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Project requirements and Objectives

1.0 Functional Requirement

1.1 Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholders are “individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project, or
whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or
successful project completion” (Project Management Institute (PMI®), 1996).

Every project has its own unique stakeholder that might not be very evident and these
stakeholders might have different disagreeing expectations and wants from the project. Hence,
stakeholder analysis is a crucial practice for any projects to be successful. ( Mulcahy 2013)

Stakeholder analysis is a key component of project management; it is a technique that entails

both identifying stakeholders and analyzing their impact on the project all through the life of the
project. It reflects the increasing awareness of how decision making is affected by the power of

Data gathering techniques such as interviewing and/or brain storming can help you identify and
analyze stakeholders ( Mulcahy 2013). The identification focuses on both internal and external
stakeholders (users, developers, decision makers etc.) throughout the project predicted lifecycle.
(Mibei, 2018)

After identification of all stakeholders communication through meetings and/or personal

conversations is necessary in order to determine their needs and requirements. This will help
ensure a thorough understanding and level of involvement of each stakeholder. Once information
gathering and analysis is done, a stakeholder power and interest grid is produced.

In addition to analyzing stakeholders and their potential impact, you need to identify ways to
manage those impacts successfully. Design negotiations and interventions, forecast risks and
thresholds, and predict sources of conflict and cooperation.

1.2 Application Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the methodical search for and execution of best practices which lead to greater
performance. It is the process of analysing and measuring the performance of the operations of
an organization, against the performance of other leading organizations in the same industry. In
other words, Mobile application benchmarking is the process of measuring the mobile app in
comparison to other leaders in the app industry. It allows for an understanding of the overall idea
of how your app measures up to its competition and best practices. Data collection is the primary
action in mobile app benchmarking. In doing this, qualitative information gathered from formal
report of reputable sources, will enable an objective and realistic view of the app’s potential
against major leaders of choice. However, quantitative data is essential as it is the only way to
compare data objectively and position client on an advantageous level.

The next phase after gathering of data is an analysis of the data. Analyzing the result of the
benchmark will put the app into viewpoint for each area (performance, ease of use, design,
creativity, price, UI etc.) that was studied. This will enable you make out the gaps in your app’s
working ability and incorporate the new improvements in your app.

2.0 Structural Requirement

2.1 System Environment Analysis

System environment analysis is the hub for the structural requirement; it is an important
requirement in the elicitation process since the mobile application is going to be fixed in the
client’s already existing system environment. The system environment analysis will examine
how the functions in the IT system environment will be programmed and implemented.

The analysis has to identify the interface, modules, services, security and support system of the
existing system and the system needed for the mobile application (Liu et al., 2016). The first
phase of the system analysis is to get an understanding of the related existing systems and this
can be achieved in an interview process with the person or persons responsible for the client’s IT
process. This will help reveal what existing module could be adopted into the new system and
also understand which existing module and interface is impacted by the new application and
what tools are needed to enable proper usage of the application (Pries and Quigley, 2008).
2.2 Personnel Analysis

Generally a mobile app project will involve significant contributors who play significant role in
the development and execution of the project. These are individuals who contribute to the
execution or the scientific development of the mobile app. Their contribution should be
measurable in a substantive way. It goes to say that no project can survive without key personnel.
One question should be asked; does the client have the necessary personnel with relevant skill set
to run the functions? Because, only with the appropriate personnel can a mobile app project be
fully developed and implemented.

Personnel analysis shows what is available and what will be needed to actualize the project
goals. It compares the project requirements and tasks with the current personnel strength of the

The first step in this analysis is defining, planning and assigning project roles based on the
functional requirement and results from the application benchmarking. This project role has to be
rooted within the client’s organizational structure (Mibei 2018).

The second phase in the analysis is working with the HR or top management to get pessonel job
description and taking the information gathered in the project role planning and matching it to
the client organizational talents.

2.3 Risk Identification and Analysis

Risk identification and analysis is the final step in the structural requirement of the client. Risk
management is a crucial step in any project preparation. Mulcahy (2013) stated “risk
management working to increase the probability and impact of opportunities on the project,
while decreasing the probability and impact of threats to project”. Risk identification should
involve all stakeholders and non-stakeholders, literature reviews and research. Risk identification
usually occurs during project planning stage but keep in mind risk identification should be done
throughout the project life.

Risk identification can be done using some tools and techniques like documentation reviews
containing experiences from previous client projects. Identification can also be done by using
information gathering technique like brainstorming where one idea helps to spawn another.
Once risk identification has been done, what should be done to all the risks identified has to be
determined. An analysis of the risks and its potential impact on the project to determine which
risk or risks needs a response is carried out using a probability and impact matrix (likelihood and
risk impact). This is because not all risk can be dealt with as it will have an effect on project
resource (time, cost, personnel etc.).

3.0 Resource Requirement

3.1 Project Time Planning

Project time planning is a crucial step in every project as it is essential to organize and plan the
time spent on all project activities. In other to get a general view of the time the company has to
spend on the mobile app project, project time planning is necessary. Time planning has been
known to be one of the most important steps in IT projects due to the complication and
complexity it has (Sangwa 2018)

Just like each project, the client’s mobile application project consists of individual steps which
have to be undertaken. In order to get an overview of the time the company has to spend for the
project, project time planning is an important step to reveal temporal requirements. Especially
for software engineering projects, time estimates depict a special challenge due to the high
complexity and dependency on uncertain proceedings (Lock, 2013). A breakdown of the
network-based task is the first step in IT time planning. Once this is done, the next step is to
organize them in accordance to their logical sequences and dependencies that estimates each
activity and the total time needed.

3.2 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

Life cycle cost is the total cost (programming and implantation costs as well as operating,
maintenance and disposal cost) the client will spend throughout the lifecycle of the app project.
The lifecycle cost evaluates direct and indirect costs and also external costs. An analysis of this
cost is essential because it will help bring to light some hidden costs. Lifecycle cost can be
defined at the planning stage of the project and collection of relevant data and information is
done using a bottom up approach (Vlachý, 2014). However results from the analysis should be
seen as a guide and not as a final say because costs can vary over time.

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Mulcahy. R (2013). Project management professional Exam prep, 8th edition pp395-435

Mibei. H (2018). Requirements elicitation for mobile B2B application for company X, a project-
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Pries, K.M. and Quigley, J.M. (2008), Project Management of Complex and Embedded Systems
Ensuring Product Integrity and Program Quality. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Project Management Institute (2013), “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge
(PMBOK Guide)”, Newtown Square, Pa.: Project Management Institute.

Sangwa S. (2018) Consultancy Bid report. Available at: [Accessed 27

October 2019]

Vlachý, J. (2014), “Using Life Cycle Costing for Product Management”, Management,
Vol.19(2), pp. 205-218.