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MIKROBIOLOGI LINGKUNGAN

Chapter 5

Microbial Nutrition

Irma gusniani
21 February 2019

Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan – DTS-FTUI


Willey, Sherwood,Woolverton,Mc Graw Hill, 2008,7th edition,Microbiology
Preview
 Mikroorganisma memerlukan kurang lebih 10 elemen dalam jumlah yang
besar untuk sintesa macromolecules.Beberapa elemen dibutuhkan dalam
jumlah kecil dan merupakan bagian dari enzym dan cofactor.

 Semua mikroorganisma dapat dikelompokan berdasarkan kebutuhan


Carbon, energy dan electrons

 Kebanyakan nutrisi diangkut melalui Plasma membrane

 Culture media dibutuhkan untuk untuk menumbuhkan mikroorganisma


di laboratorium dengan beberapa tujuan seperti identifikasi bakteri,
analisa air dan makanan, isolasi untuk mikroorganisma tertentu.

 Metoda khusus untuk mendapatkan pure cultures seperti spread plates,


streak plates, pour plates
PREVIEW
• Microorganisms require about 10 elements in large quantities for
the synthesis of macromolecules. Several other elements are needed
in very small amounts and are parts of enzymes and cofactors.

• All microorganisms can be placed in one of a few nutritional categories


on the basis of their requirements for carbon, energy, and electrons.

• Most nutrient molecules must be transported through the plasma


membrane by one of three major mechanisms involving the use of
membrane carrier proteins. Eucaryotic microorganisms also employ
endocytosis for nutrient uptake.

• Culture media are needed to grow microorganisms in the laboratory


and to carry out specialized procedures like microbial identification,
water and food analysis, and the isolation of specific microorganisms.
Many different media are available for these and other purposes.

• Pure cultures can be obtained through the use of spread plates,


streak plates, or pour plates and are required for the careful study
of an individual microbial species.
Nutrients: Substances in the environment used by organisms for
catabolism and anabolism.

nutrient (nu′tre-ent) A substance that supports growth and


reproduction.

Nutrients : Substances used in biosynthesis and energy release and


therefore are Required for microbial growth

anabolism (ah-nab′o-lizm″) The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler


molecules with the input of energy.

catabolism (kah-tab′o-lizm) That part of metabolism in which larger, more


complex molecules are broken down into smaller, simpler molecules with the
release of energy.

metabolism (me-tab′o-lizm) The total of all chemical reactions in the cell; almost
all are enzyme catalyzed.
 The Common Nutrient Requirements

 Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,


and Electrons

 Nutritional Types of Microorganisms

 Requirements for Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

 Growth Factors

 Culture Media

 Isolation of Pure Cultures


 The Common Nutrient Requirements
1. Macronutrients/macroelement : required in large amounts,
including: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur,
phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron C, O, H,
N, S, and P : Components of carbonhydrates, lipids, proteins,
and mucleic acids
potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron : cations and part
of enzymes and cofactors.

2. Micronutrients: Microbes require very small amounts of


other mineral elements, such as iron, copper, molybdenum,
and zinc; these are referred to as trace elements.
Most are essential for activity of certain enzymes, usually as
cofactors.
•Mikroorganisma membutuhkan nutrisi :
yaitu bahan yang digunakan dalam biosintesa dan
menjaga agar energi selalu tesedia

Nutrisi yang dibutuhkan :


 95 % terdiri dari Makronutrisi atau makroelement

 Makronutrisi atau makroelement :


(C,O,H,N,S,P,K,Ca,Mg,Fe) diperlukan dalam jumlah
relative besar

 C,O,H,N,S,P komponen carbohydrate,lipids, protein,


nucleic acid

 Sisanya sebagai kation dengan berbagai peran :


potassium (K) is required for activity by a number of enzymes, including some of
those involved in protein synthesis.

Calcium (Ca2+), among other functions, contributes to the heat resistance of


bacterial endospores.

Magnesium (Mg2+) serves as a cofactor for many enzymes, complexes with ATP,
and stabilizes ribosomes and cell membranes.

Iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+) is a part of cytochromes and a cofactor for enzymes and
electron-carrying proteins.

enzyme (en′z_m) A protein catalyst with specificity for both the reaction
catalyzed and its substrates.

cofactor The nonprotein component of an enzyme; it is required for catalytic


activity.
 Mikronutrisi atau trace elements :
 (eg : Mn,Zn,Co,Mo,Ni,Cu) digunakan dalam jumlah yang
sangat kecil.

 Bagian dari enzyme dan cofactor

 Membantu reaksi katalis

 Menjaga struktur protein

 Mo dibutuhkan untuk fixasi nitrogen

 Co merupakan komponen vit B12

 Kebutuhan khusus sesuai dengan morfologi atau


lingkungannya
 Diatomea memerlukan Asam Silica (H4SiO4) untuk
membentuk dinding sel Silica (SiO2)
Besides the common macroelements and trace elements,
microorganisms may have particular requirements that reflect their
specific morphology or environment.

Diatoms need silicic acid (H4SiO4) to construct their beautiful cell


walls of silica [(SiO2)n].

Although most procaryotes do not require large amounts of sodium,


many archaea growing in saline lakes and oceans depend on the
presence of high concentrations of sodium ion (Na)

Finally, it must be emphasized that microorganisms require a


balanced mixture of nutrients.

If an essential nutrient is in short supply, microbial growth will be


limited regardless of the concentrations of other nutrients.
 Requirements for Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
and Electrons
Semua organisma membutuhkan sumber C,H,O dan sumber
elektron

Fungsi C,H,O dan elektron

Carbon : Untuk pembentukan rangka dari semua molekul organik


dimana organisma terbentuk.

Hydrogen dan Oksigen membantu semua metabolisme


mikroorganisma

Elektron :pergerakan elektron melalui rantai transport elektron


dan reaksi redoks menghasilkan energi
Electrons also are needed to reduce molecules during biosynthesis
Heterotrophs menggunakan molekul organik sebagai sumber
carbon (CHO)
Molekul2 ini sering kali mensuplai H,O dan juga electron.
Beberapa juga mengambil energy dari sumber organiknya sendiri.

Autotrophs menggunakan CO2 sebagai sumber carbon utama atau


satu2nya sumber.
Hydrogen dan elektron diambil dari sumber lain

heterotroph (het′er-o-tr¯of″) An organism that uses reduced,


preformed organic molecules as its principal carbon source.

autotroph (aw′to-tr ¯of) An organism that uses CO2


as its sole or principal source of carbon.
 NUTRITIONAL TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS
Because the need for carbon, energy, and electrons is so
important, biologists use specific terms to define how these
requirements are fulfilled.
Photoautotroph:
Algae, Cyanobacteria

CO2 + H2O Light + Chlorophyll


(CH2O) +O2

Purple and green bacteria


CO2 + 2H2S Light + bacteriochlorophyll
(CH2O) + H2O + 2S

Photoheterotroph:
Purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillum)
CO2 + 2CH3CHOHCH3 Light + bacteriochlorophyll (CH2O) + H2O +
2CH3COCH3
Properties of microbial photosynthetic systems

Property cyanobacteria Green and Purple nonsulfur


purple bacteria bacteria
Photo - pigment Chlorophyll Bcteriochlorophyll Bcteriochlorophyll

O2 production Yes No No
Electron donors H2O H2, H2S, S H2, H2S, S
Carbon source CO2 CO2 Organic / CO2
Primary products ATP + NADPH ATP ATP
of energy
conversion
Chemoautotroph:

Bacteria Electron Electron Products


donor acceptor
Alcaligens and H2 O2 H2O
Pseudomonas sp.
Nitrobacter NO2- O2 NO3- , H2O
Nitrosomonas NH4+ O2 NO2- , H2O
Desulfovibrio H2 SO4 2- H2O. H2S
Thiobacillus denitrificans
S0. H2S NO3- SO4 2- , N2
Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
Fe2+ O2 Fe3+ , H2O
Nitrifying bacteria
2 NH4+ + 3 O2 2 NO2- + 2 H2O + 4 H+ + 132 Kcal
REQUIREMENTS FOR NITROGEN,
PHOSPHORUS, AND SULFUR
To grow, a microorganism must be able to incorporate large
quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

 N,P dan S dapat diperoleh dari molekul organik yang


sama yang mensuplai Carbon atau dari sumber
anorganik

 Nitrogen : sintesa amino acid, purines,pyrimidine,


carbohidrate dan lipid, enzyme cofactors.

 Phosphorus : nucleic acid, phospholipids etc.

 Sulfur : synthesis amino acid, biotin,thiamine


Growth Factors (Faktor Pertumbuhan)
Some microorganisms have the enzymes and biochemical pathways
needed to synthesize all cell components using minerals
and sources of energy, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Other microorganisms lack one or more of the enzymes needed


to manufacture indispensable constituents.

Therefore they must obtain these constituents or their precursors from


the environment

Organic compounds that are essential cell components or


precursors of such components but cannot be synthesized by the
organism are called growth factors
Growth Factors

(1)amino acids, (2) purines and pyrimidines, (3) vitamins

Amino acids are needed for protein synthesis,


purines and pyrimidines for nucleic acid synthesis.
Vitamins are small organic molecules that usually make up all or part
enzyme cofactors, and only very small amounts are required for growth.
Culture Media
A culture medium is a solid or liquid preparation used to grow, transport,
and store microorganisms.

To be effective, the medium must contain all the nutrients the microorganism
requires for growth.

Culture media can be classified on the basis of several parameters:


• the chemical constituents from which they are made,
• their physical nature,
• and their function
A medium in which all
chemical components are
known is a defined
or synthetic medium.

It can be in a liquid form


(broth) or solidified by an
agent such as agar
Media that contain some ingredients
of unknown chemical composition are
complex media.

Such media are very useful, as


a single complex medium may be
sufficiently rich to completely
meet the nutritional requirements of
many different microorganisms.

Three commonly used complex media


are
(1) nutrient broth,
(2) Tryptic soy broth,
(3) MacConkey agar
Peptones are protein hydrolysates prepared by partial proteolytic digestion of
meat, casein, soya meal, gelatin, and other protein sources.
They serve as sources of carbon, energy, and nitrogen.

Beef extract and yeast extract are aqueous extracts of lean beef and brewer’s
yeast, respectively.
Beef extract contains amino acids, peptides, nucleotides, organic acids,
vitamins, and minerals. Yeast extract is an excellent source of B vitamins as
well as nitrogen and carbon compounds.
Functional Types of Media

Media such as tryptic soy broth and tryptic soy agar are called
general purpose media or supportive media because they sustain the growth of
many microorganisms

Blood and other special nutrients may be added to general purpose media to
encourage the growth of fastidious microbes.

Selective media favor the growth of particular microorganisms


(table 5.7). Bile salts or dyes like basic fuchsin and crystal
violet favor the growth of gram-negative bacteria by inhibiting the
growth of gram-positive bacteria; the dyes have no effect on gramnegative
organisms.
three media widely used for the detection of E. coli and related bacteria
in water supplies and elsewhere are
Endo agar, eosin methylene blue agar, and MacConkey agar

These media contain dyes that suppress grampositive bacterial growth.


Differential media are media that distinguish among different
groups of microbes and even permit tentative identification of
microorganisms based on their biological characteristics.

Blood agar is both a differential medium and an enriched one. It distinguishes


between hemolytic and non-hemolytic bacteria. Hemolytic bacteria (e.g., many
streptococci and staphylococci isolated from throats) produce clear zones around
their colonies because of red blood cell destruction (figure 5.9a).

MacConkey agar is both differential and selective. Since it contains lactose and
neutral red dye, lactose-fermenting colonies appear pink to red in
color and are easily distinguished from colonies of nonfermenters.
ISOLATION OF PURE CULTURES
In natural habitats microorganisms usually grow in complex, mixed populations
with many species

This presents a problem for microbiologists because a single type of


microorganism Cannot be studied adequately in a mixed culture.

One needs a pure culture, a population of cells arising from a single cell, to
characterize an individual species.

Pure cultures are so important that the development of pure culture techniques
by the German bacteriologist Robert Koch transformed microbiology.
Within about 20 years after the development of pure culture techniques most
pathogens responsible for the major human bacterial diseases had been isolated

There are several ways to prepare pure cultures; a few of the more common
approaches are reviewed here.
The Spread Plate and Streak Plate
PR
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