot sort Sorting Algorithm is an algorithm that puts

were verified experimentally on ten elements of a list in a certain order. The

randomly generated unsorted numbers. To most-used orders are numerical order and

have some experimental data to sustain this lexicographical order. Efficient sorting is

comparison four different sorting methods important to optimizing the use of other

were chosen and code was executed and algorithms (such as search and merge

execution time was noted to verify and algorithms) that require sorted lists to work

analyze the performance. The Kakkot Sort correctly.

algorithm performance was found better as

compared to other sorting methods. To analyze an algorithm is to determine the

amount of resources (such as time and

Key words: Complexity, performance of storage) necessary to execute it. Most

algorithms, sorting algorithms are designed to work with inputs

of arbitrary length. Usually the efficiency or

complexity of an algorithm is stated as a

function relating the input length to the

number of steps (time complexity) or

storage locations (space complexity).

Algorithm analysis is an important part of a

broader computational complexity theory,

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Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

which provides theoretical estimates for the time complexity, its space complexity is also

resources needed by any algorithm which important: This is essentially the number of

solves a given computational problem. memory cells which an algorithm needs. A

These estimates provide an insight into good algorithm keeps this number as small

reasonable directions of search for efficient as possible, too. The space complexity of a

algorithms. In theoretical analysis of program (for a given input) is the number of

algorithms it is common to estimate their elementary objects that this program needs

complexity in the asymptotic sense, i.e., to to store during its execution. This number is

estimate the complexity function for computed with respect to the size n of the

arbitrarily large input. Big O notation, input data.

omega notation and theta notation are used

to this end There is often a time-space-tradeoff

involved in a problem, that is, it cannot be

Time complexity solved with few computing time and low

memory consumption. One then has to make

Time efficiency estimates depend on what a compromise and to exchange computing

we define to be a step. For the analysis to time for memory consumption or vice versa,

correspond usefully to the actual execution depending on which algorithm one chooses

time, the time required to perform a step and how one parameterizes it.

must be guaranteed to be bounded above by

a constant. In mathematics, computer In addition to varying complexity, sorting

science, and related fields, Big Oh notation algorithms also fall into two basic categories

describes the limiting behavior of a function — comparison based and non-comparison

when the argument tends towards a based. A comparison based algorithm orders

particular value or infinity, usually in terms a sorting array by weighing the value of one

of simpler functions. Big O notation allows element against the value of other elements.

its users to simplify functions in order to Algorithms such as Quicksort, Mergesort,

concentrate on their growth rates: different Heapsort, Bubble sort, and Insertion sort are

functions with the same growth rate may be comparison based. Alternatively, a non-

represented using the same O notation. comparison based algorithm sorts an array

without consideration of pairwise data

Although developed as a part of pure elements. Radix sort is a non-comparison

mathematics, this notation is now frequently based algorithm that treats the sorting

also used in computational complexity elements as numbers represented in a base-

theory to describe an algorithm's usage of M number system, and then works with

computational resources: the worst case or individual digits of M.

average case running time or memory usage

of an algorithm is often expressed as a Another factor which influences the

function of the length of its input using big performance of sorting method is the

O notation. behavior pattern of the input. In computer

science, best, worst and average cases of a

Space complexity given algorithm express what the resource

usage is at least, at most and on average,

The better the time complexity of an respectively. Usually the resource being

algorithm is, the faster the algorithm will considered is running time, but it could also

carry out his work in practice. Apart from be memory or other resources.

151 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

Let K1 & K2

Kakkot Sort is a sorting algorithm that , Step2. Sort K1 and K2

makes O ( n log n ) (Big Oh notation) Step3. Read the next number, Let A

comparisons to sort n items. Typically, Step4. Compare A with K2

Kakkot Sort is significantly faster in

practice than other O ( n log n ) algorithms , Step5. If A is greater than or equal to K2

because its inner loop can be efficiently then place A right of K2

implemented on most architectures . This else

sorting method requires data movement but compare A with K1.

less than that of insertion sort. This data If A is less than K1

movement can be reduced by implementing then place A left of K1

the algorithm using linked list. Major else

advantage of this sorting method is its Place A immediate right of K1

behavior pattern is same for all cases, ie Step6 . If the list contains any more

time complexity of this method is same for elements go to step 3

best, average and worst case Step 7. Now we have 3 Sub list.

How it sorts

First list with all values less

than or equal to K1.

From the given set of unsorted numbers,

Second with values between

take the first two numbers and name it as

K1 and K2

key one and key two , ie, K1 and K2. Read

Final with values greater than

all the remaining numbers one by one.

or equal to K2.

Compare each number first with K2. If the

number is greater than or equal to K2 then

Step8. If each list contains more than 1

place the number right of K2 else compare

element go to step1

the same number with K1. If the number is

greater than K1 then place the number

Step 9 End.

immediate right of K1 else left of

K1.Conitnue the same process for all the

Time complexity

remaining numbers in the list. Finally we

will get three sub lists. One with numbers

If there are ‘n’ numbers, then each iteration

less than or equal to K1, one with numbers

needs maximum 2 * (n-2) comparison and

greater than or equal to K2 and the other

minimum of n-2 comparison and plus one.

with numbers between K1 and K2. Repeat

So if we take the average it will be

the same process for each sub list. Continue

this process till the sub list contains zero

=(2n-4+n-2)/2 + 1

elements or one element.

=(3n-6)/2+1

= 3n/2 – 2

sub lists and number of iteration will be

Algorithm

3x=n

Kakkot Sort(N:Array of Numbers, K1 ,K2 ,

taking logarithm on both side we get

A:integers,)

152 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

x log 3= log n

x= log n / log 3 Consider the following randomly generated

x= log n/ 0.4771 ten unsorted numbers

Ignoring the constant we can write x = log n 1,60,33,3,35,21,53,19,70,94

List 1

That is there will be log n iterations and

each require 3n/2 – 2 comparisons. So the First two numbers are 1 and 60

time complexity of Kakkot Sort in average and sort it . Here K1 is 1 and K2 is 60

case is 3n/2 – 2 * log n. When we represent Now the total comparison is one.

in Big Oh notation constants can be ignored, Read the remaining numbers one by one

so we get O(n log n). Read 33, since 33 is less than K2 and greater

If the list is already in sorted order, then two than K1 it need two comparison . Now the

comparison will be required for each total comparison is increased to 3.

number ,so total no of comparison required Read 3, total comparison is now 5

for each iteration will be (n-2)+1, i.e. n-1 Read 35, total comparison is now 7

and number of iteration will be n-1+n-3+n- Read 21, total comparison is now 9

6+…..+1 Read 53, total comparison now is 11

This can be written as Read 19, total comparison now is 13

1+3+5+…..n-3+n-1. Read 70, total comparison now is 14

Read 94 total comparison now is 15

Sum of this series is Now the list will be

S= N/2*(2a +(N-1)*d) 1, 3,35,21,53,19 ,60,70,94

Where N is the number of terms in the series Here we have 3 sublist

‘a’ is first term The first one with zero elements

‘d’ is the difference Second list is , 3,35, 35,21,53,19

To get Nth term, the equation is a+(N-1) d Third list is 70,94

And here Nth term is n- 1, so Now do the same process second and third

1+(N-1)*2=n-1 list

2N=n Second list

N= n/2 Read first two numbers, and sort

S=N/2(2*1+(N-1)*2) We have K1 =3 and K2= 35

S=N/2(2+2N-2) Now total comparison is 16

S=N/2(2N) Read 21, total comparison now is 18

Sum = N2 Read 53,total comparison now is 19

Substitute value for N we get Read 19,total comparison now is 21

(n/2)**2 Now the list will be

3,19,21,35,53

This is equal to one forth of n2. So Kakkot Now only one list with more than one

Sort requires only one forth of Quick sort element, ie 19 and 21

comparison in worst case. This is almost Read the first two numbers and sort

equal to average case time complexity. So Here K1=19 and K2 =21

we can say that time complexity of Kakkot Now the total comparison is 22

sort is similar in all the cases. Now regarding the sublist 3 we have two

numbers 70 and 94

Now let me manually calculate the number Read the numbers and sort

of comparison that Kakkot sort take. Now the total number of comparison is 23

153 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

So Using Kakkot sort , to sort the given ten

randomly generated numbers require only Bubble sort is a straightforward and

23 comparisons. simplistic method of sorting data that is used

in computer science education. The

Kakkot Sort and Qucick Sort algorithm starts at the beginning of the data

set. It compares the first two elements, and if

Time complexity of Quick sort is O(n log n) the first is greater than the second, then it

in the case of average case and O(n2) in the swaps them. It continues doing this for each

worst case behavior. From this it is clear that pair of adjacent elements to the end of the

Kakkot sort is better than quick sort. While data set. It then starts again with the first two

sorting Quick sort does not require any data elements, repeating until no swaps have

movement where as Kakkot sort needs data occurred on the last pass. This algorithm is

movement when the item is less than first highly inefficient, and is rarely used[citation

key element and greater than second key needed][dubious – discuss], except as a

element. But this data movement can be simplistic example. For example, if we have

avoided by implementing the algorithm 100 elements then the total number of

using linked list. comparisons will be 10000. A slightly better

To sort the above ten numbers in the List 1 , variant, cocktail sort, works by inverting the

Quick sort requires 29 comparisons ordering criteria and the pass direction on

alternating passes. The modified Bubble sort

Kakkot Sort and Heap Sort will stop 1 shorter each time through the

loop, so the total number of comparisons for

Heapsort is a much more efficient version of 100 elements will be 4950.

selection sort. It also works by determining

the largest (or smallest) element of the list, Bubble sort average case and worst case are

placing that at the end (or beginning) of the both O(n²)

list, then continuing with the rest of the list,

but accomplishes this task efficiently by For the above unsorted numbers in the List 1

using a data structure called a heap, a special Bubble sort requires 45 comparisons.

type of binary tree. Once the data list has

been made into a heap, the root node is

guaranteed to be the largest(or smallest) Kakkot Sort and Insertion Sort

element. When it is removed and placed at

the end of the list, the heap is rearranged so Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm

the largest element remaining moves to the that is relatively efficient for small lists and

root. Using the heap, finding the next largest mostly-sorted lists, and often is used as part

element takes O(log n) time, instead of O(n) of more sophisticated algorithms. It works

for a linear scan as in simple selection sort. by taking elements from the list one by one

This allows Heapsort to run in O(n log n) and inserting them in their correct position

time, and this is also the worst case into a new sorted list. In arrays, the new list

complexity. and the remaining elements can share the

With the same set of unsorted numbers in array's space, but insertion is expensive,

the List 1, Heap sort requires 30 requiring shifting all following elements

comparisons over by one. Shell sort (see below) is a

154 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, November 2010

variant of insertion sort that is more efficient [6] Sartaj Sahni, “Data Structures

for larger lists. Algorithms and Applications in C++”,

Insertion sort requires 38 comparisons to University Press, 2nd Ed.,2005

sort the above ten randomly generated

numbers in the List 1. [7] Yedidyah Langsam,Moshe J Augenstein,

Aaron M Tanenbaum “Data Structures

using C and C++”, Prentice Hall India, 2nd

Ed. 2005

Conclusion

[8] Alfred V Aho, John E Hopcroft, Jeffrey

From the above examples it is clear that D Ullman,”Data Structures and

Kakkot Sort time complexity is better than Algorithms”, Pearson Education,2nd

other sorting methods. Even though Kakkot Ed.,2006

sort requires data movement of items when

the item is less than the key K2 and greater [9] Sara Baase, Allen Van Gelder,

than the key K1, this data movement can be “Computer Algorithms Introduction to

reduced by implementing the algorithm Design and Analysis, Pearson Education, 3rd

using linked list. Ed. ,2006

and Algorithm analysis in C++ “, Pearson

Education, 3rd Ed., 2007

[1] Aaron M Tanenbaum, Moshe J

Augenstein, “Data Structures using [11] Michael T Goodrich, Roberto

C”,Prentice Hall International Tamassia, “Algorithm Design Foundations,

Inc.,Emglewood Cliffs,NJ,1986 Analysis and Internet Examples”, John

Wiley and Sons Inc.,2007

[2] Robert L Cruse, “ Data Structure and

Program Design”, Prentice Hall India 3rd [12] Seymour Lipschutz, GAV Pai , “ Data

ed.,1999 Structures”, Tata McGraw Hill,2007

[3] Robert Kruse, C L Tondo, Bruse Leung [13] Robert Lafore,” Data Structures and

“Data Structures and Program design in Algorithms in Java”, Waite Group Inc.,

C”, Pearson Education,2nd Ed.,2002 2007

[4] Alfred V Aho, John E Hopcroft, Jeffrey [14] Rajesh Ramachandran, Dr.E.

D Ullman, “ The Design and Analysis of Kirubakaran, “Kakkot Sort – A New Sorting

Computer Alogorithms”, Pearson Education Method”, International Journal of Computer

, 2003 Science, Systems Engineering and

Information Technology, ISSN 0974-5807

[5] Thomas H Cormen, Charles E Leiserson, Vol. 2 No. 2 pp209-213,2010

Ronald L Rivest, Clifford Stein,

“Introduction to Algorithms” Prentice Hall

of India Pvt.Ltd., 2nd Ed. , 2004

155 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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