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OBJECTIVES

sample mean for normal population with and

without replacement

•solves problems involving sampling

distributions of the sample mean

•Finds the mean and variance of the sampling

distribution of the sample mean.

INTRODUCTION

• Previously, we have learned how to construct the

probability distribution of a discrete random variable. We

have also learned how to compute the mean and standard

deviation of a discrete random variable. Moreover, we have

studied continuous probability distribution, the normal

distribution, the normal distribution and its application to

real-life problems.

• Now, we shall apply these concepts and we will study

another probability distribution of the sample means. The

study of sampling distribution of the sample means will be

the basis for making statistical inferences and testing

hypothesis.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Sampling Error – An expected certain amount of error from using the sample. Obatined

by SE=Sample Mean – Population Mean 𝑆𝐸 = 𝜇𝑥ҧ − 𝜇

Unbiased estimator – average value determined over many different samples which is

equal to the population parameter.

SYMBOLS

Population Sample

(Parametric) (Statistic)

Mean 𝝁 ഥ

𝒙 (mean of the samples)

Variance 𝝈 𝟐 𝝈 𝟐

(known population𝜎 2 )

ഥ

𝒙

𝒔𝟐 (unknown population 𝜎 2)

Standard Deviation 𝝈 𝒙ഥ (known population 𝜎)

𝝈

𝒔 (unknown population 𝜎)

FORMULAS

Population (Parametric) Sample (Statistic)

𝜎2

𝜎 2 𝑥ҧ = (with replacement)

𝑛

𝜎2 𝑁−𝑛

𝜎 2 𝑥ҧ = ∙ (without replacement)

𝑛 𝑁−1

2

Standard Deviation 𝜎= σ 𝑃(𝑋) ∙ 𝑋 − 𝜇 2 𝜎 𝑥ҧ = σ 𝑃(𝑥)ҧ ∙ 𝑥ҧ − 𝜇 𝑥ҧ or

𝜎

𝜎 𝑥ҧ = (with replacement)

𝑛

𝜎 𝑁−𝑛

𝜎 𝑥ҧ = ∙ (without replacement)

𝑛 𝑁−1

Replacement

Number of Outcomes without 𝑁!

Replacement

Number of outcomes 𝑃 𝑁, 𝑛 =

𝑁−𝑛 !

Finding the Mean, Variance and Standard Deviation of

Sampling Distribution of the Sample Means

or select possible samples of size n from this population. Naturally,

we expect to get different values of the means for each sample. The

sample means may be less than, greater than or equal to the

population 𝝁.

• The sample means obtained will form a frequency distribution and

the corresponding probability distribution can be constructed. The

distribution is called the sampling distribution.

• How do we construct the sampling distribution of the sample means?

Study the following examples.

Example 1

A population consists of four values, (₱1, ₱5, ₱10, ₱20).

a. Compute the mean (μ),variance 𝜎 2 and the standard

deviation 𝜎

b. How many sample of size 2 (n = 2) is to be taken from this

population:? List them and compute the mean of each sample.

b.1With replacement

b.1.1 Construct the sampling distribution of the sample means.

b.1.2 Determine the mean (𝛍 ഥ𝒙 ), variance (𝝈𝟐 ഥ𝒙 ) and standard error

(𝝈ഥ𝒙 ) of the sample means.

b.2 Without replacement

b.2.1 Construct the sampling distribution of the sample means.

b.2.2 Determine the mean (𝛍 ഥ𝒙 ), variance (𝝈𝟐 ഥ𝒙 ) and standard error

(𝝈ഥ𝒙 ). of the sample means.

a. Compute the variance 𝜎 2 and the standard

Solution: deviation 𝜎 .

a. To compute the population variance and the standard deviation of

the population, proceed as follow:

𝐗 Frequency Probability 𝐏(𝐗) 𝐗 ∙ 𝐏(𝐗) 𝐏(𝐗) ∙ 𝐗 − 𝝁 𝟐

1 1 1/4 1/4 16

5 1 1/4 1 1/4 4

10 1 1/4 2 1/2 1/4

20 1 1/4 5 30 1/4

1 𝝁=𝟗 𝛔 𝟐 =50.50

𝛔 =7.106

b.1 How many sample of size 2 (n = 2) is to be taken from this

Solution: population:? List them and compute the mean of each sample.

b.1 Since the size of the population is 4, we have N=4. We shall draw a sample of 2 from

this population, n =2. Thus, the number of samples of size 2 with replacement that can be

drawn from this population is computed as follows: 𝑁, 𝑛 = 𝑁 𝑛 → 4,2 = 4 2 = 16.

The number of all samples of size 2 is 16. The table below shows the list of all possible

samples with their corresponding means.

Samples (with replacement) Mean Samples (with replacement) Mean

₱1, ₱1 ₱1 ₱10, ₱1 ₱5.5

₱1, ₱5 ₱3 ₱10, ₱5 ₱7.5

₱1, ₱10 ₱5.5 ₱10, ₱10 ₱10

₱1, ₱20 ₱10.5 ₱10, ₱20 ₱15

₱5, ₱1 ₱3 ₱20, ₱1 ₱10.5

₱5, ₱5 ₱5 ₱20, ₱5 ₱12.5

₱5, ₱10 ₱7.5 ₱20, ₱10 ₱15

₱5, 20 ₱12.5 ₱20, ₱20 ₱20

b.1.1 Construct the sampling distribution

Solution: of the sample means. With replacement

ഥ

Sample Mean 𝒙 Frequency 𝒇 Probability 𝑷(ഥ

𝒙)

1 1 1/16

3 2 1/8

5 1 1/16

5.5 2 1/8

7.5 2 1/8

10 1 1/16

10.5 2 1/8

12.5 2 1/8

15 2 1/8

20 1 1/16

Total = 16 1

b.1.2 Determine the mean, variance and standard

Solution: error of the sample means. With replacement

ഥ

Sample Mean 𝒙 Frequency 𝒇 Probability 𝑷(ഥ

𝒙) ഥ ∙ 𝐏(ഥ

𝒙 𝒙) 𝐏(ഥ ഥ − 𝛍 𝒙ഥ

𝒙) ∙ 𝒙 𝟐

1 1 1/16 1/16 4

3 2 1/8 3/8 4 1/2

5 1 1/16 5/16 1

5.5 2 1/8 11/16 1 17/32

7.5 2 1/8 15/16 9/32

10 1 1/16 5/8 1/16

10.5 2 1/8 1 5/16 9/32

12.5 2 1/8 1 9/16 1 17/32

15 2 1/8 1 7/8 4 1/2

20 1 1/16 1 1/4 7 9/16

16 1 𝛍 ഥ𝒙 = 𝟗 𝝈𝟐 ഥ𝒙 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟐𝟓

𝝈ഥ𝒙 = 𝟓. 𝟎𝟐𝟓

Note that 𝜎 = 7.106 The mean value of n=2 with replacement is ₱9, with

𝜎 7.106

Using the formula 𝜎 𝑥ҧ = = = 5.025 a variance of ₱16.83 standard deviation of ₱ 4.1

𝑛 2

b.2 How many sample of size 2 (n = 2) is to be taken from this

Solution: population:? List them and compute the mean of each sample.

b.2 Since the size of the population is 4, we have N=4. We shall draw a sample of 2 from this

population, n =2. Thus, the number of samples of size 2 without replacement that can be drawn

𝑁! 4!

from this population is computed as follows: P 𝑁, 𝑛 = → P 4,2 = = 12

𝑁−𝑛 ! 4−2 !

The number of all possible samples of size 2 is 12. The table below shows the list of all possible

samples with their corresponding means.

₱1, ₱5 ₱3 ₱10, ₱1 ₱5.5

₱1, ₱10 ₱5.5 ₱10, ₱5 ₱7.5

₱1, ₱20 ₱10.5 ₱10, ₱20 ₱15

₱5, ₱1 ₱3 ₱20, ₱1 ₱10.5

₱5, ₱10 ₱7.5 ₱20, ₱5 ₱12.5

₱5, 20 ₱12.5 ₱20, ₱10 ₱15

b.2.1 Construct the sampling distribution of

Solution: the sample means. Without replacement

ഥ

Sample Mean 𝒙 Frequency 𝒇 Probability 𝑷(ഥ

𝒙)

3 2 1/6

5.5 2 1/6

7.5 2 1/6

10.5 2 1/6

12.5 2 1/6

15 2 1/6

Total=12 1

b.2.2 Determine the mean, variance and standard

Solution: error of the sample means. Without replacement

ഥ

Sample Mean 𝒙 Frequency 𝒇 Probability 𝑷(ഥ

𝒙) ഥ ∙ 𝐏(ഥ

𝒙 𝒙) 𝐏(ഥ ഥ − 𝛍 𝒙ഥ

𝒙) ∙ 𝒙 𝟐

3 2 1/6 1/2 6

5.5 2 1/6 1 2

7.5 2 1/6 1 1/4 3/8

10.5 2 1/6 1 3/4 3/8

12.5 2 1/6 2 2

15 2 1/6 2 1/2 6

Total=6 1 𝛍 𝒙ഥ = 𝟗 𝝈𝟐 𝒙ഥ = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟖𝟑

𝝈𝒙ഥ = 𝟒. 𝟏

Note that 𝜎 = 7.106

The mean value of n=2 is ₱9, with a

Using the formula 𝜎 𝑥ҧ =

𝜎

∙

𝑁−𝑛

=

7.106

∙

4−2

= 4.1

variance of ₱16.83 standard deviation of

𝑛 𝑁−1 2 4−1

₱ 4.1

The following table gives monthly salaries (in thousands of pesos) of six

Example 2 officers in a government office. Suppose that random variable of size 4

are taken from this population of six officers.

Officer Salary

A 8

B 12

C 16

D 20

E 24

F 28

a. Compute the mean (μ),variance 𝜎 2 and the standard deviation 𝜎

b. How many sample of size 3 (n = 3) is to be taken from this population?

b.1With replacement

b.1.1 Determine the mean (𝛍 𝒙ഥ ), variance (𝝈𝟐 𝒙ഥ ) and standard error (𝝈𝒙ഥ ). of the sample means.

b.2 Without replacement

b.2.1 Determine the mean (𝛍 𝒙ഥ ), variance (𝝈𝟐 𝒙ഥ ) and standard error (𝝈𝒙ഥ ). of the sample means

a. Compute the mean (μ),variance 𝜎 2 and the

Solution: standard deviation 𝜎

a. To compute the population mean, variance and the standard

deviation of the population, proceed as follow:

𝐗 Frequency Probability 𝐏(𝐗) 𝐗 ∙ 𝐏(𝐗) 𝐏(𝐗) ∙ 𝐗 − 𝝁 𝟐

12 1 1/6 2 6

16 1 1/6 2 2/3 2/3

20 1 1/6 3 1/3 2/3

24 1 1/6 4 6

28 1 1/6 4 2/3 16 2/3

6 1 𝝁 = 𝟏𝟖 𝛔 𝟐 =46.67

𝛔 =6.83

This can also be computed using your calculator, Statistic mode then input Random variable X

b. How many sample of size 3 (n = 3) is to be taken from this

Solution: population?

b.1With replacement: the number of samples of size 3 that can be drawn from this

population is computed as follows: 𝑁, 𝑛 = 𝑁 𝑛 → 6,3 = 6 3 = 216.

b.1.1 Determine the mean (𝛍 𝒙ഥ ), variance (𝝈𝟐 𝒙ഥ ) and standard error (𝝈𝒙ഥ ) of the

sample means

Since the sample is too big 216, we may no longer list all possible outcomes and make sampling

𝜎2

distribution table . We may use the concept (𝛍 ഥ𝒙 = 𝝁), variance (𝝈𝟐 ഥ

𝒙

= ) and standard error

𝑛

𝜎

(𝝈𝒙ഥ= )

𝑛 Note that previously μ = 18, 𝜎 2 = 46.67, = 𝜎 = 6.83

Hence, 𝛍 𝒙ഥ = 18

𝜎2 46.67

𝝈𝟐 ഥ = 𝑛 = 3 = 15.56

𝒙

𝜎 6.83 The mean value of n=3 with replacement is

𝜎 𝑥ҧ = 𝑛 = 3 = 3.94 ₱18000, with a variance of ₱15,560 standard

deviation of ₱ 3940

b. How many sample of size 3 (n = 3) is to be taken from this

Solution: population?

b.2Without replacement: the number of samples of size 3 that can be drawn from this population is

𝑁! 6!

computed as follows:P 𝑁, 𝑛 = → P 6,3 = = 120.

𝑁−𝑛 ! 6−3 !

𝟐

b.2.1 Determine the mean (𝛍 𝒙ഥ ), variance (𝝈 𝒙ഥ ) and standard error (𝝈𝒙ഥ ). of the sample means

Since the sample is too big 120, we may no longer list all possible outcomes and make sampling

𝜎2 𝑁−𝑛

distribution table . We may use the concept (𝛍 ഥ𝒙 = 𝝁), variance 𝝈𝟐 ഥ

𝒙 = ∙ and standard

𝑛 𝑁−1

error 𝝈𝒙ഥ=

𝜎

𝑛

∙

𝑁−𝑛

𝑁−1

Note that previously μ = 18, 𝜎 2 = 46.67, = 𝜎 = 6.83

Hence, 𝛍 𝒙ഥ = 18

𝟐 𝜎2 𝑁−𝑛 46.67 6−3

𝝈 ഥ

𝒙 = ∙ = ∙ = 9.334

𝑛 𝑁−1 3 6−1

The mean value of n=3 without

𝜎 𝑁−𝑛 6.83 6−3 replacement is ₱18000, with a

𝜎 𝑥ҧ = ∙ = ∙ = 3.05 variance of ₱9334 standard

𝑛 𝑁−1 3 6−1

deviation of ₱ 3050

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