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Laboratory study of Dense Bituminous Concrete mix for Surface courses using zycotherm

Awais Nazir Malik 1,


1
Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department, Geeta Engineering College, Naultha, Panipat

Key words: DBC, zycotherm , penetration test, Marshall Stability test, Flow value, voids.
Abstract of the country. Under these conditions, flexible
Flexible pavements with bituminous surfacing are pavements tend to become soft in summer and
widely used in India. The huge traffic flow in terms brittle in winter.
of commercial vehicles, overloading of trucks and
Investigations in India and countries abroad have
significant variations in daily and seasonal
revealed that properties of bitumen and bituminous
temperature of the pavement have been responsible
mixes can be improved to meet requirements of
for early development of distress symptoms like
pavement with the incorporation of certain
raveling, undulations, rutting, cracking, bleeding,
additives or blend of additives. In this work
shoving and potholing of bituminous surfacing. A
zycotherm is used as an addictive and various tests
factor which causes further concern in India is very
are performed to check the quality of the mixture.
high and low pavement temperatures in some parts

INTRODUCTION depths were calculated under the wheel loading in


Modified bitumen with polymer offers a
the laboratory test track tests. It has been shown
combination of performance related benefits the
that satisfactory correlation between the rate of
physical properties of the bitumen are improved
residual strain and rutting rate exists. Collins et al.
without changing the chemical nature of it.
(1991) reported that selection of appropriate
King et al. (1986) also carried out a test for testing
asphalt is essential to obtain a blend with optimal
the rutting resistance and it was found that the
properties. Improved compatibility leads to many
PMB was able to withstand 4-10 times more
advantages. Further, it has been proved that the
loading cycles before ruts of various specified
effectiveness of the added polymer in terms of
depths.Terrel and Walter (1986) have showed that
elastic recovery dropped from a soft to a hard
polymers provide considerable improvement in the
binder. Lenoble and Nahas (1994) showed that the
physical properties of binder – aggregate
addition of polymer not only increases the
combinations. However, the improved properties of
application temperature range of asphaltic binders
the PMB should be made use of in order to have
but also increases the traffic resistance. Further, it
increased service life and the thickness should not
was also discussed that the thermal cracking
be reduced on the pretext of using PMB. Valkcring
resistance of a pavement is controlled by the
et al. (1990) reported that the utility of the dynamic
temperature at which the binder reaches a modulus
creep test for better prediction of the strain rate in
close to its glassy modulus.
polymer modified bituminous mixes. The rut

Methodology
As per IS CODE 73 the requirements and the observed values of bitumen for Dense Bituminous Concrete mix
are:

S CHARACTERISTICS PAVING OBSERVE


NO.
GRADE D VALUES
REQUIREMEN
T (VG 10)
1 Penetration at 25 C,100 g, 50 s, 0.1 mm, Min 80 60/70

2 Absolute viscosity at 60 C , Poises 800-1200 1072.3


3 Kinematic viscosity at 135 C, cSt, Min 250 265.27
4 Flash point(open cup ), C, Min 220 240
5 Softening point, C, Min 40 48
6 Specific gravity 0.97-1.02 1.01
7 Test on residue from rolling thin film oven
4.0 1.029
test:
75 Above 100
a) Viscosity ratio at 60 C, Max
b) Ductility at 25 C, cm, Min

3.1 Gradation of materials for Dense Bituminous Concrete layer


Therefore, as per the gradation and as per the specified limits of MORTH the contents used in the mix have
following proportions:

a) 20 mm nominal aggregate size = 0%

b) 10 mm nominal aggregate size = 41%

c) Fine aggregate, sand = 22%

d) 4.75 mm down & dust = 35%

e) Filler, cement (53 grade) = 2%

Further, the samples are prepared with bitumen VG 10 binder and are further modified with the nano
material Zycotherm. The binder content is changed with different percentages (5.5%, 6%, 6.5%) and the
zycotherm percentage is also varied (0.1%, 0.125%, 0.15%) of the binder content.

In this study, we investigate the effect of a Nano-material with the trade name of zycotherm and we
compared simple bitumen and bitumen with additive.

Mixing of Bitumen and Additive: As according to its manufacturer company, the mixing dosage of zycotherm is
0.05 to 0.15 of weight percent of bitumen, we selected the mixing does of 0.1, 0.125, 0.15 percent for manufacturing
of bitumen with additive. We measured and calculated specific gravity, air void, Marshall Resistance and Plastic
Flow of samples after producing them.

4.1 TEST RESULTS OF MODIFIED DESIGN MIX SAMPLES


As per MORTH the requirements and the observed values for the dense bituminous concrete mix are for 5.5%
bitumen content and 0% , 0.1% , 0.125 and 0.15% zycotherm content :

Properties Viscosity Test OBSERVED VALUES AFTER


grading method ADDITION OF ZYCOTHERM
paving
bitumen
Compaction 75 blows on each face of specimen
0% 0.1% 0.125% 0.15%
level
Minimum stability 9.0 AASHTO 12.00 10.19 11.20 12.20
(KN at 600 C) T245

Marshall flow 2–4 AASHTO 3.0 3.10 3.30 3.10


(mm) T245
Marshall quotient 2–5 MS-2 and 4.03 3.28 3.39 3.93
(stability/flow) ASTM
D2041
% air voids Vv 3–5 3.80 4.40 4.20 3.90
% Voids filled with 65 – 75 68.58 66.50 65.30 68.50
bitumen (VFB)
Coating of aggregate 95% IS : 6241 98% 99% Almost Alm
particle minimum above 100% ost
100
%
% Voids in For Vv 3%
mineral aggregate = 11
(VMA) For Vv 4% 11.10 11.70 11.40 11.60
= 12
For Vv 5%
= 12
As per MORTH the requirements and the observed values for the dense bituminous concrete mix are for 6%
bitumen content and 0% , 0.1% , 0.125 and 0.15% zycotherm content :

As per MORTH the requirements and the observed values for the dense bituminous concrete mix are for

6.5% bitumen content and 0% , 0.1% , 0.125 and 0.15% zycotherm content :

Properties Viscosity Test OBSERVED VALUES AFTER ADDITION


grading method OF ZYCOTHERM
paving
bitumen
Compaction 75 blows on each face of 0 0 0.1 0.
level % . 25 1
specimen
1 % 5
% %
Minimum 9.0 AASH 12. 11.10 11.70 12.7
6 0
stability (KN at TO
600 C) T245
Marshall 2–4 AASH 3.9 3.95 3.50 3.70
0
TO
flow (mm) T245
Marshall 2–5 MS-2 3.3 2.81 3.34 3.43
0
quotient and
(stability/flow) ASTM
D2041
% air voids Vv 3–5 4.2 4.60 4.40 4.10
0
% Voids filled 65 – 75 72. 71.0 69.86 73.0
34 1 1
with bitumen
(VFB)

Coating 95% IS : 98 Abov Almost Alm


minimum 6241 %
e 100% ost
of aggregate 99% 100
particle %
% Voids in For Vv 3% =
11
mineral
For Vv
aggregate 4% = 12 11. 11.98 11.73 11.7
90 0
(VMA) For Vv
5% = 12

The graphs are plotted between bitumen content (%) and Marshall stability values (KN), Voids filled with
mineral aggregate (%), Voids filled with bitumen (%), air voids (%) and Flow value (mm) for different
percentages of binder and with no addition of zycotherm and with addition of 0.1. 0.125 and
0.15 percent of zycotherm. The different Mashall properties are calculated and compared, the result is

discussed later. The Optimum bitumen content is also calculated further .


Graph between bitumen content and Marshall stability with 0% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 5: Graph between Marshall stability values(KN) and bitumen content(%) with addition of 0% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VFB with 0% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 6: Graph between VFA (%) and bitumen content (%) with addition of 0% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VMA with 0% addition of Zycotherm :


Fig 7: Graph between VMA and bitumen content(%) with addition of 0% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Flow value with 0% addition of Zycotherm:

Fig 8: Graph between Flow value(mm) and bitumen content(%) with addition of 0% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Vv with 0% addition of Zycotherm:


Fig 9: Graph between Vv(%) and bitumen content(%) with addition of 0% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Marshall stability value with 0.1% addition of
Zycotherm:

Fig 10: Graph between Marshall stability values (KN) & bitumen content(%) with addition of 0.1%
Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VFB with 0.1% addition of Zycotherm:
Fig 11: Graph between VFB (%) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.1% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VMA with 0.1% addition of Zycotherm:

Fig 12: Graph between VMA (%) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.1% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Flow Value with 0.1% addition of Zycotherm:
Fig 13: Graph between Flow value (mm) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.1% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Vv with 0.1% addition of Zycotherm:

Fig 14: Graph between Vv(%) & bitumen content(%) with addition of 0.1% Zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Marshall Stability values (KN) with 0.125% addition
of Zycotherm:
Fig 15: Graph between Marshall Stability values (KN) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.125%
zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VFB (%) with 0.125% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 16: Graph between VFB (%) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.125% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VMA (%) with 0.125% addition of zycotherm:
Fig 17: Graph between VMA (%) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.125% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Flow value (mm) with 0.125% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 18: Graph between Flow value (mm) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.125% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Vv (%) with 0.125% addition of zycotherm:
Fig 19: Graph between Vv(%) & bitumen content(%) with addition of 0.125% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Marshall Stability value (KN) with 0.15% addition
of zycotherm:

Fig 20: Graph between Marshall Stability values (KN) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.15%
zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VFB (%) with 0.15% addition of zycotherm:
Fig 21: Graph between VFB(%) & bitumen content(%) with addition of 0.15% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and VMA (%) with 0.15% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 22: Graph between VMA(%) & bitumen content(%) with addition of 0.15% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and flow value (mm) with 0.15% addition of zycotherm:
Fig 23: Graph between Flow value (mm) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.15% zycotherm

Graph between bitumen content and Vv (%) with 0.15% addition of zycotherm:

Fig 24: Graph between Vv (%) & bitumen content (%) with addition of 0.15% zycotherm

DOSAGE OF ZYCOTHERM (%) OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT (%)

0 5.9

0.1 6

0.125 6.1

0.15 6
From the above results it can be concluded that using Zycotherm by weight of binder will improve and enhance the
properties of hot mix asphalt concrete to a great extent and rutting and fatigue problems which mostly arise from
moisture exposure and existence inside the asphalt will be decreased.

It can also be concluded that the Zycotherm which is added as additive can be fuel efficient i.e., it can reduce the
fuel cost by 11 – 14% to the conventional fuel cost. Also 0.15% of zycotherm is optimum additive content that to
be mixed in the mix.

Thus, it is clearly reflected that utilization of 0.15% expansion of Zycotherm as Warm blend at 130°C temperature
in development of Bituminous Concrete is eco-accommodating, cost effective and useful under precise
supervision.

Conclusions
The Zycotherm applied in asphalt pavement engineering with their specific properties are categorized in
the next points:
1. The physical properties were conducted on the aggregates and the binder used in the present studies satisfies the
requirements as per the MORT&H specifications.
2. Increasing percentage of additive dosage to rate of Marshall Properties also increases and satisfies the
MORT&H specifications.
3. The Marshall properties of HMA in the present studies satisfies the MORT&H specifications.
4. The optimum bitumen content was found to be 6% for HMA mix at 160⁰c temperature.
5. The maximum stability for 60/70 grade bitumen is achieved at 160⁰c temperature with the additive dosage rate
of 0.15% of Zycotherm by the weight of binder.
6. The addition of additive of Zycotherm improves bulk density of the mix. The percentage air voids in the mix
were found to decrease with the increase of HMA additive and 0.15% of Zycotherm at 160⁰c was lowest when
compared to the conventional mix.
7. Residual water in aggregate at lower temperature helps to promote reactivity with the aggregate and can
withstand boil tests lasting over six hours with an over 95% retained coating.
8. Captures sticky asphaltenes in nano cages of Zycotherm for improved free flow and reduced stickiness to trucks
or paver and compaction rollers
9. Wets & spreads even better at lower bitumen content to give a blacker looking mix.
10. Captures all odorous compounds in nano cages of the Zycotherm Lowers mixing temperature by 95º C, saves
fuel by 20-25% OR Helps in longer hauls OR Allows paving in cold conditions 32 - 41ºF.

References
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