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A sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under normal conditions.

If 500 mL of 2N
H2SO4 is made to react with 4 grams of NaOH, illustrate the law of conservation of mass. The degree of
completion for the reaction is 85%.

H2SO4 + 2NaOH  Na2SO4 + 2H2O

MW NaOH = 40; H2SO4 = 98; Na2SO4 = 142; H2O = 18

Convert 2 normal H2SO4 to molar

𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 × 𝑓
The f for H2SO4 is 2 (f=2)
𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 2
𝑀𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑦 = = =1𝑀
𝑓 2
Mol of H2SO4
1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 0.5𝐿 × = 0.5 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
𝐿
Grams of H2SO4
98 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 0.5 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 × = 49 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
Mols of NaOH
4 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 = = 0.1 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻
40 𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙
Determine the LR and ER
0.5
𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = = 0.5
1
0.1
𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 = = 0.05
2
0.5 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 > 0.05 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻
𝐿𝑅 = 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻; 𝐸𝑅 = 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
Using the degree of completion, find the amount of LR (NaOH) that will be used in producing actual
amount of Na2SO4 and H2O
𝐴𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐿𝑅 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠
𝐷𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100
𝑎𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐿𝑅
𝐴𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐿𝑅 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠
85 = × 100
4 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
𝐴𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐿𝑅 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑚𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑠 = 3.4 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻
Amount of Na2SO4
(142)(1)
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑁𝑎2 𝑆𝑂4 = 3.4 𝑔 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 [ ] = 6.035 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑁𝑎2 𝑆𝑂4
(40)(2)

Amount of H2O
(18)(2)
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑂 = 3.4 𝑔 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 [ ] = 1.53 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑂
(40)(2)

Amount of reacted H2SO4


(98)(1)
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 3.4 𝑔 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 [ ] = 4.165 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4
(40)(2)

Amount of unreacted H2SO4

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4 = 49 − 4.165 = 44.835 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝐻2 𝑆𝑂4


Amount of Unreacted NaOH

𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 = 4 − 3.4 = 0.6 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑛𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻

NOTE: I have not accounted the water from the aqueous H2SO4 since there is no density given. It will be
difficult to determine the water from the 2N H2SO4 . For the meantime, we will not consider the water
from the aqueous solution since it will not participate in the reaction. Also, it will just go out the system.
But if you want to account it, then it is ok.